Skip to main content

Full text of "Sketches of pioneer Baptist preachers in North Carolina"

See other formats


./•■ 



m 



.'*••■ rear. 






(CJe Htfcrarp 

of tfjc 

Untbersrttp of Jlortfj Carolina 




Collection of JlortJ) Carolmtana 











u^n / 



Sketches -of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 



GHA 

m/ 

ClAS 1 

■Sect 



Sect, 



Sect., 



Sect. 



CHAP.| 

Sect.i 






BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 
INTRODUCTION. 

The preaching of the gospel of Jesus 
Christ has been since the days of John the 
Baptist the most momentous and important 
of all human occupations. 'Our Saviour sent 
him as his herald out into the world to an- 
nounce his coming. "While the Prince of 
Peace yet lingered in the humble obscurity of 
his home in Nazareth, the fiery soul of John 
was startling the echoes of the Judean des- 
erts with his fearful arraignment of a guilty 
world. God had given mankind the inesti- 
mable gift of the Holy Scriptures consti- 
tuting what we now call the "Old Testa- 
ment"; but a new agency was then added in 
the fullness of the times for the regeneration 
of a race lost in sin. The old dispensation 
had not repelle i the humble searcher aftpr 
truth. It provided that upon the pvosely tic- 
submission to the rite of circumcision, he 
became to all intents and purposes one of 
the chosen people, and entitled to all the 
Jewish national and religious privileges. 
But the sake, fcion of the Genti; ^s was a mat- 
ter of small concern to the holiest of the 
Pharisees. They seemed, on the contrary, 
to bitterly resent our Saviour's gracious 
promise, that in his aconemeut all the na- 
tions should be blest. Their aversion and 
scorn for the despised Gentiles led them to 
oppose any scheme of extending the hope of 
salvation to such worshipers of stocks and 
stones. 

So when, in the mysterious providence of 
God, the time had come to rend the veil in 
the temple and to throw wide open the doors 
of mercy for all mankind, chosen heralds 
were needed to bear the gracious proclama- 
tion to a waiting world.' It had been confi- 
dently expected through ages of suffering 
by the Jews, that the Messiah would bring 
deliverance ; and Plato among the Greeks 
and Virgil for the Romans had told man- 
kind that some revelation from God might 
be witnessed at any moment. In the sump- 
tuous and inane ceremonies of the heathen 
temples there had been nothing to educate 
mind or soul. Even in the grandeur and 
pomp of the Mosaic ritual there was little 
beyond the sacred chants and the making 
of sacrifices to appeal to guilty consciences. 
Such worshipers as Hannah, and the humble 
publican who smote upon his breast and 
prayed God to have mercy on him a sinner, 



Pag-e 
© 

22 
ibid. 

25 

26 
ibid. 

28 

29 
33 
35 
39 
44 
47 
50 
54 
64 
66 
68 
72 

75 
75 
79 
80 

83 
85 
87 
88 
90 
ibid. 

91 

92 

94 

96 

97 

99 
100 
101 
ibid. 
194 






Sect. V. 



J 



VI. 

VII. 

vin 

IX. 






hi. 

XIII 
XIV 
XV. 
XVI 

XVI 

XVI 
XIX. 
XX. 



CHAP. XX. 

ETAB 

Sect. I. 
H. 
III. 
IV. 



CHAP. 

Sect 



XXI. 
I. 

n. 
in. 

IV. 
V. 
VI. 
VH. 

vin. 



IX. 



no douot tound'lhlians of hope and amend- 
ment, but with the cc ming of our L )ri the 
preacher, in the fullness of his mission, 
stood first revea ed to mankind. 

John the Baptist was the prototype and 
model for all succeeding preachers of righ- 
teousness. His trumpet-like voice awoke 
fearful realizations in tbe souls of the myr- 
iads who flocked to hear what this mysteri- 
ous denizen of the desert caverns was pro- 
claiming. With a duectness that nf-ver fal- 
tered with time or person, he gave voice to 
the mighty secret he was sent to disclose. 
The ceaseless multitudes were not only 
stirred to the depths of their souls at his 
pictures of the judgment to come, they were 
not simply convinced of the absolute neces- 
sity for repentance, but were startled be- 
yond measure with his assurance that the 
long-expected Messiah, for whose coming 
they had so fervently prayed, had actually 
come into their midst. The mighty Baptist 
confessed to them that he was as ignorant 
as they were as to who and where the Christ 
was to be found. He and countless thou- 
sands were waiting and watching for the 
fulfillment of the signs whuh were to dis 
close the Prince of Peace. 

With Christ's baptism and the descent 
upon him of the Hoi}" Spirit, John's mission 
seems virtually to have been accomplished. 
In the sacred narradve we hear of his preach- 
ing for a short season, but guilty King Herod 
could not brook his stern admonitions, and 
in the dungeons of Machaerus forever si- 
lenced the first great preacher of righteous- 
ness, tyir Saviour's love and preference for 
sermons as the m j ans of establishing his 
kingdom on earth was abundantly shown in 
a multitude of instances. The Crafty and 
malignant scribes might ever so earnestly 
demand signs and wonders at his hands as 

seals of his ministry, his reply was. that no ! 
sign should be given that wicked and adul- 
terous generation but that of the prophet 
Jonah. He healed the sick, opened blind 
eyes, loosened ducnb tongues, and raised the 
dead, whenever proper occasion required the 
use of sucli^dtwSfre attestations to his divin- 
ity, but a uniform denial was given to all 
who came in malevolent curiosity to ask 
miracles at his hands. No human wisdom 
or. godliness can ever hope to rise to such \ 
heights of truth and eloquence as were em- 
bodied in the seemingly simple discourses of 
our Lord. They are as inimitable as the 
many parables they co-tain. 

As our Lord saw fit to send the Baptist as 
his precursor and herald, so too the Saviour 
came as a preacher. Whether in the midst 



Page 
107 
ibid. 
110 
111 
112 
116 
117 
ibid, 
ibid, 
ibid, 
ibid. 
118 
120 
121 
123 
124 
126 
127 
128 
132 
135 
137 
138 
139 
140 

144 

145 
ibid. 
146 
152 
157 

162 
163 
166 
170 
171 
173 
175 
176 
177 
ibid, 
ibid, 
ibid. 
178 
ibid. 



SlCT. I 



m 



of the multitude thronging the temple at the 
time of the Passover, or on the plains of 
Galilee, we find that our Lord was ever util- 
izing the opportunity to proclaim the un- 
searchable riches of his truth and grace. 
With such an exemplar to give dignity and 
importance to the calling, how can men suf- 
ficiently honor and apprecia'e this great 
mission and embassy from on high. How 
-can we over estimate the value and prece- 
dence of those who came bearing the King's 
message of hope to a perishing world. What 
OHAP. X5 human., profession or occupation can for a 
Sect I moment compare in importance with this, 
which not only promises peace and security 
in this life, but a blissful immortality in the 
next. In the old Jewish dispensation, the 
priest,.. Mio interceded between God and his 
people was selected with many precautions. 
In the first place, he must be of the tribe of 
Levi. Next, he was only chosen from those 
descended from the first high-priest, Aaron. 
It was also required that he should be phys- 
ically and mentally perfect. The slightest 
bodily deformity made him forever a stran- 
ger to the precincts of the sanctuary. He 
was further carefully trailed from earliest 
boyhood to a study of the Holy Scriptures 
and the details of all the solemn and mag- 
nificent ceremonies used in the temple. But 
i once in each year the high-priest, after 
I weeks of ceremonial cleanness, ventured to 
j enter the Holy of Holies. The sacred and 
awful retreat was sacred and inviolate to all 
others. The man who ventured to intrude 
i unlawfully too near its precincts was at once 
Direct! slain for his sin and folly. 

While our Saviour has not thrown such 
mystery and privilege about any of his sac- 
] raments, yet there should be many marks 
and distinctions to designate and dignify the 
holy office of a preacher of the gospel. Like 
the priest of old. he is largely the keeper < t 
the sacred oracles. I i? he is dumb, then h,s 
people will perish in their ignorance. If he 
is unholy in his life, he is doiug more to de- 
stroy the faith and hopes of his flock than 
all other evil influences combined. The pas- 
tor who, like a ravening wolf, creeps into 
the sheepfold to prey on those who love and 
trust him, leaves a legacy of doubt and mis- 
trust, which better men can hardly remove 
after years of toil and prayer. '"Like priest, 
like people," said the Jewish prophet of old, 
and so it is in our day and generation. Ev- 
ery congregation which has been ministered 
to for a considerable time by one pastor be- 
comes largely what he is spiritually and 
mentally. The pulpit is not only a guide- 
post to heaven, it is largely a means of edu- 
cation and refinement. A church, where a 
pious and competent preacher every Sab 



CHAP. 

Sect. 



Page 
179 
ibid. 
180 
ibid. 
131 
182 
183 
183 
184 
190 
ibid. 
191 
192 
192 
196 
197 



mows 
nd of 



Scales. 



200 
203 
212 
215 

216 
218 



AND MlN- 

220 
221 
222' 

.Spirit- 

jjfTur- 

[ these • 

223 
224 
ibid. 

j - - 225 
ibid. 

| - - 226 
227 
ibid. 
ibid. 
- ■ - 228 
ibid. 
229 



Sect. I. 



II. 

chap. n. 

Sect. I. 

n. 
in 

IV 



v. 

VI. 
¥11 

APPLICAT7 

CHAP. I. 

Sect. I. 

II 

III. 

CHAP. II. 

Preparat 

FOR OTII1 

CHAP*ni. 

and Man? 

chap, iv 

Farmkr 
Sect. I. 

II. 

III. - 
CHAP. V. . 



bath gives his congregation the results of 
his prayerful and elaborate preparation dur- 
ing the week, is bound to be largely blessed 
spiritually, and also serves to elevate and 
chasten the community around. How all- 
important, then, is it that the Baptists of 
North Carolina should work and struggle to 
bring about such a consummation of affairs 
as would eventuate in each country neigh- 
borhood's having a strong, self-sustaining 
Baptist church, where on every Sunday they 
can meet and hear the word of God pro- 
claimed in all its truth and simplicity. 
Wherever in such circumstances an able and 
godly man gives long years of faithful ser- 
vice to the same people, we find a commu 
nity blessed with every earthly advantage. 
They are not only prosperous in worldly 
matters, but add refinement to wealth, and 
over and above all things else, their trust 
and faith in God bring peace aud sanctity to 
every christian household. 

In the preached word of God is the world's 
great hope of ultimate evangelization. Tae 
sects and societies that wait on the slow 
work of self-instruction by means of the Bi- 
ble and other religious literature generally 
make bat small accessions to their ranks. 
In the Romish and other Pedobaptist 
churches the reliance is on infant sprinkling 
as the means of continuing their existence 
They keep up a show of life in this way. but 
alas ! how few are the men and women thus 
inducted into the churches who really km w 
and care for the religion of the Saviour? To 
the vast majority of such people the Bible is 
a sealed book. Their faith cousists in the 
belief that a few empty and unmeaning 
forms will be suffiVient to atone for all their 
waited and unprofitable lives, and that the 
absolution granted on confession to their 
priests will be sufficient atonement for all 
their sins. To such people the uew birth is 
all a myth, and the practical observance of 
the Sabbath a thins: unknown. 

To Baptists, consequently, their preachers 
are all important. We co .sist of churches 
made up of actual believers who have nei- 
ther inherited or bought for gold their hopes 
of heaven. We hold that such views are 
only consistent with the system devised by 
our Lord and his Apostles. We are a people 
separate and apart from all others, and it 
behooves us to not only cherish and provide 

for bur preachers of to day, but to recall and 
do reverence to the memories of those who 
have gone before us. With the hope that 
something of their virtues and iabors may 
be recalled and preserved, these pages are 
^written. Like "Old Mortality" tenderly 



[eat 


230 


- 


ibid. 


- 


231 


- 


232 


- 


233 


- 


234 


- 


ibid. 


- 


ibid. 


- 


235 


:cf- 




!Ct- 




| - 


ibid. 


- 


236 


i - 


241 


- 


ibid. 


of 




• 


243 


- 


244 


- 


246 


\hs 


. 


ta- 




i 


259 


- 


260 


* 


261 




266 


to 


VARI- 


i _ 


269 


1- 


ibid. 




273 


j - 


274 



277 

291 

295 
ibid. 
297 
298 
314 
ibid, 
ibid, 
ibid. 
315 



CHAP. XVIII 

In this qualit 
which is soh 
grains cover 
ness of each 
the metals, h 
Jadium, men 
and nickel,* 
The rest, on 
mi'inetals. 
of malleabili 
in common 
and minerald 

8- All the 
the exceptic 
drawn out ii 
precedence 
thicker than 

9. Wires 
found to be 
rises from th 
adding weig 
Count Sickii 
■wires of on( 
breaking. 

Awi 



The tenacit 
even still le 

10. Some 
degree of 
to the mech 
respect, suij 

Beside tH 
ties, which j 
er, also, in i) 
it may be I 
sary repetitl 



restoring the effaced inscriptions on the 
tombs of those he had loved and lost, so 
would we now recall the names and deeds 
of the brave men who so largely helped to 
make North Carolina and this great repub 
li? what they are. With no desire to unduly 
magnify the importance of their holy call- 
ing, we would yet do justice to men who in 
sore privation, too often in danger, and al- 
ways in the face of bitter and unrelenting 
opposition, found means to plant and nurture 
our earliest Baptist churches. 

They found a land almost God forsaken 
and given over to the Devil and his agents. 
The means of grace witbin reach of our fore- 
fathers in the earlier Colonial days, were so 
utterly wanting or abortive, that in the few 
exceptions to the general neglect of all re- 
ligion, for a long time only the Quakers of 
Perquimans and- Pasquotank sustained any- 
thing like christian worship. The huge ter- 
ritory stretching more than half way from 
the Atlantic ocean toward the Mississippi 
river had not a single organized church 
other than that just mentioned. How much 
Paul Palmer and his successors in the Bap • 
tist ministry have effected to change the 
character of our people can only be under- 
stood by those conversant with the state of 
affairs previous to their labors in the land. 
The brave, true men who were so prompt 
to resent any foreign invasion upon their 
rights and liberties were from the begin- 
ning eager to bear the story of the cross. 
They sat, some weeping, and others smok- 
ing their pipes, as Fox and Edmunson, the 
Quaker missionaries, told of the Saviour. 

North Carolina early became a city of 
refuge to the persecuted Baptists cf other 
provinces. While members of the estab- 
lished church were always contemptuous 
and bitter in their opposition in those early 
days, yet under the law they coald find no 
pretext for actual persecution save in the 
very statute which was intended to prevent 
all violence and individual oppression. "With 
a strange mockery of all propriety, the stick- 
lers for conformity would swear out peace 
warrants against Baptist missionaries, in 
which, with ad the solemnity cf an oath, 
they deposed that these humble men of God 
were disturbers of the public peace. That 
preaching Christ and him crucified led to 
violence, and therefore riomp&j,nt magis- 
trates too .oftfT brcame 0vr - J (/^iK'h. a 
mockery of justice and required tiab preacher 
to give bond for his good behavior and 
peaceful conduct toward the people. Some 
smilingly complied with the wretched pro-- 



|d-leaf, 
an five 
thick- 
. All 
;r, pal- 
!i, zinc, 
slongs. 
led s,e- 
■ession 
jtained 
emical 

s (with 
nay be 
to take 
ire not 

ils, are 
This a- 
adually 
lents of • 
which 
without 



' .'l& 



ead has 

, a high 
applied 
j in this 

i\ quali- 
ich oth- 
blances 
nneces- 






"• ( 



The me 
mentary b( 
bustibles. 
insufficient 
'to each me 
■which rec< 
exposed to 
them is tha 
in the diffei 



x/IjlW- 



access of ai 
dition. Bu 



^ or ele« 
)le com- 
on very- 
peculiar 
m ability, 
;tals are 
luced in 
es place, 
Some of 
> vapour, 
e a very 
empera- 
^tilized ; 
170° of 
d in the 
etals, no 
the free 
\er con- 
I Their 
ties that 
stroyed. 
sfieci- 
pf prop- 

, at dif- 
ferent peric— , — -*- ,., _.. the the- 
ory of phlogiston, they were accounted for by assuming that the 
metals, during the process of exposure to air at a high tempera- 
ture, abandon their phlogiston, which, it was supposed, unites with 
the air and renders it phlogisticated, and consequently unfit for 
supporting the combustion of other inflammable bodies. The hy- 
pothesis, however, could no longer be maintained, when it was 
proved that the metals, so far from losing weight, become heavier 
after the operation ; and though various attempts were made, by 
modifications of the theory, to accomodate it to this fact, yet none 
of them can be considered as having been at ail successful. 

The theory, which is now almost universally admitted, as best 

explaining the phenomena in question, though suggested by the 

hints furnished by preceding discoveries, was first reduced to a 

systematic and consistent form by Lavoisier. The metalsij accord^ 

*, Annales de Chimie, lxix. 92, m 



-Tjision of *amavv"and justice and gave obncF 
as required, but others were madeof sterner 
stuff. These told the magistrates they had 
violated no law, human or divine-, and that 
they would cheerfully abide in jail as long 
as their worships saw fit to limit. Such 
men, like John Bunyan, made their prisons 
lively with hymns of praise and sermons 
delivered through the windows. 

It was thus amid much tribulation that 

the pioneer Baptist preachers of America 

made good a lodgment for their faith in the 

domain which was ere long to burgeon out 

.into the world's most imperial republic. 

them may l Often despised and neglected by the people 

, . they came to bless and save, they had the 

at a eat co g race s t,ill to persevere in the good work. 

intense heal As the years went by, they saw the horizon 

ture it is pi °f their hopes ever broadening and growing 

r ... more luminous to the eyes of Hope. God 

lor platina i wag p re p ar j n g f or them greater things than 

Wedgwood the boldest had dreamed of. Not only was 

focus of a * ne time close at hand when all their pains 

and penalties should be swept from the stat- 

** ute books ; they were not only to rejoice in 

the fulness of that religious liberty which 

they had advocated and prayed for so long ; 

they were also to suggest and establish, by 

cohesion, 1 m eans of their example, the controlling 

have been features of the American civil polity. Bap- 

Ti nnp-h the ; ^ st f ree d° m aQ d democracy became tlje 

9 , prototypes and models by which was con 

fically light structed the mighty fabric of the United 

erties not o' States. And thus once more the stone re- 

rp , jected by the builders became the head of 

i nese ci the corner> 



♦ 



chap, xvj g]j e t c hes of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 

,J North Carolina, 
mg to Ui 

changes ( By J0HN w# moore, state historian. 

absorptioi 

becomes Memoir I — Paul Palmer. 

should su 

the fact, d chapter first. 

satisfactol A little more than two centuries have 
A certain 1 e l a P sea " since the first permanent settlements 
1 were effected by Englishmen in North Car- 
able circi olina. Such a period in human history 



metal is 
gas whii 
farther ; 
plication 
and the n 



an establ 
quence c 



posed to| 

I shall el 

The J 

not the s 



seems very short at best, but it has been 
long enough to bury in oblivion a multitude 
of men and facts we would gladly preserve 
and transmit to coming ages. The men and 
women who, in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century sought homes and refuge in 
Albemarle, came under different auspices 

idence tl from all the other plantations in America. 

change \ ^ G ^ even that famous band of pilgrims, that 
made Plymouth Rock so conspicuous in hu- 
man annals, afforded much analogy to the 
early scenes enacted in Carolina. No king 

called b\i or g° vernor was consulted for permission to 
: enter the paradise Aruadas and H.«*iot had 

the lorm, so eloquently described. Many thousands 

which ar had left their homes in Great Britain and the 
continent of Europe with the hope and expec- 
tation of enjoying complete religious liberty 
in America. Such immigrants as a general 
rule landed in Boston and Jamestown. At 
both places they found a stern and jealous 
inquisition as to their religious opinions. 

to differe "When the new citizen agreed with Puritan- 

1. Soi ism in Massachusetts and the Thirty-Nine 

, Articles in Virginia, all was well, and such 
air _ an immigrant was received with open arms. 
deprived But if it so happened that neither Puritan- 
new mei ism or Episcopacy claimed him for its own, 
, . , then alas for the unhappy dupe who had as 
which na - t were j urn p e( ] from the frying pan into the 
true, as 1 fire. Charles II. and his bigoted successor 
extremel raa de life hard enough for the Baptists, but 
; Gov. Berkeley surpassed even these perse- 
moisture. cu t ors j n the sternness of his policy. The 

2. Otli poor deluded victim of false hopes was at 
erable inl once to ^ *° ^ eave Virginia and that with all 

j possible speed. To avoid severe punish- 
when hes m ents, the exiles moved on to the unknown 
converter wilderness and sought anid the heathen 
have bee I^ians a reiu ge his christian countrymen 

] had refused. Like Roger Williams expelled 
process i f rom Massachusetts in the midst of a New 
and heat England winter's direst hardships, so fled the 



I 13 

tdergo the 
;nce of the 
itallic body 
performed, 
That this is 
readily and 
mmon air. 
ler favour- 
;ight in the 
that of the 
an even go 
ie mere ap- 
jtate of gas, 
[factory ev- 
jture of the 
herefore, as 
pa, in conse- 
ss has been 
ixide. For 
1 by reasons 
e, has pro- 
ring pages, 

metals are 
vith respect 

.tmospherie 
ch has been 
ese, and the 
j only ones 
ithers, it is 
the air, but 
peration of 

ut a consid- 
er, tin, Sec. 
\ are slowly 
ding as they 
stances, the 
ion of light 
•pens, chi&f- 



14 



men and women who first began the work, 
of making North Carolina a home for civil- ' 



XVIII. 



metals 
under- 
»r oxy- 
air, is 
By the 
oment, 
power- 



^y,withsom« ize ^P e °P ]e - 

How many of these Baptist people, whof tAaui 

pie, when pr thus came to Albemarle before Kjng Charles jt flame. 

In other met II granted away the territory thus settled, U^ajjjg 

■^i, D v,„~,„., * is not now known. Rev. Dr. W. H. Whit- y 
phenomena, ... • u . ul _* ■, result*; 

r ' sitt, in his able and suggestive sermon de- pe&uus. 

3. With tl livered in June, 1888, at Wake Forest Col- Ivebeen 
called perfec le § e < g ave some very valuable hints as to I , , 
. {. \ this matter. He quoted the Rev. Morgan f 1 ai 

- ium,j are Edwards as to his declaration that as early js of air 
and of an inc as 1695 there were individual Baptists in the 
of this kind colony. Richard Knight, another historian, 
' affirmed that they were to be found there 
going any ch fj V e years earlier. He then argues from the 
gen, and are liberality of North Carolina government as 
j , , to -eligious toleration that nothing prevented 
proved oy tin thegp Rap - tjsts fronj form i n g cbutches.' "Th«> 
former, the w declaration of Rev. Lemuel Burkitt, in his 
dispersed into bistory of the Kehukee Assi>ciation, that 
j, i. j. . Paul Palmer was the founder of the first 

lul discharge, Bapris;t crnm . D i n tne Provin >e, and that ^to thin 
leaves, the me Shiloh, this church, was formed in 1727, has l our# 

4 All met been ' on g taken as definite and conclusive I 

on the subject. But many things support ' re s ^'* 
more readily c d,.. Wbitsitt «in his belief that Baptist In ma- 
ny cases a me churches were in existence even before then. U nvrs :_ 
W h th The following extract from a letter written , 

oiy oy trie act by Rev Mr B]air ft miss i OT , ary SPnt OVlt by lbits a 

bright inflami the Bishop of London and the English So- |, as a i„ 
ready been si) e i etv Tor Propagating the Gospel in Foreign 
. . Parts, shows conclusively that as early as in 

sumecl in oxyt 1704 gnptist evangelists were traversing Al- 

These are t bemarle and baptizing their converts. ■ Mr. L j n 
order that th B1air s ^ s ' in speaking of the religious sects / 

. . then to be found in the colony : l " c 

place, it is onl '• a third sort are soim thing like the Pres- affin- 
ity between os byterianll, which sort is upheld by some idle I , 
v , , , . fe lows who have left their lawful emplov u 
jignt t^ana per- Inenti and preaoh atld baptize through the fe. In 
other cases, th country, without, any manner of orders from me t ? i 
acquires oxyg' anv pect or P re tended church " 1 

P ' b * This was in strict keeping with the usual ound. 

Wt these soun Episcopal scorn and ignorance touching the | only 

ones, are wa to " °= — ^?V- , "bound* 

Baptist people. This Mr. Blair pretends pouno- 
confining on, th ^ he ^ J not eveu know the name and 

I. Water d classification of the creed which was win- ^ m&n _ 
ifest a powerfi nin g converts and establishing itself in a 
. region where ere long it was to number 

those which i n i ne tenths of the people in its fold. Of 
The newly di course, these unknown missionaries of : 



ing, to 
al air. 
with a 
meral, 
or ex- 
unlettered and humble in the social scale, yerted 
mere Th e j r records, if they kept any, have been fcvolvs 
all lost, and thus it is that we have by John j 



famrffer ™hir were BaDtists, and surely if they were bap- 

p l ■ ' ^ v n ^ tizing men and women, they were also plant- 

the change is : i n g churches as they went. But these 

ample, when i churches were composed of a people very 

iar ov 



CHAP. XA 

have gres 
might ha 1 
with oxyt 
of oxidize 
ists. In t 
lure is ins 
some ext< 
have the 
red oxide 
attempted 
subsequei 
by Dr. T 
adopted, 
supposinj 
not indei 
iriioxide, 
third stai 
are know 
minimun 
A simi 
the neutr 
the same 
require ] 
sometim< 
brevity o 
al ; as 
term, ho 
applied t 
es ; whe 
of ordinssj 
idizemerj 
confirme 
salts is p 
easy to ( 
from thai 
muriate 
knowled 
derive tl 
as the gr 
ates of c 



Comer's Journal of a trip through Carolina 
in 1727 the authentic assurance that a church 
of the Baptist faith and order was at that 
date in existence, with Rev. Paul Palmer as 
its pastor. Like Dr. Whitsitt, we are fully 
persuaded that various otherBaptist churches 
were then to he found in North Carolina, but 
they were so disunited and widely separated 
that no effort was made to preserve memo 
rials of their existence. We know too that 
before the reformation wrought in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century that much 
latitude was allowed in the creed and prac- 
tices of those Americans who called them- 
selves Baptists. The open communion sen- 
timents of John Bunyan and those of his 
school had their legitimate results in open- 
ing the church doors to members who made 
no profession of religion. The famous proph- 
ecy of the great merchant and preacher, 
William Kiffen, in his reply to his Brother 
John Bunyan that the disregard of Bible 
baptism as requisite to participation in the 
Lord's Supper would eventuate in a disre- 
gard for all the ordinances, had long been 
verified in the Quakers. The alliance be 
tween the Quakers and.. Baptists had been 
very close in Albemarle, and no doubt a 
portion of their disregard for both of our 
church ordinances had been largely infused 
in the sentiments of their compatriots. Al- 
though the English and Dutch Baptist 
churches had found great benefits arising to 
the individual congregations from their join- 
ing in the formation of associations, the 
American churches had long foreborne to 
follow such salutary example. The old Bap- 
tist love of independence in each separate 
church, and the fear that such an alliance 
might eventuate in impairing this auton- 
omy, had kept them struggling in separate 
orbits and largely inefficient and helpless 
from their total want of sympathy and co- 
operation. The best and strongest of the 
city churches might support its pastor and 
do much toward the feeding and clothing of 
their own pauper members, but beyond this 
their christian charity had no extent. Some 
might aid a deserving young brother in his 
preparation for the ministry, but such cases 
were like angels' visits. 

But let us of the present day thank God 
that a season of better things was at last to 
dawn on the world. Twelve churches in 
and arom d the city of Philadelphia sent up 
delegates A. D. 1706 and formed the first 
American Baptist Association. With this 
formation of the Philade phia Association, 



2i 

\ case, we 

saturated 

•ior stage 

ich chcnv 

lomencla- 

;ived from 

Thus we 

black and 

hat can be 

At some 

proposed 

ntageously 

metal (still 

i each are 

deutoxide, 

second, or 

any metal 

that at the 

oxidation. 

respect to 

it oxides of 

ulting salts 

This has 

zed (or for 

Ldized met- 

The latter 

:an only be 

fferent bas- 

t compound 

state of ox- 

: should be 

in metallic 

/ill be more 

f acid than 

ite and sub- 

uired in our 

continue to 

Dua quality ; 

%recn murU 



22 

£esid< 

the uniot 

ble, also 

combusti 

and chan 

interestin 

I. The 

numerou 

by certair 

with one 

of gas, tak 

small deg 

ably with 

several re 

II. Tin 

have been 

compound 

ty called s 

lie oxides, 

phuretted 

hydro-sulfi} 



there came as it were a new/fease of life anc 
power to the Baptist communities thus uni- 
ted in the bonds of love and duty. The oM 
fear and distrust of men as to each other's 
good faith had nurtured and sustained all 
the tyrranies both temporal and ecclesiasti- 
cal which had cursed mankind with their 
misrule. It was a common belief that the 
people were incapable of self-control, and 
therefore kings a d nobles should hold them 
in subjection. The Baptists followed the 
Bible and the early christians in keeping up 
the people's control of their own church, but 
they feared the possible action of sister con- 
gregations in case a league was formed for 
the execution of some common purposes. 
The results of the Philadelphia coalition 
were so speedily seen to be good and useful, 
that many wise men in other sections wished 
their churches to do likewise, but the old 
Baptist conservatism wisely waited and 
watched to see how time would tell on the 
new experiment. 

Among the churches which constituted 
this same Philadelphia Association, was one 
situated in the Welsh Tract of the Province 
of D- laware. This congregation had long 
been recognized for its intelligence and de- 
votion to all good works. Hearing of the 
loose and disorganized condition of Baptist 
i.ffairs in North Carolina, th> y sent out Rev. 
1. All th Paul Palmer as a missionary some time 
about 1720. These missious of love and 
mercy were common in those early days of 
the American Baptist Association. We 
find that not only were able divines sent out 
as aids and advisers of the scattered congre- 
gations in the white settlements, but the 
Indians also caine in for 'heir share iu these 
early manifestations of christian zeal and 
benevolence. Mr. Palmer was a native of 
Maryland, but was baptized into Baptist fel- 
lowship by Rev. Thomas Owens, then pas- 
tor of the Welsh Tract congregation. He 
'was ordained to the full work of the minis- 
try in Connect cut. After service in the 
churches of New Jersey and Maryland, he 
came to North Carolina. His home for the 
sub-equent years of his life was in Peiquim 
ans county There on the beautiful shores 
>f Albemarle Sound he began aud ended his 
labors as an evangelist among our plain and 
unassuming forefathers. He found the har- 
vest ready for the sickle. A people brave 
and patient had after many struggles and 
some bloody disorders triumphed in their 
efforts for some sho.v of freedom and auton- 
omy. Wily and insidious British agents had 
long perplexed them with schemes of inter- 
ference in their religion and trade. The 
i English crovernors and their coadjutors in 
the General Assembly were struggling for 



in their me 
In order to 
"be brought 
very model 
mixture of 
parts of co; 
tube, comb 
plished. 1 
sudden anc 
combinatioi 
from the ex 
fluid is libei 
mixture, an 
acid. The 
ter from th 
dized by th( 

* Annales ( 
fNote to 
1908.) 



HAP. XVIII. 

result from 
Is are capa- 
the simple 
hosphorus, 
h other, an 

jre neither 
^composed 
combines 
n the state 
| case, in a 
t remark- 
ed having 

SULPHUR 

1st, the 

proprie- 

ith metal- 

e of sul- 

be called 

1 tin, are, 
sulphur. 
ie bodies 
usible, a 
Thus a 
Dr of 40 
n a glass 
I accom- 
ting in a 
During 
: appears 
>f elastic 
Ik of the 
Iphurous 
jl the lat- 
ally oxi- 
ipounds, 

sactians. 



CHAP "'" r,T 2*? 

the erection of a State church, and from 
London came continuous orders for the en- 



Mr. Dj forcement of the navigation laws. But these 



gen, an 



from th 
tute of 
metals 



if its hydro- 



wise men of old wanted neither a religious 

cease to be 
apparei] comparative freedom from both of these Jrs different 
sources of former strife and discontent, jd, are desti- 
With his young wife thus far removed fr,om j , ,.~. 
the scenes and friendships of former years, j ai " erei "- 
he began his life-work in North Carolina. Mr. Kirwan 

has givj „. & wt «j ^? t R, «».«,~ .ruicn are, however, 

to be considered as merely approximations to the truth. 

100 grains of silver unite with 15 of sulphur 

lead 15 

. bismuth . 17.6 

tin 18 

mercury ■ 25 

. copper 25.4 

■-- antimony 29.8 

(native) 35 



56 



The same metal, also, is, in some instances, susceptible of unit- 
ing with different quantities of sulphur, and of affording com- 
pounds characterised by a different set of properties. Thus the 
compound, which consists of 62^ iron and 37£ sulphur is of a dark 
grey colour ; has little or no lustre ; is magnetic ; and easily 
broken. But 53 parts of iron combined with 47 of sulphur form a 
compact substance, of sufficient hardness to strike fire with steel, 
and having so much lustre as to have been often mistaken by the 
ignorant for gold. 

Metallic sulphurets can only be partially decomposed by heat ; 
and though this assertion appears to be contradicted by the effect 
of roasting these compounds, yet it is to be considered that the 
metals, when heated with the contact of air, absorb oxygen, and 
thus lose their affinity for sulphur. The sulphuret of one metal 
may, in many instances, be decomposed by another metal. Thus 
when sulphuret of mercury is distilled with a proper proportion of 
iron filings, the sulphur passes to the iron, and the mercury 
comes over in a metallic state. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid,* with the assistance of heat, acts 
upon metallic sulphurets, and is converted into sulphurous acid, 
which, being volatile, escapes. Metals, which, in their separate 

* Berthollet, Annates de Chimie, XXV. 256 



'24 

state, were c 
its action, af 
When dili 
instead of hy 
It is chiefly 
produce this 
a farther pro 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir I — Paul Palmer. 

CHAPTER TWO. 

When the Rev. Paul Palmer came to Al- 
bemarle, he found as his neighbor in the 
Concentra town f Edenton one George Burrington, 
the diluted i who was then Governor of the Province of 
decomposed North Carolina. This turbulent and erratic 
" , spirit exhibited in himself the weakness and 
ed, and sulp. f lly f t he men who, as Lords Proprietors, 
acid contains claimed and exercised rule over the colony. 
tl e ac ^ r- Burriugton's infirmities of soul could 
cause ti not have been unknown to the Lords. and 
Sulphuret gentlemen, who gave him his commission, 
oxygen, and for he had been convicted and punished in 
, . • , the London criminal courts for the offence 
pliuric acid, k eat j n g an old woman. His shifty and vio- 
state of sul/iilent temper, combined with a ruthless dis- 
ibrmed whi regard of the rights and feelings of others 
' „ kept him in trouble all his life and finally 
a strong afh!i ec j to a v-iolent death. Yet such a man was 
conversion i selected, of all the abie and eap&ble sub jects 
of Queen Anne, for the delicate and difficult 



ot copper, a 



duty of restoring order to a community just 



uining a fu emerged from the' double horrors of civil 

lion of air a war and Indian massacres. But Paul Pal- 

_ mer and the good people of his adopted 

■ ' S ei home were soon to be. delivered from the 

ides for su weakness and avarice of the Proprietary 

•nctals are Government. In 1728 the Cr >wn bought 

out all the rights of the Proprietors save 

brought in' tnose of Lo rd Granville, and North Carolina 

ry, and ma was no longe» the prey and victim of indi- 

Ailad sulfi vidu ^ B' reed and rapacity. 

" ' / As we have already intimated, much of 

jbrding sir the information, now accessible touching 

sjhur dim: the labors of Paul Palmer in North Caro- 

* . , lina, is derived from the journal of John 

they hold Corner. This Baptist evangelist traversed 

These the Province in the year 1737 and met the 

In the 

short 

points visited and no 

phuric ac attempt at detailed narrative, either touch- 

r , . • ing the history of the past or the general 

lectiy oxu con( jiti on f the churches in that period. It 

sulphur r was through the publication of these notes 

3 Sulr °^ trave l 'hat we can now safely affirm that 

Mr. Palmer had succeeded so far as to es- 

•fi-.e meca tablish a permanent caurch known as Shi- 

* Vau lohj. This ancient and revered christian 



<y 



XVIIS. 

r. 

j>ible to 

rounds, 
drpgen. 
Jur .that 
ntaining 
vent, 
ts; but 
b acid is 
Lsengag- 
II nitric 
tied, be- 

ly attract 
r for sul- 
;s to the 
F iron is 
as either 
then the 
ilphurets 
ron con- 
oined ac- 

I their ox- 
h certain 
I they are 
;, mercu- 
ur may be 
able of af- 
ty for sul- 
gen which 

y from the 
minimum, 
c and sul- 
i their per- 
ce, and the 

hh a few of 
at it unites, 
cit. 256. 



chap, xvj body still maintains its existence and integ- 
] rity, and has thus been recognized as the 
When its I or i~ m anc * nucleus of the vast array of sim- 
ilar organizations in our State. 
hydrogenj Dr . David Benedict, in his Baptist His- 
reduces tl tory, intimites that Paul Palmer got into 
, , J some trouble which militated against his 

y a ^ , usefulness as a minister of the gospel, but 
he does not specify what this trouble was. 



The viole 
ing atmos 
occasioned 
nation ma 
oxides wi 
will be de 
Fixed £ 



31 

>osed ; the 
)xide, and 
and prob- 
ded state, 
surrouud- 



This was a source of grief to the author of rise that is 



these sketches until, in his researches in the 
lately published Colonial Records, a discov- 
ery was made as to the nature of Mr. Pal- 
mer's offence. It seems from the old court 
records of Perquimans county that in the 
year 1720, he and his wife Joanna were in- 
dicted for aiding in the rescue of a negro 



ilar expla- 
of metallic 
ury, which 



low oxide P" soner from the custody of the officer who 
held him under arrest. It must have been 



d, the yel- 



VII. 'lj simply an ebullition of misplaced pity and 

bustible lj sympathy for one in distress, for the record 

. .] shows that David Richardson, then Attor- 

store it t ne y QgQgj.^ refused to prosecute the case, 

contained and the defendants were dismissed from 

court without even so much as paying the 

cost. ^ 

While the foregoing circumstance would 
indicate a rash and impulsive nature, it by 
no means involves any degree of moral tur- 
pitude beyoud Mr. Palmer's failure to re 
member the oft-repeated injunction of our 
lutiors of Lord for his servants to obey the powers 
that be. This constable, however humble a 
representative, stiil embodied in himself the 
majesty and sanctity of the law. Though 
the preacher and his wife might be sure of 
the falsehood and injustice of the charge 
uiar ngq a g a i ns t their African neighbor, still they 
(c) Tl were wrong in th-nr choice of a remedy. It 
nhurette is. far better to endure oppression than in- 
. j augurate rebellion, while there yet remains 
who wisi a hope or possibility of rectifying the evils 
may con inflicted. It was ill-advised, too, because fie, 
i u tj Mr. Palmer might be sure that the enemies 

6CI Dy JOiu)£-uii. uuuuuin T* :*•*. iiiin •■■-•■ ciuuni -".-. 

the Philq^f bis faith would never stop to explain the 



expose t 
revived, 
hibking 
without 



iron film 
and the 
el's hair 



;rtain corn- 
Id, and re- 
n of gold,* 
ircoal, and 
jold will be 
state, ex- 
ige ensues 
ire. of 212°. 
e dilute so- 
l gas from. 
ie reduced, 
> of a cam- 
:xhibit reg- 



uting phos- 

The reader, 

milar kind, 

publish- 

paper, ut- 



\ r , TI | extenuating circumstances, when in triumph 
V lll# they told how the Baptist missionary had 
form, by i been indicted as a public malefactor. But 
with all these suggestions ot worldly wis- 
dom, he could still enjoy the high satisfac- 
tion of knowing that his sufferings were the pie colour ; 
result of no„selfish promptings. If he was p cw der of 
numbered among malefactors, his Lord and 
Master had undergone the same ignominy. 

In his choice of a field wherein to labor 

for the Lord, Mr. Palmer found a host of 

, men, who would view his advocacy of Bap- -fluous acid* 

and afterwl tist faith and practices with anything but 

favor. Perquimans was the very center and 



IX. W 

riate of g 
and, whei 
Cassius, 

* The ni 
previously 



a metallic 



f nitro-mu- 



jtaliic salt, 



should be 



32 

largely dilv. 
lew pieces 
of the colo' 
will begin 
washed an 
tate of Cas 
solution of 
acid. 

X. Gol( 

of gold is \ 

real solutii 

the gilding 

it protects 

XL Su 

humid wa 

with heat 

XII. 1 

pelling ai 

are very 

ter of hi; 

Gold. 1 

of the Ai 

Transact 

alloys of 

add that 

poses, h 

loyed wii 

some kit 

in any re 

io be o\v 

ijuantity 

bout j-qi 

The c 

parts of 

gold, wl 

pure mi 

using tr 

an cqua 



nucleus ot botn Jiipiscopal and Quaker influ- 
ences. The strongest congregations of both 
these sects were to be found where he began 
his work of evangelization. The strongest 
imagination would fail in its endeavor to de- 
pict the scorn and surprise of the one party 
and the cool indifference of the other. The 
men of the Established Church were too 
much under the control of Ed ward Moseley 
to offer any show of real persecution ; for 
that patriot and statesman, while warmly 
adhering to the dogmas of his church, was 
still ever the advocate of religious freedom. 
He was too powerful both in the General 
Assembly and Church councils, fjr any open 
infringement of the spirit of the charters ; 
so all the vexation of the people of his faith 
expended itself in petty schemes to abuse 
the unwelcome intruder in the public mind. 

The people of Albemarle had been too 
often disgusted with the Established clergy- 
men, for any real attachment to have been 
formed toward them and the faith they rep- 
resented. Some, of these English preachers, 
as the Rev. John Urmstone and others, not 
only neglected the sacred duties they were 
sent from across ths seas to fulfill, but also 
led shameless and immoral lives. Urmstone 
was notorious for his many vices. He was 
repeatedly arrested in the streets of Edenton 
and punished by the court for his drunken- 
ness and profanity. That such a man could 
be permitted tor long yeaTS to receive the 
bounty of benevolent Englishmen, shows to 
what a low ebb the morals of the people in 
both hemispheres had descended. A candid 
statement of affairs requires that such disa- 
greeable truths should be made known, but 
it must not be once imagined that there 
weie no real and devoted christians in the 
Episcopal clergy. There were many who 
would have died to maintain the integrity 
of the Protestant faith, but the fatal effects 
of the restored Stuart dynasty on the public 
morals bad not yet been succeeded by wiser 
and better courses. I 

It was thus that Paul Palmer and his co- 
adjutors found the people billing aad eager 
to receive the messengers who 3a me with 
promise of better things. Taking 1725 as 
the year of the first real Baptist evangel in 
North Carolina, it seems almost incredible 
how fast their influence spread over the 
Province. Among Mr. Palmer's earliest 
converts was the Rev. Joseph Parker. He 
was the main stay and support of the Evan- 



p. xviiio 

:1 with a 
become 

ecipitate 

hen well 
precipi- 

mixing a 
muriatic 

the oxide 
the ethe- 

pplied to 

its, which 

>ld. 

e dry and 
digested. 



ons of cu- 
tis. They 
44th chap- 
ry, article 
Commerce 
lilosophical 
pecting the 
owever, to 
many pur- 
elted or al- 
ar fact, that 
kr defective 
rhis appears 
! very small 
tals only a- 
rious .effect, 
number of 
ure. Thus, 
ns 22 of the 
pure gold, 
alloyed with 



Hw*$ 



SECT. II. 



I. Platina, 

contaminated b; 
and, in fact, is i 
in no other pla< 
until about two 
grey silver ores 
brought from t 
the ore of platir| 
our than iron, 
been contrived 
Platina;) butt 
appears to me 
cated by Mr. f 
nal.* It is uni 
the metal may 
among other p 
II. Platina 1 

1. It is a wi 
exceeding it, 
which may be 

2. It is extr 
ever, by the bl 

S. It is not i 
tion of heat ar> 
to a circuitoui 
composed by 
trie acid. Tl 
drive off the z 
of platina at t 
oxygen. Th 
colour, and lc 
bined with 9 

4. Platina j 

other metal b 

* A process J 

scribed by Desi 

■{■ Two piece 

with a kind of 

nently united 1 

VOL. II. 



i 



gelist, and Fo^eTnef the greater portion of 
eastern Carolina and 1 southeastern Virginia. 
The second church organized -under their 
labors was at a point in Bertie but now 
Hertford county, just ouUide the future vil- 
lage of Murfieesboro. This was long kuown 
as Parker's Meeting House, in compliment 
to Mr. Parker, its first pastor. He removed 
from Pasquotank and dwelt the remainder 
of his life on the farm just in the rear of the 
Chowan Baptist Female Institute. Joseph 
Parker was never a bri liant orator, nor was 
he very wide in the range of his acquire- 
ments. His chief trait was his indomitable 
adherence to whatever opinion he first adop- • 
ted. He could never be persuaded to take 
part in Association or Convention, and so 
long as he and his son, Rev. William Par- 
ker, lived, they kept by their influence the 
Meherrin congregation in the same attitude. 
Although every other Baptist church in the 
commonwealth had joined the Sandy Creek 
or Kehukee Association, these men of iron 
wills still, with their single church, stood 
aloof and would take no part in the great 
work that Burkitt and his colaborers were, 
with God's help, carrying on. It is a singu- 
lar coincidence that after the lapse of a cen- 
tury and a half we see Rev. Hersey B. Par- 
ker, who is the direct descendent, five de- 
grees removed from this ancient worthy, 
reviving in our day the very same crudities 
and mistakes. 

Paul P tinier lived long enough to see a 
great advancement effected both in religious 
and political affairs under the wise and gen- 
tle rule of Gov. Gabriel Johnston. A 
mighty host of settlers came pouring in 
from every direction, and North Carolina in 
a few years had a populati jn four fold 
greater tlian when the Scotch ruler arrived. 
The Baptists had made a start in their great, 
work of evangelizing this and other Ameri 
can Provinces, and from ihence onward their 
career has been unbroken. Thouyh men 
would yet shudder as they recalled the hor- 
rors of the Tuscarora massacre in 1711, still 
the Lord's work of saving the souls of those 
who had committed the bloody crime, must 
be at least attempted. The hardy settlers 
kept pushing on in the wilderness towards 
the setting sun. To such people also the 
gospel must be preached. This matter of 
planting and sustaining churches in the Col- 
ony had been a source of continual struggle 
and content ever since the time when Col. 
Daniel as Governor of Albemarle had in- 
duced the General- Assembly to puss the law 
5 



33 



h 1S 

ces; 
ered 
ri*a, 
iome 
been 
ct of 
col- 
have 
rticle 
;able, 
nuni- 
Jour- 
s; as 
>rice ; 



reatly 
•avity, 

how- 

nt ac- 
ourse 
:>e de- 
in ni- 
» as to 
oxide 
s 13 of 
green 
r, corn- 
to no 

;, is de- 
^ige 334. 
covered 
: perms- 



54 



5. It is 



ed on or 
vessel 



6. TJ 

oration 
is decoi 
reducec 

7. T! 
precipit 
acter, p 
separat 



platina 



known as the "Vestry Act." The people" (IP. XVIII. 
had been promised repeatedly by King 
Charles II. and the Lords Proprietors that- if 
they would come f o America they should 
and oxyge ^ave j n Carolina the fullest religious liberty 

This Vestry Act was directly in opposition 

to such a promise. It provided perempto 

rily that every parish should elect twelve 

, Vestrymen whose duty it should be to raise 

is obtau by taxation out of all the people money with 
which to build an Episcopal chapel, and 
then to levy $150.00 more each year as a 
salary for a rector of the same faith and 
order. 

The Baptists and Quakers said, with truth 
and justice, that the building of su'ch a 
chapel and the salary of such a rector were 
no concerns of theirs. They had a church 
of their own and a pastor of their own to 
support. Let the Episcopal people build 
their own house and pay their own rectors. 

thus oh( That it was an outrage to thus pillage men 

of their hard earnings to sustain others who 

were too often viler than the heathen Afri- 

M cans they essayed to convert and baptize. 

nor by ! The law proved abortive in most of the 
! counties by the dissenters choosing men of 

contam tne ^ r own creeds as Vestrymen. Of course, 

9. It these would make no levies for church build- 
nresent * n S' nor wou ^ they employ a lector. 

To such men the coming of Mr. Palmer 
paler b] was as a most grateful dispensation of Provi- 

10. "i dence. They heard the story of our Lord's 
• •. passion with streaming eyes and hundreds 

P " were added to the Baptist fold. The new 
compov county of Bertie, which included all the 
so it fo North Carolina territory between the Ko- 
.. anoke and Chowan rivers, became a center 

ding to Q f m fl Lience from which missionaries pro- 
muriat< ceeded to evangelize'the more remote set- 
id have tlements. By and-by the Episcopal chapels 
of St. John and St. Luke in Manney's Neck 
prismai f oun d themselves almost deserted. The 
reddisr handy men and women, who were peopling 
fid con a wilderness, instinctively turned to the 

" faith and forms that centuries before had L ette( j hydro 
won the hearts of the Galilean shepherds • ^ 

and fishermen. How long the man lived, 
, who had thus come from afar to labor in a 
also oy g e j^ Q f w j 1 | c ] 1 hg knew nothing, is now for- 
which gotten. But his name is yet fresh in our 
memories, and the labors he endured still 
bear their fruits in the region where two 
such great christian organizations as the . 
Chowan and West Chowan Associations mi nishes con 
uumber their adherents by the myriad. The bles. 



11, 
gen, w 



gold. 

12. 
also m 
sideral 

13. 



i-muriatic 

to effect 

tb be pour- 

.t in a glass 

ed solution 

ireful evap- 
uescent. It 
ps, which is 

ertyofbeiBg 
$y this char- 
and may be 
precipitate; 
leaves pure 

te of potash, 
is owing to 

allic acid as 
s gradually 

: solution, a 
but a triple 
ith soda, al- 
ined, by ad- 
ts weight of 
is of the flu- 
cooling, fine 
; and either 
• of a beauti- 
67.) 



decomposed r 

is obtained ; 

solution of 

f potash, and 



lights still burn bright! y on the altars he L_ • mnr ; n f» 
rhe most qcih.«v *~J. ww.c present w. r ._Jna is muriate 



41 



erected so long ago, and a great people de- 
light in doing honor to the name and mem- 
ory of Paul Palmer, lie served the Master 
in his day and generation, and is now enjoy- quiring 



SECT. IV. 

per-sulphate 

155 parts of <j ^ n S " toat rest which remaineth to the peo- lsn ings 

.-',-, i pie of God." • , . 

with cold wat |u, ana 

the salt is renWea much more insoluble. 

When the super-sulphate is heated for some time, at a temper- 
ature exceeding that of boiling water, it loses still more acid, and 
is changed into a hard grey mass. When this is removed from 
the fire, and boiling water poured upon it, a lemon yellow colour- 
ed powder is formed called Turbith Mineral. This substance re- 
quires for solution 2000 parts of water. One hundred parts con- 
sist of 10 sulphuric acid, 76 mercury, 1 1 oxygen, and 3 water. 

VI. The nitric acid dissolves mercury, both with and without 
the assistance of heat. At the common temperature, but little 
nitrous gas is evolved by the action of mercury on nitric acid ; 
and the acid becomes slowly saturated. The solution is very pon- 
derous and colourless ; and yields, by evaporation, large transpa- 
rent crystals. The solution does not become milky when min- 
gled with water. Pure fixed alkalis give a yellowish white pre- 
cipitate ; and ammonia a greyish black one. 

But if heat be used, a brisk effervescence arises, occasioned by 
the escape of nitrous gas, and a solution is obtained, in which the 
metal is more highly oxidated, and the acid is in less proportion. 
When this solution is poured into cold water, a yellowish white 
sediment is formed ; or, if into boiling water, an orange coloured, 
one. Both precipitates consist of nitric acid, with a great excess 
of oxide, forming an insoluble sub-nitrate of mercury . 

If the last mentioned solution be boiled with a fresh quantity of 
mercury, the newly added metal is taken up, without any dis- 
charge of nitrous gas, the metal becoming oxidized at the expense 
of that already dissolved. 

When the nitrate of mercury is exposed to a heat gradually 
raised to 600° or upwards, it is deprived of water and of most of 
its acid, and reduced to an oxide, which has the form of brilliant 
red scales. This substance, commonly called red precipitate^ is 
termed more properly the nitrous oxide of mercury. 

VII. Mercury is the basis of a new fulminating compound dis- 
covered by Mr. E. Howard. To prepare this powder, 100 grains 
(or a greater proportional quantity not exceeding 500) are to be 
dissolved, with heat, in a measured ounce and half of nitric acid. 
The solution being poured cold upon two measured ounces of al- 
cohol, previously introduced int© any convenient glass vessel, a 

vol. it, 6 



mode 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 



White BY JOHN W. MOORE,' STATE. HISTORIAN., 

and t! 

actioi Memoir II — Kev. William Sojourner. 

l ecte{ CHAPTER ONE. 

dried ■'^\ ie nrs t permanent English settlement 
diate in America Was at Jamestown in Virginia. 
re-ac There in the year of our Lord 1607, John 
. . , Smith and his comrades rocked the cradle of 
it» it : our new imperial republic. This colony on 
100 8 James river was in many respects unlike all 
. • ^ the others,' that later on formed the Ameri- 
can Union. It was from its earliest incep- 
powc! tion a pet of the Crown and the British no- 
by lii hility. To its borders came hundreds of 



Th 



young people who belonged to the proudest 



ed, si 
for tY. 
iant 
to se 
of ru 
bottl 
the r 



families in England. It was thus from the 
statei beginning under the dominion and influence 
of the English Established Church. Hard- 
riding, deep-drinking, loud-swearing coun- 
try squires, who really cared very little for 
Christ as their mediator, were yet devoted 
Churchmen. Utterly empty of faith, hope 
and charity, they were yet ever ready and 
willing to cut the throats of others who 
failed to conform to the ritual and canons of 
the English Church. Such men formed a 
large majority of the Colonial Legislature. 
V. 'j.Vv/n. :,- si-y imagined what a cruel and 
brou mexcu ' s £ D l e system of laws such men would 
enact. 'Their treatment of the Quakers 
whe would have disgraced the Turks. When a 
are • stranger came in their midst, the law re- 
quired that the rector of the parish, or some 
i y a other public officer, should see such person 
is th and inquire of him as to the nature of his 
with re hgi° U:3 opinions. If it appeared that he 
conformed to the Thirty-nine Articles, or 
subs was a Presbyterian in good standing, he was 
T allowed to remain and find a home in the 
Colony of Virginia. But wo unto all others! 
If they came by way of the seas, the captain 
of the ship bringing over such malignants 
was required to carry them back to the port 
from which they sailed. In cases such as 
those, where men and women came south- 
ward from settlements of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, they were forthwith expelled 
from the borders of the Old Dominion, with 
fearful penalties as the price of their return. 
A few French Huguenots, under the express 
orders of the Crown, were left unmolested, 
for many of them became members of the 
Episcopal congregations. 



wate 

hoi. 

and 

wan 

accc 



CHAP. XVIII. 

is excited. A 
c of the liquor, 
the cessation of 
tnmediately col- 
> and cautiously 
i. The imme- 
t is liable to the 

acid adheres to 
l of light. From 
)owder are ob- 
fige2H.) This 

gentle heat, or 

ig mercury, is 
ance were plac- 
on, unobserved, 
rted into a brill- 
nto a heap, and 
josed, a globule 
e powder into a 
hole reduced to 
199.) 

:id, but may be 
re affinity. Thus 
jioth well dried, 
oxide of mercu- 
This compound 
ne components, 
}te an insoluble 
I' 

its weight of 

weight of alco- 

the fixed alkalis 

ange, and after- 

3 are composed 



SECT. IV. 



ly insoluble 
muriate by a 
timony of th 



43 



In the lapse of time this fierce and rigid 
exclusion of Baptists and Quakers was re- 
laxed from the fact that such people were 
Calomel, . too wise and self respecting to seek homes in te muri» 
ate with abol such a community. Rhode Island, NewJer- t h en re , 

i sey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, both the Caro- . 
peatedly subj ]} nas an d Georgia were ready and willing to 1S near ' 
give homes and fellowship to all whoiu good orrosive 
faith came in their midst. To these Colonies t u e ^ G ^ m 
flocked the persecuted Dissenters, and Vir- 
ginia was left to enjoy for a season all the 802,) oi 
honor and glory due such' faithful and dis- 
creet sons of the Church. Lord, had they 
not cast out in thy name all these vile and 
deluded schismatics ? Were they not secure 
from these insidious agents of sin and her- 
esy ? .Alas, no ! Hdwever cruel their stat- ; 
utes, Baptists of other communities resolved j 
at length to risk life and all things temporal 
in their efforts to redeem a noble, people 
from such mistakes in religion and policy. 
We are told by Rev. Dr. R. B. Semple in 
his history of the Virginia Baptists, that 
when the first of their evangelists began to 
labor in Virginia the State and Church au- 
thorities had them in such utter contempt 
that they said it was useless to notice these 
men. That they were so weak and obscUre 
I - that no po^siole harm could arise from the 
I people's hearing what such fanatics had to 
Corr" sa ^' ^ was a ^ ter these humble Baptist evan 
I gelists had won the hearts of hundreds of 
I the people for the Master, that . the strong 
arm of ecclesiastic wrath wis invoked. How he, with 
long and nobly those Virginia Baptists . 
out the addil wrought and suffered is one of the world's I 
most heroic epics. They were the loving 
allies and friends of Thomas .Jeff erson, Pat- 
rick Henry and of James Madison in all 
their great and protracted labors in securing 
religious liberty for their State and nation. 
At the very beginning of these Virginia 



In calom< 

cent . of oxy 
determinate 
Fourcroy ari 
tive view of 

Calo! 



IX. The 



gas. 

X. Merci 
and if these ' 
ry loses its i 



10 fier 
This 

that of 
am par a- 
Llomel. 



oxygen 



lead, and an church troubles the subject of this memoir, 



gular propei 
powers of th 
have alreadj 

By comb: 
dized, acquii 
gold and sil 
agitation in 
tration of th 
ies, in prom 

XI. By ccj 



metals ; 
i mercu- 
lgam of 
i the sin- 
ordinary 

tercury, 



the Rev. William Sojourner, aloner with 

many of his'flock, came to North Carolina 
for refuge. All the old records and tradi- 
tions speak well of Mr. Sojourner. It sounds 
almost like a romance to recall the facts 
connected with him and his church at Burley 
in Isle of Wight county. As early as 1714 
the Burley congregation, being destitute of 
a pa'stor, wrote such letters to the Baptists jg ju us . 
of London, that two men, Robert Nordm ' 
and Thomas White, were ordained and sent 
out to aid these American petitioners. The 
two young men thus departing on the long 
I and perilous journey of that era, no doubt 
compounds. | f e lt many a swelling joy in their souls over odies u 
nite and foJ their consciousness of giving up home and r hy fu 
ni , m I all its comforts to serve the Lord. , Before 



ily oxi- 

Thus 

ized by 



of bod- 



distinct 



44 



sion, and 



celebrate 
fourth vc 
vol. ii. 
trated so 
monia. 
left undi 
and final 
Journal, 



the long and weary days had gone by which 
were consumed in sailing from London to 
James river, Thomas White sickened and 
died. It was a dark and mysterious provi- 
dence, and Robert Nordin, no doubt, grieved 
ed cinnat long and sore over the death of his com pan - 
vermilion * ori - ^ ut * ne sa dors wrapped the cold form 
of the dead missi mary in a hammock and 
thus gave him burial in the depths of the 
ocean. 

It seems that Robert Nordin preached un- 
molested and with much success until his 
death Dec. 1st, 1725. On the 30th day of 
April, 1727, Richard Jones wasordaintd and 
chosen as pastor to this same Burley congre- 
gation. But the establishment of the Bap- 
tist church in Prince George county and the 
active evangelism of Rev. Casper Mintz, 
along with pastor Jones, stirred up wrath 
in the high places. The Episcopal parsons 
and their lay strikers said these ' Baptists 
were stirring up the world with their ha- 
rangues and were thus liable to be punished 
at law as disturbers of the public peace. 
Magistrates who would hear a simple ser- 
mon of loving exhortation to perishing sin- 
ners — breathing peace and forgiveness of 
injuries in all its extent would then see bru- 
tal ruffians interrupt such a discourse by a 
shower of rotten eggs, would see these same 
men beat and almost drown the inoffensive 
man of God. Sum a magistrate neither 
sought to restrain the assailants, or to pun- 
ish them afterwards, but in sublime mock- 
ery of all human justice, would send his 
sheriff or constable with orders to arrest 
the injured preacher as a public nuisance 
and disturber of the peace. Some of the 
meek and gentle brethren would- so far com- 
ply with these miserable Dogberry justices as 
to give bond for their keeping the peace. But 
others weie made of sterner stuff. They told 
their wicked judges that they had violated 
neither the public law nor the public peace, 
and would therefore give no bond but rot in 
their jails before their giving countenance to 
a miserable perversion of law and justice. 

Many of them made good all such brave 
atteranc%si Like Paul ana Silas, they '■■■c 
long months and weeks made the old jail 
houses musical with their hymns of praise. 
Great crowds of indignant and sympathetic 
people gathered and were preached to from 
the grated windows of the prison. It seemed 
as if the gospel was never so powerful as 
when God's servants were thus bearing wit- 
ness amid danger and suffering on his ac- 
count. Many hundreds professed to have 
found peace as they thus stood and heard 
the gospel proclaimed from the windows of 
"~ihe iail. 



(CAP. XVIII* 

1 

jhuret cali- 
>n pigment 
: long been 
bed in the 

f»ictionary, 
g concen- 
ret of am- 
lich, *when 
m orange, 
icholson's 



The < 
Dr. Wo 
followin 

I. Rh 
muriatic 
of ammc 
colour, \ 
have be< 
portion ( 
metals L 

1. Le 
the solu 
state of ; 
with vei 
dissolve 
tro-mur 
portion 
tie tli tr 
The dn 
rhodiun 
and the 
dium m 
dcr, am 

2. \\ 
borax i 
any dej 



ngenuity of 
tina, by the 

na in nitro- 
by muriate 
le degree of 
e acids that 
iron, and a 
, also, other 

mmersed in 
resent in the 
pt drying it) 

which will 
in dilute ni- 
eted, add a 
>out one fif- 
£entle heat, 
tlladium and 
;1 by alcohol, 
£on the rho- 
i black pow- 
of the ore. 
black ; with 

infusible by 
, by arsenic, 



SECT. VII. 



To prepa 
lowing proc 
per, and 50 
phate on an 
muriatic aci 
per and its i 
poured into 
orange colo 
that it can s 
ed of 



- /"^TjnXPTi. 



II. Coppi 
heat, and afi 
phate of cop 
water, (b) 
alkalis. Th 
on adding pi 
per, a precip 
kali, is re-dij 
(c) The sulj 
of this salt id 
acquire a co 
its acid on t 
an oxide of 
according tc 



The sulpl 
describes a 



But all were not made of such stern stuff 
as lo really enjoy the privilege of bearing 
such testimony to the truth. The Rev. Wil- 
liam Sojourner had succeeded Mr. Jones in 
the pastorate of Burley. He and a large 
proportion of the congregation grew weary 
of the struggle and contention, and resolved 
to leave their homes for the peace and qui 
etude of North Carolina. Edgecombe was 
then a new country. On Kehukee creek in 
the latter bailiwick, Mr. Sojourner and his 
colony halted, and there established the fa- 
mous old Kehukee church. This region in 
that era was very different in its aspects 
from the county, Isle of Wight, where their 
old homes were. All the region bordering 
on James river was in that age thickly set- 
tled and possessed of many social appli- 
ances. Mr. Sojourner and the little flock 
he led found the late hunting grounds of the 
Tuscarora Indians covered by a vast unbro- 
ken forest. A. few families had congregated 
at and around tae village of Enfield where 
the court-house for Edgecombe county was 
located, but in 1740 the region selected as 
the future residence of these christian refu- 
gees was still in its primeval condition. 
About thirty miles southward was the spot 
on Contentnea creek whereon was built the 
famous Indian fortress which was stormed 
and captured during the late war. As all 
the hostile Tuscaroras had left North Caro- 
lina and found new homes in the lake coun- 
try of New York, Mr. Sojourner and his col- 
onists had only a few stragglers of that; 
bloody tribe to fear in their new homes. 
True, it was that occasionally a solitary man 
or woman was found murdered and scalped 
bv these vengeful spirits, but Thomas 
Blount, the friendly chief, who still lingered 
in Bertie by degrees captured and slew the 
last of these murderous vagrants. Rev. 
Joseph Parker and his coadjutor, Mr. Wing- 
field, had no doubt been heard at Enfield 
and elsewhere in Edgecombe proclaiming 
the truth as held by the American Baptists, 
but no church had been established nearer 
than Sandy Run in Bertie. This church by 
a strange coincidence came into existence in 
the same year that saw the advent of Mr. 
Sojourner and his people. It was not a great 
distance thus across the Roanoke river be- 
tween a regular Baptist chureh and the Vir- 
ginia colonists in Edgecombe. There was, 
no doubt much social intercourse between 
the old and new Baptist denisons of that fer- 
tile region, for no bridges were built across 



51 



thefol- 
of cop- 
the sul- 
it with 
he cop- 
itash is 
:d of an 
itrongly 
ompos- 



boiling 
a) Sul- 
ilved by 
bonated 

Thus, 
of cop- 

the al- 
olution. 
solution 
ill soon 
ives-up 
m ; and 
nposedj 



r, also, 

omraon 



II 

with 
read! 
cppp 



9 lane 



^* great river separating them, still there 

ere numerous ferries, 
sulpi- The Rev. William Sojourner found a for- 
cree m idable obstacle to the spread of his Baptist 
views in the person of the Rev. Charles 
Burgess. This latter was a clergyman of 
the Episcopal church and was only equalled 
in all the catalogue of his brethren of the 
cloth by Rev. Charles Earle of Chowan. 
3oth of these wise and godly men were 
affbnj » rea ^y admired and trusted by the people, 
and their influence was widespread and ever 
for good in the land. The very fact that 
Messrs. Earle and Burgess were so different 
from the generality of those who had come 
as Episcopal missionaries gave a greater in- 
terest with the people. It had not been ex- 
pected after their experience with Mr. Urm- 
stone and others of his kind, that any Church 
of England 'clergyman really cared for the 
souls and salvation of thei flocks; but here 
were men whose piety and rectitude no man 
could doubt. It was thus hard work for Mr. 
Sojourner to hold his own with such a rival 
close by at Enfield. There has ever been a 
love of pomp and spec-tide in the mind of 
man. This has given the Romanists their 
greatest hold upon the people. So, too, with 
their daughter of Engltmd. She has retained 
just enough of the shows and vestments to 
avoid offending good taste. The Church, too, 
has ever been in America a great aid to peo- 
ple whose great desire is to rise in social con- 
sideration. We constantly hear the worldly- 
minded making sneering remarks as to the 
want of refinement in the Baptist and Meth- 
odist churches. They are like that proud 
scribe of old who asked if any of the Phari- 
sees had as yet believed on Jesus Christ. 
We hear these his modern imitators often 
testifying their devotion to their church, but 
alas the name of him who died in such un- 
speakable agony on Calvary is rarely on their 
lips. That phantom they call 'The Church" 
absorbs all the love and enthusiasm of such 
believers, while the Virgin Mother and 
deliquejj Mother Church serve a like purpose with 
tallizes i tue Romanists. What is such folly but 
i ki cheating God of the devotion we .owe to 
soluble t him ? What is the church worth to any man 
Stated, oj or woman beyond affording him a means of 
testifying faith in the lamb of God who 
taketh away the sins of the world? The 
churches are, no doubt, great instruments of 
grace and help us on in our efforts to do 
what is right, but let us never forget that 
after all they are only congregations of 
weak and erring mortals. , They are God's 
means of converting tb.-> world and keeping 
in everlasting remembi ince the Great Shep- 
herd and Bishop of our.?ouls. 



CHAP. XVIJI. 

■ the oxide. A 

icomes covered 
I is still more 
the solutions of 
bonate of lime 
tr. This sub- 



IV. 

gas is 

combii 

When 

solutio 

precipi 

with w 

copper 

copper 

that of 

retains 

water b 

proport 

to comfc 

V. C 

and a gi 

dized to 



d ; and nitrous 
ting from this 
ing with tin. 
of copper, a 
ue powder is 
er combined 
ist hydrate of 
dro-oxide of 
a heat below 
ie; but still 
smposed, its 
dning, in the 
' be brought 

on copper; 
>per is oxi- 
nd generally 
ie salt crys- 
i are readily 

Proust has 



sect. vii. I Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 

North Carolina. 
The wat 

pathetic in! 

ing, and ag 

By dige 

metal, it is 

per being < 

solution 

Ttnuring it? 

and is com 

down an 01 



,VI. Wl 
of vinegar, 
commerce 
\y of a sul 
lion, it fo 
water.—- 1 
a combine 



VII. X 
prussiate 
is obtains 
pigment 
of copper 

vin. I 

three par 
of sulphuj 
tion, a b! 
that prpdi 

IX. Ar 
copper, 
in a phial 1 
beautiful 
fine blue' 

X. Cc 



BY JOHN W. MOOBE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir II — Rev. William Sojourner. 

CHAPTER TWO. 

In looking back through the long vista of 
years which have elapsed since the Rev. 
William Sojourner lived and labored on 
earth, we are struck with astonishment 
that so many of the mo^st enduring elements 
of our faith and polity originated in the time 
of his stay in the commonwealth, Njrth 
Carolina, at that period, was in that plastic 
condition which is most favorable for the 
reception of religious and political truths. 
In the gross and inexcusable neglect of then- 
duties, both by the Lords Proprietors and 
afterwards the Crown, the people had been 
left almost entirtly to their own devices in 
religious matters. It seemed" that of all the 
host of preachers of the English ecclesiasti- 
cal establishment, only a few men, who 
coj,ild find no employment at home, veu 
tared over as guides to heavenly places. 
The people were quick to see th.it most of 
these m-m needed reformation of life as 
much as they did. It was only about this 
very year of 1740, which saw .the advent of 
the Burley colony, that Gov. Gabriel John- 
ston and Mr. Edward Mostley succeeded in 
obtaining real religious guides. The Bishop 
of London, who claimed North Carolina as a 
portion of his see, at last sent over the Rev. 
Charles Earle to serve the churches of Eden- 
ton and Perquimans. Bertie, then the most 
populous county in the Province, was sup- 
plied with a rector in the person of the Rev. 
John Alexander, while Edgecombe rejoiced 
in the presence and services of the Rev. Mr. 
Burgess. All of these gentlemen were highly 
acceptable and useful in their labors ; but in 
Mr. Earle there was a culmination of social 
and christian graces. He added piety and 
zeal to his eloquence in the pulpit. He also 
gave such an example in his daily walk 
among his people, taat all could see how 
much he was concerned for their souls. All 
three of these ancient divines lived and died 
at their posts, and left issue as mementoes of 
their virtues. Such men of course gave a 
great impetus to the lagging fortunes of 
Episcopacy in North Carolina. They did 
much to atone for the sins of their wicked 
predecessors, and had all their successors in 
1775 possessed the same wisdom and influ- 
ence, their church would have escaped its 
shipwreck and prostration. 



I of sym« 
by warm- 

gs of the 

II of cop- 
[y held in 

merely 
oxygen 
lis throw 



the fumes 
rdegris of 
1 and part- 
l evapora- 
soluble in 
; acid, and 
rts 



solution of 
precipitate 
.chett as a 
e solutions 

nixture of 
h one part 
■ combina- 
brightnessj 

o-oxides of 
m together 
acquires a 
gentle heat, 

als, and af- 



most usefi 
also, the 
Prince H-, 



54 Mr. Sojourner heard also of the arrival, at 

Salem, of the first instalment of the German 

fords seve sect styled by themselves "The United 

. c yc Brethren." These Moravians were in many 

ac respects the counterparts of the ^English 

Copper, v Quakers. Count Zinzendorf, eight years be- 

with abou f° re ) had begun his wonderful system of 

missions. Lay brothers, who labored daily 

for their own food and clothing, were sent 

out in many foreign parts to bear to other 

peoples the gospel that had wrought so great 

a change in their own hearts They, too, 

sometimes were soon to establish themselves at Salem, 

And when and add another feature to the ecclesiastical 

white and kaleidosco P e of tlie a g e - 

The Rev. George Whitfield and also the 
two Wesley s were stirring the British peo- 
ple into a wondrous enthusiasm with their 
new Methodist societies. Ever and anon 
echoes came from New England repeating 
the story of how the Rev. Jonathan Ed- 
Iron ha wards was animating the dry bones of Con- 
of lish gregational coldness and apathy. Theloug- 
" " enduring and widespread religious blight 
to the sar which had come upon all English-speaking 
more duct people as the result of the wicked rule of the 
two last Stuart kings, was at last yielding to 
out into w the itl fl ueuces f a hvelier faith. The Bap- 
a wire onh tist preachers had never intermitted their 
aweicrhtol W01 'k OI exhortation for a higher standard of 
devotion, and at last God was answering 
their prayers. 

Gnly twenty years had elapsed since Paul 
Palmer had come in Albemarle, when Mr. So- 
journer and his little band of Burley exiles ar- 
rived on the oanks of Roanoke river, but a 
air is mois great work had been accomplished in that 
short interval. The cluster of churches, 
g ua g c > r " 80on to join in forming the Kehukee As- 
change g< sociation, were organized and at work 
lakes Dlac ^tending the bounds of Baptist influence. 

small frac Many people have expressed astonishment 
d " that the Established Church of the Province 

? so soon succumbed in the struggle for su- 

ptojected premacy ; but no student of English history 
iancy. T neecl wonder over such a fact. It was, as 
the Right Honorable Joseph Chamberlm, 
the.famous M. P. for Manchester, lately de- 
clared, the people knew that ever' since the 
days of King Henry VIII., this State Church 
had been found on all occasions the enemy 
of popular liberty and privilege. All the 
great franchises extorted from the Crown 
had been won with the bishops and clergy 
in solid array against such movements. And 
the church, says Joseph Hume, is to day 
what it was in the times of Hampden and 
Pym. In every great struggle, when the 



Iron is 
point is ab 
the followi 

I. 1. A 



and is stil 
of 



The 



VP. XVI1J. 

p common 
and iron. 
'otrtnetal ; 
brass, the 
per form, 
?, Similar, 
1 tin, and 
run-metal. 
>eautifully 
im-metal. 



;h degree 
e beat out 
t is much 
be drawn 
i such that 
upporting 
7.6 to 7.8. 
Ls melting 
ertics are 

when the 

nraon lan- 

dsed, this 

nscly hot, 

Thus the 

rging, un- 

on filings, 

able brill- 

sk colour, 

100 parts 



b rough 



nited iron 
'imbustion 



SECT. VII 

be formed 
sulphate <j 
tions have 
ed as remi 

VIII 
soluble in 
compositiu 
ate of ami 
of succina 
es to heat ; 
tity of lin; 
second rec; 
black oxic 
tation of a 
od of estin 
or in any c 

IX. Th 
on iron, an 
calico-priri, 
double de^ 
or of lead 
boiling a 
lead in a 

This co 
other salt 
minimum 
the latter 
calico-prin 

X. Iron 
A few iron 
casionally 
solution is 
ure to air. 

. XI. Iroi 
, characters' 
Uheir comf 
• ter, if in si 

(b) A mix 
(accurately 

union exhi 

Bf.his VOl.) 



British Parliarnenc nas been called upon to 
widen the influence and power of the people, 
the spiritual Lords have been ever found 
opposing such boon and aiding selfish mon- 
archs in their efforts to resist the demands 
of the House of Commons. 

Then, too, the habits and bearing of the 
Established clergy had raised barriers be- 
tween them and the great body of the popu- 
lation. The sons of wealthy and titled fam- 
ines were generally educated with the view 
of their assuming holy orders long before 
any evidence was afforded that even piety 
was theirs, much less the experience of an 
actual call to preach the gospel. It seemed 
like mockery to hear such a candidate avow 
at his ordination that he felt assured that 
God bad called him to fulfill such duties, and 
yet was ready to mock at the mere mention 
of the new birth in Christ. Hundreds of 
such youths were supplied with curacies and 
rectories by the bare dictum of some rich 
landlord who mocked at and despised the 
very name of religion. The English papers 
of this same, week in October, 1891, tell us 
that the Marquis of Aylesbury holds eleven 
such presentations while the still more noto- 
rious Lord Lonsdale had no less than forty - 
two. At the bidding of these two wicked 
and worldly aristocrats, thousands of chris- 
tian people are thus forced to receive the 
men who are to minister to them in holy 
things. 

Such were some of the many causes of the 
amazing success of the pioneer Baptise 
preachers in North Carolina and her sister 
Provinces. Congregations were formed in 
the short interval of time already mentioned 
from Currituck as far west as Johnston 
county, and all of them were the fruits of 
missions sent out from Shiloh, Meherrin, 
Sandy Run and fOhukee churches Tn alj 
the region south and west of Roanoke river, 
the Rev. William Sojourner was the leading 
spirit in this great work of evangelizing a 
destitute and forsaken people. 

The disastrous battle of Culloden, fought 
on the moors of Scotland in the year of our 
Lord 1745, led to a gre^t emigration from (he 
highlands of that country. The gentle he- 
roine, Flora McDonald, and thousands of 
her compatriots, found homes along the 
upper ranches of the Cape Fear river. The 
nucleus of this settlement, now known as 
Fayette ville, was called Cross Creek in that 
day. It does not appear that the Baptist 
missionaries effected much among them 
until a much later period in our history. 
Neither Mr. Sojourner, nor any of his cler- 



61 

i and oxy- 

prepara- 

:ommend- 

mass, in- 
ouble de- 
af succin- 
recipitatc 
>th expos- 
nail quan* 
d, and the 
Tow as the 
ie precipi- 
ady melh- 
hat metal, 

'owly up- 
dying and 
ained by- 
te of lime 
1, also, by 
dtates the 



t, like its 

is at the 

on. It is 

dyer and 



Dnic acid. 

r, and oc- 
iial. The 
by expos- 

unds, the 
anions of 
, and wa- 
ito flame, 
f sulphur, 
moment of 
:he end of 
>n of iron 



G2 

and sulpl 
from a si 
compoun 
preserve! 
best adaj 
diluted a 
ly decorr, 
riatic aci 
In the 
in the na' 
Mr. Hat< 
compour 
the othei 
be callcc 
guished 
super-su 
sulphuri 
gen gas. 
and give 
One bus 



And 10' 



XII. 

the vari 
compoi 
a small 
kinds c 
quanti 
ed by 
feulphu 
x^alysis 
quantit 
aminat 
The 



ical coadjutors, could s peak "the Gallic 
tongue ; so the Scotch settlements failed to 
participate in the great evangel of the pe- 
riod. 

Just west of the Baptist congregations of 
Johnston county began the settlements of 
the Scotch- Irish Presbyterians. These brave, 
thrifty and devoted.christians were so well 
supplied With preachers of their own, that 
missionaries rather sought out the waste and 
destitute regions. They were not so anxious 
to proselyte their brethren of other persna 
sions as they were to *arry the word to those 
settling in the "region and shadow of 
death. 1 ' Indeed, all that we know of Mr. 
Sojourner's traits as a man and a christian 
goes to show the amiability and delicacy of 
hi3 sensibilities. Sooner than contend with 
the bigoted and intolerant Churchmen in 
Virginia, he had jshaken the dust from his 
feet as testimony against them, and came 
for peace to North Carolina. He was not a 
man for controversies of any kind. How- 
ever devoted he may have been in his adhe- 
sion to Baptist sentiments, yet he never 
grew restless or unhappy when he realized 
how many men and women were ignorant 
of, or scoffers at, ihe truth of 'such a faith. 
His charity was boundless and unfailing. 
He no more limited God's saving grace to 
the narrow confines of his own sect, than to 
some race charm out from all nations. 

Mr. Sojourner was enough blessed of God 
to be permitted to see the wide diffusion of 
the truth as he held it while still alive in the 
flesh. He saw«and heard of new churches 
continually being added to those already in 
existence, but like Moses on Pisgah, he was 
denied the privilege of seeing . them join a 
holy league for purposes offensive and de- 
fensive in carrying on the great war against 
the Devil and his agents. The Baptist 
churches of North Carolina had not yet ob- 
tained the consent of their minds and souls 
for concerted action. Philadelphia and 
Charleston had seen great things accom- 
plished by means of the Baptist Associa- 
tions bearing their names. Their missiona- 
ries were earnestly persuading our people 
to surrender this ignoble and unworthy dis- 
trust of God's people, evinced by such fears 
of their good faith. Surely churches ac- 
knowledged and confessed to be indepen- 
dent could always have the right of with- 
drawing from such such a league if it trans- 
gressed its charter. How, then, could there 
arise any danger to the autonomy or integ- 
rity of even the weakest congregation ? On 



IAP. XVI«. 

pwing heat> 
bur. The 
nd may be 
hur, this is 
n gas with 
ned, rapid- 
ric or mu- 
)gen gas. 

as well as 
Proust and 
f so. Two 
th a larger, 
former may 
h is.distin- 
iuret. The 

in diluted 
;tted hydro - 
he magnet, 
ilute acids. 



>rtions ; and 
lerties in the 
mbination of 
the different 
c. &c. The 
>e determin- 
he iron and 
i mode of a- 
|rtaining the 
on under ex- 
dlic state. 
of essential 



SECT. VIII. mew- 63 

I the otiier hand, what a world of benefits j 

differences C0Ul t!- be e ^ ected fr °P fe close compan ducedb 
uu^iwu-i-ai lonship and .community of interests implied _ ' 

slight diffe in such an organization. Such men as the owes its 
properties i ^ ev> Joseph Parker might still adhere to the unbago. 
j old order of things, but no such disposition 
Cast or d mar ked the course of. William Sojourner. s- ox yg en » 
carbon, andj He was ever foremo^tdn all good works and d on the 
various pro! ™ ad ° h ^ self a .monument in the hearts of tack) anc i 

r ! his brethren ; but when in A. D. 17bo ihe, . , 
least in the Baptist clans at last gathered at old Kehu- ming,the 
carbon and! kee to form the long-wished for Association, tn of car- 

bonic oxid * he R f v l ™ iam S °J 0U > ner f was on] y t t liere Les to the 

1 in spirit. The gooi man for some time 
earthy mat had rested in his narrow grave, and nothing ense slag. 
After this v Dut tae memory of. his great services re- h may be- 

., .1 mained to cheer .and. animate his people. ■ - •■r- 
considered 1 He had fought a good figbt and died more n «» com- 
bination.* j than a conqueror. In all good faith and n contact 
with charcJ simplicity he had done what he could to ima u n ro „ 
1 serve his Lord and benefit his people, and in TV. ' ■' „ 
portion onlj so doing had ]eft a name t0 £ e honored for entirely ot 

the proper all time. *es a good 

deal harder, yet it may au« — ^vmu... xiy union with a still far- 
ther quantity of carbon, it loses altogether the property of weld- 
ing ; is rendered harder and more compact ; and forms the fine 
cast steel. Steel, therefore, though like cast iron it contains car- 
bon, yet differs from it essentially in being destitute of oxygen 
and earth. 

Another combination of iron and carbon, which is a true car- 
buret of iron, is the substance called plumbago., or black-lead, 
used in fabricating pencils, and in covering iron to prevent rust. 
By exposure to the combined action of heat and air, the carbon is 
burned off, and the oxide of iron remains. When mingled also 
with powdered nitrate of potash, and thrown into a crucible, a de- 
flagration ensues ; and an oxide of iron, equal to about one tenth 
the weight of the plumbago, may be obtained by washing off the 
alkali of the nitre. From recent experiments of Messrs. Allen 
and Pepys, it appears that pure plumbago, when burnt in oxygen 
gas, leaves a residue of oxide of iron amounting only to about 5 
fier cent. ; and that it gives very nearly the same quantity of car- 
bonic acid, by combustion, as the diamond and charcoal. When 
intensely heated in a Toricelljan vacuum by a Voltaie battery, 
Mr. Davy found that its characters remained wholly unaltered. 
Neither could any evidence of its containing oxygen be derived 
from the action of potassium. (Philosophical Transactions, 1809.) 

* It has been lately suggested by Hassenfratz, and with some probabili- 
ty, that iron, which is manufactured with wood charcoal, owes much of its 
superiority to combination with potassium. (Nicholson's Journal, sxv. 51.) 



64c- 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 

KY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir III — Uev. Shubal Stearns. 



CHAPTER ONE 



I. Tool 

under that 

lution, evz rj-- he ] a t ter na lf f t he eighteenth century 
three or fi was crowded with events which were of sig- 
<lrvness na * i lu P° ,ta ^ lce t0 the human race, but to 



in a solut 
easioning 
bonic aci< 



P. XVIII., 



ually sold 

; the so- 

again, for 

d boiled to 

dissolved 
by its oc- 
dn no car- 

dryness ; 
weight of 
le for half 

ichter, in 
letal in a 

nd tin. 

when hot ; 

specific 



the even and minds of many christian ob- 
servers, there was a visible decline in all the 
elements which constitute the nobler traits 
in religious and moral character. The influ 
ence of four kings had reacted disastrously 
and, after on the three leading nations of the world" 
black flu > Louis XIV. in France, Charles II. and his 
, brother, James II. in England, and the 

or three t g reat wa , T ior, Frederick of Prussia, had 
Anothe each and all led such lives and professed 
Nicholson sucn sentiments that millions of men and 
women were more or less debarred through 
state ol pi their corrupting influence. The low sensu- 
■1. Its c altsin and disregard for truth in the lives of 
2 It is *' Qe ^ ISI t ^ iree were supplemented in r he 
ambuuyto arid atheism of the great Get ;nau. 

3. It is it seemed that all the benefits won through 
and hamr the piety aud heroic constancy of Martin 

. . Luther in his struggle for human emancipa- 
gtavuy is ^ on jj ac j out re!? ulted in unbelief and con- 

4. In h tempt for all things in religion and morals. 

5. Nici Preachers aud priests vied with men of the 
. . world in theii* lives, of shameless disregard 

oxidation. for all lrje restraints incident to their holy 
of air, it i functions. They could be found not onl\ 
tic ™ re echoing the doubts and sneers of Hujue, 
. Gibbon and Voltaire, but too often were also 
erately 11 profane, adulterous and openly drunken in 
lin^e of b their lives. With such religious guides and 
Vl i civil governors it was not for a moment i. 

ivlaprot ■ tnin g to De won dered at thit great masses 
comes bl< of the people came to distrust and despise 
78 metal a ^ wno adv0Cite d a higher morality aud a bn thrown 

... closer walk with God. 
into boiln To read at t hi s day the strictures of the 
drate of Rev. Sidney Smith upon the Methodist :x * n a 
sufficient! niovemeut under the Wesleys and Whitfield Without ad- 

and also on the missionary eflbrts started tyv 

dition ; n Carey and Fuller, we can faintly realize 

or platint something of the utter worldliness of the 

, great body of the clergymen of that period. 

a *' Mr. Smith was even better than the inajor- 

6. The ity of his brethren of the cloth and surpat-sed 

rior to wl them as much in the purity of his life, as 

. he excelled them in intellectual endowments. 

in the usuai moues. — - — 



t states of 
ee access 
still mag- 
and mod- 
:h a slight 
:ording to 
ion, it be- 
ilichter, of 



Id, silver, 
rfect met* 

little infe- 
s polarity 



• BCT. XII. 

II. Thoj 
/ temperatui 

tion. 

When 
zinc beco 
a crucible,' 
inflames ; 
light oxide i 
ed wool. 1 
er volatile 
has been ej 
consist of 8 
in a retort c 
assumes a 3 
88 parts of 
mum, Gay 
or about 19 

III. Zim 
volves, dui 
gas, when < 
A stream 
has been fo 
platina wir< 
This hydro 
by a proces; 
blende, or < 
tube, whic 
red-hot, th« 
is producec 
.hydrogen, 
surface of \ 
■when recen 
impregnate 

The solu 
tals. This 
not precipil 
■stated; bul 
of ignited s 



VOL. 11. 



Yet such a man was capable of advising ihe 
British king to arrest and punish as rn al 
factors, the brave men who had gone in want 
and peril to seek and to save the perishing 
millions of the heathen East. Nothing but 
that traditional love and respect uf the Eng- 
lishmen for individual liberty and their 
dogged resolution that no man, however 
humble, should be denied its privilege, 
saved Dr. Carey and his associates from 
speedy expulsion from Bengal. That talis- 
manic charm which every British citizen 
bears along with him around the whole 
broad world, made the Governor General 
pause and forbear from carrying out the pol- 
icy recommended by the great Episcopal 
preacher iu Loudon. But when Juusonaud 
rtice came upon the scene, no such difficulty 
arose in the tu Ailment of his wishes. These 
two Americans could not, like the Apostle 
Paul, arrest his resentment by the plea of 
their birthrights. Being foreigners, they 
were at once driven from the land on the 
plea that their pr-aa:hing would endanger 
continuance of English control. 

A long and unrelenting prosecut on of the 
Baptists, both in Great Britain and America, 
had greatly crippled and circumscribed their 
religious influence on the people of that 
wicked and adulterous age in the world's 
history. Then, too, the loose tenants of 
John Bunyan and his Baptist supporters 
touching open iommunion had resulted in 
filling their churches with crowds of uncon- 
verted people. The result of all this could 
be nothing else than the loss of that ancient 
zeal and ardor which had presei^ed the Bap- 
tist name and principles through long cen- 
turies of bloody persecution. The same 
people, who, in their dauntless constancy, 
had held aloft the light of truth in so many 
lands, being thus chained like Paul to a body 
of death, not only lost much of their olden 
faith and purity, but became oblivious of 
their duties as to rescuing the world from 

its state of enniuy to God. A century ear- 
lier, Baptists were found disregarding all the 
bloody penalties proclaimed by kings and 
prelates against the promulgation of their 
principles and were winning souLs and suf- 
fering therefor in every part of Christendom. 
Since the advent of Will am and Mary 
upon the British throne, a great degree of 
freedom from pains and penalties had been 
enjoyed, both in Great Biitain and Amer- 
ica. This to eration, as it was called, of a 
faith so hateful to the average Pedobap'ist, 

10 



n 

at a low 
to igni- 

ts fusion, 
own into 
suddenly 
hite and 

to card- 
no long- 
;lass. It 
inds it to 
d to heat 
gen, and 
msists of 
q maxi- 

oxygen, 

which e- 

and the 

e. metal. 

fig- 34,) 
in of the 
property, 
obtained 
:, called 
porcelain 
id, when 

gas that 
buretted 
:d on the 
.f burned 
e of this 

lar crys- 
olution is 
variously 
ive 61.24 



n 



Mr.! 
water, t 
cid. 

IV. 
lence. 
delique; 

V. IV 
drogen j 
cvapora 
may be 
circums 
vaporat 
viscidit] 

VI. 
ing the 
super-a 
of lead 
evapora 

VII. 
tions, ai 
compou 
zinc filh 
VIII. 
phur. 
phur co 
impregr 
time, thi 
is proba' 

IX. 2 
is of a w 
some rrn 
gree of I 

X. Zi 
metals, 
tloned in 



had also served to disarm and neutralize the 
Baptists in their traditional activity toward 
extending the limits of their faith and prac- 
tice. In the midst of such torpor and for- 
getfulness of duty the Baptist people were 
startled like the Jews of old by two young 
men who were to prove themselves worthy 
successors of that eloquent eremite who, 
seventeen centuries before, had the honor of 
proclaiming oar Saviour'? advent. As John 
the Baptist found a world lost in sin and 
forget fulness of God, so too did John Wes- 
ley and George Whitfield, . Protestant and 
Romauist nlske were sleeping on their posts, 
and beyond the efforts of the handful of 
faithful Moravians, the great work of the 
world's redemption seemed to have come to 
a complete standstill. The two young stu- 
dents who, «m id their careless compeers at 
the great English University, had given 
their hearts to Jesus and his cause, right 
nobly redeemed the promises and pledges 
made ea 'h other in those halcyon days of 
their youth. Many lauds and many peoples 
heard these wondrous heralds pleading the 
cause of the new birth in Christ and a closer 
walk wLh God. 

It w*s under the magic utterances of 
Whitfield that Shubal Stearus was awakened 
to a sense of his acceptance with Christ. 
The name of this Baptist, worthy had been 
long known and spelled by the people of our 
State as given above, but some authors give 
him the title of Shubael. It is too late how- 
ever, to niter that which has been so long 
established among us, and we shall there- 
fore continue to speak of him as did our 
forefathers aud designate him, as of old, 
the Rev. Shubal Stearns. Bt- was born Jan- 
uary 6th, 1706, and was reared in or near 
the city of Bostou, in the State of Massa- 
chusetts. He bad been baptized according 
to the practice and ritual of the New Eng 
land Puritans, but under the heart-searchirg 
discourses of George Whitfield first really 
knew the Loid For a time after his con- 
version he remained a member of a New 
Light Congregational church, but grew dis- 
satisfied with their views r It wis thus that 
he cam a for mental peace to % join himself to 
a Baptist flock that was then recently allowed 
to exist on the part of the Colonial authori- 
ties, simply because of stringent orders from 
London imperiously commanding the public 
authorities to relax in the hard hearted 
measures they had before exercised toward 
the Baptists and Quakers in their midst. In 
the close union of Church and State, which 
hid so long existed in Massachusetts, there 



:hap. xvi 



deprived «i 
sulphuric j 

ith great vio 
md affords 

I evolves hy-l 
it cannot, by] 
ilt, however J 
, from which! 
n rapidly e- 
ewhat of the 

ctly dissolv- 
solutions of 
lble sulphate 
olution. By 
It. 

lkaline solu- 
A similar 
of nitre and 

nity for sul- 
wers of sul- 
ss. Water, 
», after some 
Ltate, which 

uret of zinc 
ead. It has 
t a high de- 

f the other 
been men- 



SECT. XIII. 



mjeta; 



Bismuth 
brilliant plal 
9.822, but is 
the hammer, 
can it be dra 

I. Bismut 
Fahrenheit ; j 
distinct crysl 

II. When' 
with an oxid 
olent heat it 
but, with th^ 
hales in the i 
ies. This o. 
a yellow trar 
which we ar 
89.3 bismuth 

III. Sulpl 
engaged, j? 
is changed i: 

IV. Nitrh 
part and a hi 
muth, broke 
It is decomp 
precipitated, 
sists of oxid* 
This pigmei 
by sulphurc 
stances in g 

V. Muris 
prived of wi 
affords a so; 
erly called '' 

VI. Bisri 
ink. The 



had resulted such a state of affairs that little 
true aud vital religion was left in tbe com- 
munity. An outward adhesion and con- 
formity to the Established Church bad soon 
taken the place of all the zeal aud enthusi- 
asm of the men and women who constituted 
the congregation brought fr >m beyond the 
seas by the good ship May Flower. In the 
cold aud lifeless formalities of the New Eng- 
land people there Avas a large reproduction 
of the hateful Phariseeism so sternly de- 
nounced by our patient and merciful Sa- 
viour. So overweening and intolerant was 
this spirit that even the wisdom and piety 
of Jonathan Edwards could not avail in 
distrming their jealousy and resentment 
against every man who presumed in any 
way to differ in religious and political senti- 
ment from those of this Yankee Sanhedrim. 
All of Dr. Edwards' fame for splendid tal- 
ents, consecration to God and burning zeal 
in hi* cause would have amounted to noth- 
ing in their sight, and he, like another Roger 
Williams, would have been expelled fiom 
their midst but for two reasons. The 
first of these, was that he differed only in a 
few vital points fiom their own Westmin- 
ster Confession, and tie second was that 
good William III. had secured from the 
British Parliament the enactment of the fa- 
mous statute for toleration in all parts of 
the empire then under its control. 

The New England Baptists had undergone 
unspeakable pains, penalties, robbery and 
humiliation at the hands of these witch- 
burning, slave-trading, hard headed succes- 
sors of Cromweli and Pym. Their system of 
government was virtually a theocracy 
wherein the preachers and ruling elders were 
the lords of the laud. They were as om- 
nipotent in the General C >urt of Massachu- 
setts Bay as in the church conferences where 
they sat as moderators. The age, infirmi- 
ties, piety and eloquence of Rev. Obadiah 
Holmes weighed nothing in their view T when 
they learned that upon the lequest of a sick 
friend and bi other in the Lord, this Rhode 
Island Baptist divine had presumed to come 
by request into their midst, and had actu- 
ally prayed, preached and otherwise wor- 
shipped God in the house of his host. For 
no other infraction of law human or divine, 
Mr. Holmes was seized, along with him 
whose hospitality he was sharing, and both 
were condemned to undergo the extreme 
penalties of horrid Puritan statutes. The 
venerable and beloved shepherd of the Rhode 
Island Baptists was beaten at the public 
whipping- post until his back was a mass of 



■75 



f broad 
ivity is 
', under 
le ; nor 

at 476° 
metals, 

covered 
nore vi- 
/essels ; 
tide ex- 
old bod- 
eat, into 
th, with 
-parts, of 

id is dis- 
mainder 

To one 

ie of bis- 
illizablc. 
stance is 
It con- 
ric acid, 
changed 
pg sub- 
then de- 
ed, and 
improp- 

ipathetic 
that does 




blood and bruises. Tnougn smiling and re^ 
joicing under the cruel infliction that he was 
counted worthy to suffer like his persecuted 
not act or L rd, the good man was unable to lie upon 
this solution oecuinc vioiuiv, vti.v» v» r — v- . — *- :i 
Irs back and lay for weeks hovering between 
life and death in consequence of his in- 
juries. 

When Mr. Stearns became a Baptist, the 
day of such bitter intolerance seemed a 
thing of the past. Even Rev. Cotton Mather 



76 



drogen. 
VII. B 

als, and I 
bility. O 

sists of eij was heard speaking words of christian sym- 
thrown in P a tby and affection toward his brethren of 
. . f ! the Baptist church in Boston. The long arm 
It is ironv of trje British Parliament had compelled the 
ter's into t; General Court to stop in its violence, but 
deed is 'it! a ? es ^ et were to elapse before these men of 



Bismut 
tility ; 
This effe( 
bismuth 



Massachusetts got the consent of their minds 
to conform to the great American rule of 
freedom and equality aijiions men in their 
worship of God. It was full fifty years after 
Thomas Jefferson had secured such a bles- 
sing for Virginia and the Republic, before 
Massachusetts could be induced to accept in 
its entirety, this most sacred and inaliena 
ble human privilege. John Adams told the 
men woo sided with his great Virginia rival, 
that his people were prepared to suffer 
through war and pestilence before surren- 
I. Ant dering their claim of power over the public 

natural c< consciences. He did all he could to prevent 
the insertion' of this the noblest feature in 
the Federar- Constitution, ana its adoption 

native su| was secured in the face of his opposition, 

ulous tart displeasure and protest. 

It can, then, well be imagined that life 



of nitrate' 



VP. xvin. 

tten with, 
retted hy- 

lf the met- 
kable fusi- 
I. It con- 
in. When 
ing point, 
smuth en^ 
which, in- 

of its duc- 
jroportion. 
usion near 



amid a people animate I by such a spirit was 



mixture i embittered to such men as gentle Shubal 
and the d Stearns. He and his young wife were full 
of happiness in their new-found faith and a 
little fat. great desire and prompting were thrilling in 
be found their hearts touching their duty toward God 
h nai" anc * tnerr feliowmen. Mr. Stearns soon 
sep c yi e 2(j e{ j to bi s sense f duty and began exer- 
may be f cising his gifts as a preacher of righteous- 
sulphur \ nes s- He was born in the year 1706. His 
.J father bore the same name with himself, and 
il. Ar| jjjg mother had been a Miss Rebtcca Larri- 
of antim\ ford before her marriage. He was just 
olated oi* thii'ty-nine years old when he joined the 
' j New Light congregation which had origi- 

III. Ij nated under Whitfield's preaching. For six 
ing, in tlj years he continued a member of this organi- 
i_-j _._J zatioti. But in his study of the Bible he was 
forced to the conclusion that nothing therein 
could be found to justify infant baptism or 
any other substitute for immersion. He 
then could no longer abide where Mr. Whit- 
air, it ci geld ^d j e ft him, but in 1751 was immersed 
into membership of a Baptist church in New 



ized, an 
IV. I ! 
at its on 



liops, is a 

•portion of 

c state, the 

jht of acid- 

d one third 

tion. The 

t crucible ; 

sed with a 

ravity, will 

lich it may 

i sulphuret 

lings. The 

jn. 

{ed regulua 
e, and of a 

s, on cool- 
be volatil- 

atmosphere 
;ie access of 
f the metal. 



SECT. XVIT. England, then under the pastoral charge of 
I the Rev. Wait Palmer. This congregation 
I was located at a place called Ta$and in Con- 
. necticut. During the same year Mr. Stearns 
was ordained to the fuii work of the gospel 
ministry by a piesbytfflfl consisting of \&c 
\ pastor, Mr. Palmer, and Rev. Joshua Morse. 
j Three years after this important event in 
his life, Mr. Stearns devoted to active evan- 
gelism among the people of New England. 
In this work he found many things to harass 
and discourage him. The same Phariseeism 
be purchased that had opposed and denounced the labors 
three times i °^ J° uatrian Edwards and George Whitfield, 
rose up to confront him. As they had shut 
moderate pn their doors and forbidden the uses of their 



83 



I. Cobalt 



houses of worship to the older evangelists, 
so fared it with gentle Shubal Steams. 
These servants..of the Lord, like himself, 
ated with or) were forced to use the hills and fields as 
powdered cri places for meeting the multitudes that flock- 
ed in thousands to hear the new version of 
that ancient gospel of peace and love to all 
mankind. But the missionary spirit began 



To obtain 
mends, that t 



is to be mix< 
reduced. T 



its weight of earlv t0 prompt Shubal Stearns to go into 

flarlv fielris He anrl Viic J-ir^thcT- in-law 



and acidifies 



early fields. He and his brother in-law, 
Rev. David Marshall, concluded that it was 
Wash offtht their duty to go to the South or West, and 

acid. This 

of iron. E\ 

the solution 

ide of cobalt 

before direc 



amid the new settlements proclaim the glad 
tidings in their possession. Thus it was in 
1754 Mr. Stearns bade adieu tennis New Eng- 
land home a«d friends and .started on the 
mission which was so abundantly to bless 
our people of North Carolina. 



cli may 
re with 

d, at a 

Irecom- 

deton- 

hth of 

e mass 

cobalt 

t thrice 

imum; 

potash. 

n nitric 

oxide 

filter 

"he ox- 

Elux, as 



II. Cobalt has a greyish white colour, inclining somewhat to 
pink. Its specific gravity is 7.7 ; it is brittle and easily reduced 
to powder; is not fusible with a less heat than 130° of Wedg- 
wood ; and, when slowly cooled, may be obtained crystallized in 
irregular prisms. 

By exposure to the atmosphere cobalt is tarnished, but not oxi- 
dized to any extent. In an intense heat it burns with a red flame ; 
but, if pure, it is not easily oxidized by a moderate temperature. 
Its oxide is of a deep blue, approaching to black. This, from the 
experiments of Thenard, appears to be the first oxide. It may he 
obtained, also, by precipitating the nitrate of cobalt with potash. 
The precipitate is at first blue, but when dry becomes black. It 
dissolves readily in muriatic acid, giving a solution which is green 
when concentrated, and red when diluted. Its solutions in sul- 
phuric and nitric acids are always red. 

When this oxide is exposed to the atmosphere, it gradually ab- 
sorbs an additional dose of oxygen ; and becomes olive green. 



84 

Treate 

red soi 

Wh 

air, it 

black. 

ide diss 

pious c 

lioweve 

gen enc 

also, of 

-Ijpixture 

Acco; 

ide conr 



And 1 



Theb 
a crucib] 
of protoj 

III. C 
puted to 
it is owir 

IV. f 
ic acids ; 
sympathe 
may be d 
of nitric a 
and dilute 
solution ; 
plied, the 
periment 

* Philos 

f For so 

suit Mr. I 

tfophical Ti 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir III — Kev. Shubal Stearns. 

CHAPTER TWO. 

Before continuing the narrative of Shubal 
Stearns' adventures and labors in the South, 
it is proper to say a few things concerning 
the condition" of affairs in that portion of 
North Carolina which became the scene of 
his subsequent efforts in this life. During 
the administration of Gabriel Johnston as 
Governor of the Province, a prodigious in 
flux of immigration began p> to pour into the 
Piedmont region. Two great tides flowing 
steadily southward from Pennsylvania, and 
northward from the wharves of Charleston, 
brought in each year thousands of men and 
women seeking new homes in the wilder 
ness. TUey were composed of many differ 
ent creeds and nationalities. The stern and 
fearless Scutch- liish, the French Huguenots, 
the German Lutherans, the gentle Morayi 
ans, and lower down the country, the Scotch 
highlanders came in troops to possess the 
land. A few settlers came from England 
and Virginia to the same region, but they 
were like -^Eueas' ship afcer the storm — 
Rati nantes in vasto gurgite. 

Amid a people thus constituted there was 
of course a variety of creeds and social cus- 
toms. Little communities had each for it 
self its church and traditional festivals. The 
prevailing sect among them all was that of 
the Presbyterians. The peculiar tenets of 
Calvin and Knox were thus become potent 
in the American forest. Among these peo- 
ple it was a rule to bring along with each 
company of immigrants their pastor and 
ruling elders, and among the first houses 
built in such a settlement was one for wor 
ship and then one for the education of their 
children. The harsh and bloody treatment 
these people had undergone at the haudi> of 
the Stuart Kings of England had made their 
system of religion a thing for which they 
were educated to believe it was their duty 
to die whenever its defence required such a 
sacrifice. With all its apparent austerity 
and gloom as viewed by other people, it was 
still to them what the Temple of Jerusalem 
and its magnificent ceremonies had been to 
the Jews of old. They loved it better than 
life, and were ready for martyrdom a; any 
season rather than renounce fealty to its 
support. 



2 MAP. XVIIU 

igas, and a 

I in the open 
lly becomes 
The perox- 
i with a co* 
is insoluble, 
id with oxy- 
s incapable, 
!g vitrifiable 

f the flrotox- 



6 bottom of 
o the state 

nerally fm- 
spects that 
r». 

tro-muriat- 
of forming 
> of zaffre, 

four parts 
e of soda ; 
n with this 
heat is ap- 

This ex- 
trunk and 



jmena, con- 
d. (Phito- 



SECT. 



85 



the leaves 



I It was thus in the year 1754 that Revs. 
Shubal Stearns, Daniel Marshall and their 
families found the region peopled that they 
branches ^ a( j selected for their homes. They had . 
with a so halted for a brief season in northern Vir- ' tue P a P er ls 
Ti d &i ma i but ^ or ieasons best known to them- iful foliage* 
' selves, th^y were persuaded that larger use- .r^alis from 
V. O! fulness was promised them further south, r 
the nitrj: Under the influence of their preachiog, a d afterwards 
. .. 1 church was at once formed on Sandy Creek, urown into a 
ot a Ilia Multitudes flocked to hear this new gospel of , A blue 
flask ful love and freedom they were proclaiming, e 
precipit * n< * very soon six hundred names were en- ately closed, 
i rolled as members of the new church. They e hvdrate or 
P asses V had come iuto North Carol na in a 
Jiydro-od company which numbered all told but six- 
ate of TJ teen sou ' s ' 0l *t i Q a marvellously brief season 
this small nucleus of hope and faith had ex- 
liquid. panded into so many, other congregations, 
heat, an that in 1755 the new churches they had 
formed united in forming the Sandy Creek 
Association. 

Shubal Stearns and Daniel Marshall must 
have been, both of them, preachers of unu- 
sual powers to have accomplished such won- 
derful thing*. We must remember that the 
scene of their labors was by no means desti- 
tute of all precious religious privileges. Not 
,«nlyhadttie Established Church sent rec- 
ception i ^jfg t0 t jj e same region, but numerous Pres- 
Cobal byterian and Lutheran ministers were estab- 
t>repare< hshcd within reach of these same settlements 
. . I» the case of Mr. Stearns we have sucb 
mixing i abundant testimony of his unusual gifts 
Zaffre, ] both in mental and spiritual development, 
tfeat we are not astonished that the careless 
Multitudes he found in his new home were 
Stirred to the depths of their souls. The tes 
tia&ony of Rev. Dr. Robert B. Semple of Vir- 
ginia, who wrote his valuable history of the 
Baptists of his State in A. D. 1810 is enough . / 

#f itself to enable us to understand why such / 

IVl any '•■"">•' ■ 

remarkable success waited on his efforts. J 

He was described as a small handsome man oiacK suo- 
with great impressiveness in his words and manganese, 
manner. But the secret of Mr. Stearns' re ■ . ; . 
markable sway over all audiences lay in the , _ ; ' ' 
use of his voice and eyes. The one was full ig it into a 
of melody and soul-reaching power, while a rcoal, one 
the other almost realized the reputed charm { 
possessed by some of the animals over their inc » UCC P 
feathered victims. " His enemies,'" says Dr. t h powder- 
« Semple, " would sometimes be captivated by e exe ^ 
eel cnarci, hig musical voice Many strange things are 
for one h related of the enchanting sound of his voice, 

II. Tl and the glance of his eyes had a meaning in [ t ant j shin- 




washed, 
stance ft 



j y e hydrate or 

little . , . ,, 
coid carbon- 

luble in this 

of water by 

ibalt, a rose- 



ur and phos- 
esting prop- 

with the ex- 
is generally 
;dients ; and 
Icined flints, 
ground and 
ouring sub- 



I. Ma 

stance, 
with a 1 
mixing t 
ball, and 
tenth of i 
at the bo 



• • everv move. 

rng in its' nuv^iv aib opctiiic gravity is au«ui u.«^ 



It is verv 



86 

brittle, ar 
Wedgwo 
in conseq 
iron. "W 
brown po 
cession gi 

When 
sive sbacL 
Grange, i 
piz. the vi 

The iv i 
(effected j 
sists of 80 
the air, it 

The rcc 
ganese. ] 

The bla* 
which is e 
purposes < 
60 parts o 

III. Tl 
trous. T 
■water onl 
He. 

IV. TH 
. distilled a 

distilled w 

V. The 
ccid ; but, 
lion of the 
(sec chap, 
throw dow 
air, becouv 

VI. Th< 
nitric acid 
oxide, a li 
aoived. 

vn. ti 

when melt 

the blow-p 



Morgan Edwards says : "He was a mar- 
velous preacher for moving the emotions 
and melting his audiences to tears. The 
most exciting stories are told about the 
piercing glance of his eyes and melting tones 
of his voice, while his appearance was that 
of a patriarch." 

This last author quoted was, like Dr. Sem 
pie, a Baptist author and divine, who was 
>f great distinction himself for his abilities 
both as an author and a minister of the gos 
pel. We may therefore safely rest in the 
assurance that bis picture of the pioneer 
preacher was in no wise overdrawn. Being 
his cotemporary and personal acquaintance, 
we can safe!) conclude that the extraordi- 
nary imputations of power in the pulpit 
were in no respect overdrawn. 

Another witness as to these great and un 
usual gifts in the keeping of Mr. Stearns, 
was the Rev. Tidence Lane. This man, who 
was to b-eome so honored and useful as a 
Baptist preacher, was a bitter foe of our pe 
culiar articles of faith and practice at the 
time of his first meeting withShubal Stearns. 
" Upon my arrival," says Mr. Lane, "I saw 
-i venerable old man sitting under d peach 
tree, with a book in his hand, and the peo- 
ple gathering about him. He fixed his eyes 
upon me immediately, which undo me feel 
in sucq a manner as I had never felt before 
I turned to quit the place, but could not pro 
ceed far. I walked about sometimes catch 
ing his eyes as I walked. My uneasiness in 
creased and became intolerable. I went up 
to him, thinking that a salutation and shak- 
ing of hands would relieve me ; but it hap- 
pened o'.herwise. I began to- think that he 
had an evil eye and ought to be shunned ; 
but shunning him I could no more effect than 
a bird can shun a r-ittlesnake, when it fixes 
its eyes upon it. When he began to preach, 
Rjy perturbations increased, oo that nature 
could no longer support them, and I sank to 
the ground." 

To cold and sceptical minds this may 
sound not only incredible but the raving of 
one who was of unsound mind. The grace 
of God has ever thus appeared to the aver- 
age Greek, foolishness, just as it was a stum- 
bling block to the Jews. But if we can trust 
truth of history at all, things just as-marvel- 
ous are related on the highest and best au- 
thority of the effects waiting on the sermons 
of Whitfield. Dr. Armitage, in his Baptist 
history, has preserved the following instance 
of the great preacher's influence over his 
hearers : 



ap. xvnr. 

t of 160* 
; but only- 
quantity of 
a blackish 
mes in sue- 

rh succes- 
our. (La 
ict oxides, 

c solution 
h. It con- 
(xposure to 

ie of man- 
substance, 
d for other 
uircroy, of 

1 in the ni- 
ddition of 
white ox- 
gen when 
idantly, if 

I muriatic 
\ one por- 
ted state 
Alkalis 
lire to the 

issolve in 
t with the 
de is dis- 

b of soda, 
fected by 
pr flame, 



SECT. XXI' 



COLUMB 

longing to 
brought fr 
fusion with 
was decom 
alkali with 
diluted niti 
This aci( 
there can t 
ble in nitri< 
With the su 
both soluti 
coloured p 
dro-sulphi 

This mi 
ish chemis 
tantalite, b 
curs comb 
earth call 
these ores I 
fixed alkal 
solution, be 
der, which 
teristic pre 

1. It is i 
is taken, a 

2. Fixe 
which ma 

3. The 
colour, by 
specific g 

4. It ir 
impart to 

5. Thd 
glutinate 
ture of a 
oxide. 



"It is stated on good authority that the 
parsonage at Center Groton was the scene 
of one of the most remarkable sermons of 
of this great preacher. The upper windows 
of the hou^ were removed and a platform 
raised in front, facing a large yard full of 
trees. When Whitfield passed through the 
window to the stand, he cast his eye over the 
multitude and saw a number of y.->ung men 
who, imitating Zaccheus in the sycamore 
tree, had clirnl.ed these trees and were perch- 
ed on the limbs. The kindly orator asked 
them to come down, sajing : 'Sometimes 
the power of God falls on these occasions 
and takes away the might of strong men. I 
wish to benefit your souls and not have your 
bodies fall out these trees.' He expected 
to see them come down to the ground as 
birds that were shot, and choosing the valor 
of discretion, they came down only to be 
prostrated under the sermon. Great num- 
bers went home to lead new lives, and it is 
said that more than one of those young men 
became preachers of the new faith." 

As greatly as Mr. Stearns was favored of 
God in the conversion of his new neighbors 
and compatriots, he was still subjected to 
much difficulty and embarrassment. In the 
work of setting up new churches and in or- 
daining new ministers of the gospel, he was 
powerless to form a presbytery for the want 
of some other ordained preacher. Mr. Mar- 
shall was only a licentiate and so was Jo- 
seph Breed. All other Baptist preachers in 
reach were members of the Regular branch 
of the denomination, and in their disfavor 
toward the New Light doctrines, refused to 
bear any part in the ceremony. But it so 
happened that the Rev. Henry L^d better, 
who was also a brother-in-law of Mr. Stearns, 
fortunately about that time came South, and 
by joining him in the work relieved him of 
all the trouble occasioned by the want of 
help from others 

Thus like another apostle of the true faith 
came Shubal Stearns to seek and to save 
that which was lost amid the forests of 
North Carolina. Far from home and kin- 
dred, he had come to impart to others the 
same great blessings that God in his good- 
ness had provided for his faithful servant. 
Amid the Baptist churches, planted under 
his own ministry, he spent the short rem- 
nant of his days on earth. In the closing 
scenes of his long pilgrimage, he was sid- 
dened in the stress of war and ^calamity. 
Gov. Tryon and his evil subordinates were 
making life bitter to thousands who found it 
impossible to sustain their families and com- 
ply with the enormous exactions of the ex- 
tortionate sheriff! and other civil authorities. 



$3 



heral be- 
>ed to be 

alternate 
mineral 
, and the 
'dition of 
diment. 
opertieS, 
i insolu- 
Liies both 
ilis : and 
an olive- 
and hy- 



^nt Swed- 

ind Yttro- 

jne it oc- 

with the 

) From 

h caustic 

! alkaline 

jhite pow- 

je charac- 

keberg : 

e mineral 

j quantity, 

cquire any 
of air. Its 

ut does not 

Its and ag- 
ining frac- 
nto a white 



94 

Thou 
with that 
duced, 
solves in 
commun 
ide of tits 
tinging b 
Consicl 
whether 
tantalium 
tablished 
procured 
tantalium 
of oxide ( 
from a sn 
The el 
bium, clj 
■white oxi 
possible ii 
solutcly ii 
whicheve 
priate so 
from carl 
precipita 
acid. T 
Avhen fre 
Infusior 
ash, occa 
of these < 
added to 
throws dc 
colour, 
doubt of ; 
covery of 
berg, it w 
this pecu 



I. Cer 

Hisentrer 



These agents of the Devil were not content 
with impoverishing the poor people by ex- 
acting unlawful fees and assessments, for in 
the fullness of their malicious wrong doing, 
the wives and daughters of the people were 
too often subjected to insult and humiliation 
at their hands. The gentle spirit of good 
Shubal Stearns, almost ready to take its 
flight for another and better world, was 
grieved and depressed by these wrongs on 
his people that he was powerless to redress. 
But brave men in North Carolina have never 
been found submitting to such treatment 
without a proper show of .their disapproba- 
tion and resentment. It was thus that Mr. 
Stearns' brethren and neighbors were found 
the first of all the Province to meet in sol- 
emn conclave, and, after mature delibera- 
tion, declare to the world their resolutions 
in view of such oppression. This occurred 
on March 27th, 1767, fui: three years before 
the last tragic scene in the dreadful drama 
of blood and confusion which was witnessed 
in the battle of Alamance. These were really 
the first guns fire'i in that great American 
uprising for freedom and national indepen- 
dence. 

The soul of the venerable father in Israel 
had its compensntions for all such troubles 
as were born of this War of the Regulation. 
He saw the faith he had fiist inculcated in 
North Carolina widening and deep niag 
around him with the lap.-eof each revolving 
year. Then. toi», that famous Baptist 
preacher of New York, the Rev. John Gano. 
came down South and for a season also m de 
his home in North Carolina. The old man 
eloquent heard this wondrous young preach- 
er as he rose to still sublimer heights than 
it had been permitted Shubal Stearns to 
reach. That magic eloqu-nce, which was 
in after years to so often charm Gen. Wash 
ington and his armies, wag then cheering him 
and . ; jthe Sandy Creek people. The genius 
and faith of the younger man was a rare 
blessing to the tender and faltering spirit of 
the spent veteran, who in the chill and weak- 
ness of old age was at times subject to spells 
of mental and spiritual depression. Because 
of his enfeebled body, the sensitive spirit of 
Mr. Stearns was troubled that he no longer 
felt all the thrill and rapture of former 
years. He had never a doubt of the good- 
ness and favor of God, bit at times grew 
depressed at a sense of his own unworthi- 
uess. But this was only a temporary trial 
of his faith. As the m*'ht of death drew 
nigh, all the oldev jf*4$p$' «nd confidence 
were his again ; and thus 1 , when the 20th of 
November, 1771, was come, Shubal Stearns 



AE. XVIII. 

ly soluble 
easily re- 
ngsten dis- 
acids, and 
The ox- 
ids, and in 
jrn. 

1 chemists, 
ibium and 
:iently es- 
}. Having 
rom which 
with those 
i obtained 

ds colum- 
so, yield a 
s nearly as 
igh not ab- 
s, is (from 
Its appro- 
>lutelyfree 
ed, may be 

excess of 
g soluble, 
fids. 

ret of pot- 
t of either 
d has been 
galls only 
an orange 

room to 
as the dis- 
t of Eke- 
;o express 



zelius and 
|i Sweden,. 



SECT. X 



which ha 



had passed beyond the reach of all trials anu 
temptations of this life, and was with the 
gracious Master he had so long served. 



<*y haS J After life's iiful "ST " * hl8 ^ 



er he sleeps well. 
Treason has done his wortt ; nor steel, nor poison 
Malice doniest c, foreign levy, nothing, 
Can touch him further." 

He had done a great work in his stay with 
our people, and in a comparatively brief 
interval had wrought such blessings for those 
among whom he cast his lot, that his is now ■ 
"one of the few immortal names that were ; 1S cuss0lv 
not born to die." . pulverized. 



95 

lis discov- 
stimony of 
neral, con- 
iwn metal, 
iod, it has 
t is termed 



Vauquel 
curs in 
From thj 
been ca! 
Cerite. 

II. T< 
ed in nit 

The soliinun is imt-icu, i.~^~.~Lca wuTi jjui& potasri, and then 
precipitated by tartrite of potash. This precipitate, well washed, 
and afterwards calcined, is the oxide of cerium. 

III. Cerium appears to be susceptible of two stages of oxidize- 
ment ; the first oxide being- white, and the second of a fallow red. 
The white oxide, by calcination, becomes red. 

IV. Sulphuric acid, diluted with four times its weight of water, 
dissolves the red oxide. The solution, on being evaporated, yields 
crystals, some of which are orange, and others have a lemon-yel- 
low colour. The sulphate is soluble only by an excess of acid. 
Its taste is saccharine mixed with acid. 

V. Sulphuric acid readily unites with the white oxide ; the so- 
lution is nearly colourless, but has a slight rosy tinge. It has a 
saccharine taste, unmixed with acidity, and yields white crystals. 

VI. Nitric acid unites most easily with the white oxide. The 
solution is very sweet, and is not crystallizable. When decom- 
posed by heat, it leaves a brick-coloured oxide. 

VII. Muriatic acid dissolves the red oxide ; and the solution 
crystallizes confusedly. The salt is deliquescent; soluble in an 
equal weight of water ; and in three or four parts of alcohol. 
When this solution is concentrated, it burns with a yellow spark- 
ling flame. 

An infusion of galls produces, in muriate of cerium, a yellowish 
precipitate not very abundant. A few drops of ammonia throw 
down a very voluminous one of a brown colour, which becomes 
black and brilliant, by desiccation. By the action of heat, it as- 
sumes a brick-red colour. 

VIII. Oxide of cerium unites readily with carbonic acid. This 
union is best effected, by precipitating a solution of the. oxide with 
carbonate of potash. An effervescence ensues ; and a white and 
light precipitate, is formed, which assumes, on drying, a silvery 
appearance. 

IX. Sulphuretted hydrogen docs not unite with cerium. 



96 

X. ". 

prodUc 

head. ' 

but it v 

solutioi 

dent m; 

potash ; 

ale, alsi 

in its fr; 

XL I 

volatiliz 

cd by fu 



VEG 1 

from eac 

stances c 

and carb 

portion o 

proportic 

ihe great 

c table ki 

heat alon 

proceed f 

mation of 

'.hat we si 

perations. 

.iple is cc 

and differi 

affinity. 

The pic 
tory, may 
of vegetab 
exist in th< 
chemical t 
to the ultii 
compound 
which resi 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir IV — Kev. Daniel Marshall 

CHAPTER ONE. 

Perhaps no people have yet lived in this 
world with so broad and cosmopolitan a 
spirit as has been exemplified in North Car- 
olina. From the earliest times in her his- 
tory as a civilized community, not only 
kindness and the most abounding hospital- 
ity have been shown to strangers ; but to 
every new-comer, whatever his nationality, 
an equal share of honor and trust has been 
extended, whenever such a man was wor- 
thy and fit for such marks of distinction. 
So far from our people manifesting anything 
of a spirit of jealousy toward our citizens of 
alien birth, it has really seemed that such 
an accident of nativity has worked in their 
favor, and in a thousand instances has given 
them the preference in popular favor over 
those trho were so unfortunate as to be to 
"the manor born." Whatever may be said 
of the wisdom and propriety of such a trait, 
it at least proves the large-hearted and un- 
selfish disposition of our people. With such 
a spirit and characteristic as aciviliztd com 
inunity, it would be unpardonable if the life 
and labors of the Rev. Daniel Marshall were 
omitted from a catalogue of our pioneer 
Baptist preachers. 

Like Shubal Stearns, Daniel Marshall was 
born in the year of our Lord 1706. This 
event occurred in the town of Windsor of 
the then Province of Connecticut. He was 
reared by a Presbyterian father and mother, 
and upon reaching years of maturity was 
admitted to all the rights and privileges of 
the church to which his parents belonged. 
This was a matter of course in Presbyterian 
practice, and was only remitted in such 
cases where the young men and women who 
had been christened in unconscious infancy 
destroyed all hope and imputation of virtue 
therein by outbreaking and abandoned 
courses of life. As this young Daniel Mar- 
shall not only conformed to the usual stand- 
ard of morality, but was also a believer 
in the articles of faith set forth in the West- 
minister Confession, he was not only made 
a member in full standing, but also in due 
season was appointed a deacon of his church. 
He had also married a wife in the mean- 
while, and saw children blooming like flow- 
ers in the household blessed by his thrifty 
and prosperous oversight. 



CHAP. XIX. 

Ie of cerium 
than a pin's 
simple acids ; 
acid. The 
lso gave evi- 
h tartrite of 
eta Hie glob- 
i more scaly 

unless it is 
>c ascertain- 



stinguished 
ral circum- 
, hydrogen, 
:ertain pro- 
ons in the 
> constitute 
of the veg- 
position by 
I kingdom* 
actual for- 
e, indeed, 
) these op- 
ting prin- 
iperior to, 
chemical 

mical his- 
principles 
, that they 
lev which 
: proceed 
tve obtain 
:ure, and 
>mposing 



SECT. IV. 



To the sam 

ysis and histoi 
following is ai 
Oxalate I 
ed by dihedral 
Fahrenheit, it 
There is, also 
a considerabl 
the name of & 

ALATE OF P 

acid, which ii 
pose 100 part 
vert it into os 
late. 

QUADROX^ 

digesting the) 
H is divided 
acid ; and th 
acid. Henc^ 
exists in the 1 
oxalate ; or ] 

Oxalate 
resembling , 
powder, and 
is said to for 

Oxalate' 
It crystallizt 
nated by di 
At the temp 
grains of the 
if precipitate 
ers it even 
important i 

• OXALAT 

formed, eith 
mingling th< 
soluble oxal| 

VOL. II. 



Until Daniel Marshall reached the turn- 
ing of life in his thirty- ninth year, and thus 
saw his sun of existence reach its prime and 
begin the slow years of decline and deciy, 
he lived on as he saw his friends and breth- 
ren did, in their cold and formal compli- 
ance with set rules of morality. In Connec- 
ticut this Presbyterian system had been 
made the religion of the Province with all 
the rights and authority of other established 
churches. All other forms of christian faith 
faith were only tolerated, as it was called in 
that day, because the great folks in Lon- 
don had of late changed their policy of 
persecution, and had furthermore sent word 
to every provincial governor in America 
that a like policy must mark their course 
toward dissenters. Up to the happening of 
this thrice-blessed change, the lives of all 
New England Baptists, outside of Rhode Is- 
land, had been full of peril and hardships. 
They were not only liable to pains and pen- 
alties as the result of their want of con- 
formity, but too often their land other prop- 
erty were taken from them to help in the 
construction of church buildings to be used 
by their neighbors who had thus robbed 
and punished them. 

As State systems of christian faith had 
resulted in Great Britain and the continent 
of Europe, so did they in New England. 
The pristine fervor and devotion gradually 
diminished until, in the lapse of time, the 
machine morality, thus inculcated, ripened 
into such doubt and unbelief that the men 
and women, whose greatest means of wealth 
arese from slave- trading and rum- selling, 
became virtual infidels. They called them- 
selves Unitarians, and thereby denied the 
divinity of our Saviour. In the grip of a 
creed thus grown stale and outworn, Daniel 

Marshall was ere long to see how hostile his 
church brethren would prove themselves to 
anything like the true preaching and prac- 
tice of the gospel of peace. It was first 
seen in their rejection and scorn of Jona- 
than Edwards' pleas for the necessity of the 
new birth. When this great philosopher 
and theologian recalled the language of our 
Lord in his night talk with Nicodemus, and 
insisted that the Son of God was in earnest 
about what he told the Jewish ruler, the 
New England Pharisees were as deaf and 
blind as those of old, and, like their proto- 
types, they made life unhappy to all those 
who thus conformed to our Lord's teach- 
ings concerning this deep and awful mystery 
in the gospel plan of salvation. 

But while church establishments and un- 
hallowed channels of commercial traffic had 



105 



j anal- 

ch the 

I 

minat- 
At60° 
lution. 
t with 
ce, by 

SR-OX- 

The 
e sup- 
to con- 
:r-oxa- 

ton, by 
e alka- 
aineral 
oxalic 
id that 
super- 

nearly 

Falls to 

Soda 

oxalates, 
d termi- 
deasant. 

only 45 
ent ; for 

discov— 
> a most 

i may be 
|, or by 
ly of the 
•atnre of 



106 

about 

and c| 



WJ 
conta; 
and rr 
or ox: 
cess o 

Ox 
powd< 
an ex{ 

Ox 
sidere 
sensib 
ed wii 

Act 
the to] 



An( 
follow 

O 

\^ 

O 



The 
their st 
alate o 



thus reacted so disastrously on the general 
spiritual life in New England, there were 
many noble exceptions to this general rule. 
There were still men and women left there 
who had never bowed the knee -to Baal. 
The race of men who had made that stern 
and inhospitable clime not only, to blossom 
as a rose, but it was also become largely the 
paladium and shrine for the largest and best 
hopes of the human race. Amid their frozen 
hills and storm-smitten coasts, men were 
nurturing a spirit of liberty and gord will, 
which was in later years to prove a blessing 
to their descendants and mankind at large. 
Whatever their theological errors, they were 
yet true to the best interests of our race in 
their temporal concerns. Neither the migbt 
of banded kings, nor the fury of their Indian 
allies, could palsy that high New England 
spirit which sent so many of her sons to 
battle for the defence of free America. 

Mr. Daniel Marshall was living, as he sup- 
posed, in the peace of God and in the enjoy- 
ment of the favor and confidence of such a 
people, when,. in his thirty-ninth year, there 
came a moral earthquake and consequent 
upheaval of the spiritual dry bones. That 
mighty and glorious servant of the Most 
High, Rev. George Whitfield, like another 
Jonah amid the Ninevites, had come to show 
the careless New England multitudes how 
far they had come short in their duty to 
God. It was all in vain that the church au- 
thorities opposed and denounced this terri- 
ble exposer of their weakness and decay. 
Though they shut their church doors upon 
him, yet the broad fair fields and forests 
could still be used as standing ground for 
the vast multitudes that flocked to hear this 
matchless christian orator tell of what they 
had forgotten and- overlooked in their care- 
less reading of the New Testament. The 
burden of his discourse was ever the neces- 
sity of faith, repentance and a changed 
heart in those who would flee the wrath of 
God. Like John the Baptist, exposing the 
emptiness of Jewish hopes, so did Whitfield 
uproot and confound the souls that had been 
so long reposing on beds of mere formality. 
The necessity of the new birth, its mysteri- 
ous dependence on the workings of the Holy 
Spirit, and the souFs sense of acceptance 
through the merits of our Lord's atonement, 
were almost like the preaching of a new gos- 
pel to the callous formalists. It was hateful 
and terrifying to their souls, just as the 
gracious discourses of the Redeemer had 
been to their ancient prototypes. As the 
Pharisees had resented the offers of our Sa- 



CHAP. XIX, 

3 composition ; 



lumps, which 
bluble in nitric 
te of ammonia 
jtralize any ex- 

jwhite tasteless 
s are said, with 

I 

bearing a con- 

teless, and not 
monia is mix- 
acid saturate 



shown by the 



isist of 




SECT. V. 

that, when slov 
so small, that it 



iAfoi 

Native veg< 

in plants or thei 

pie processes, f 

pal ones hithert 

1. 

2. 

3. 

4J 

5 



Citric acid «s 
along with a q\\ 
process, for obtfj 
ity of Scheele. I 
vessel of eartheiJ 
powdered carbo: 
ture well after e 
as long as this a 
be required. T 
account of the \ 
from six to eigh 
gallon of lime-ji 
the liquor has lei 
cant the liquid, J 
side ; the liquoi 
operations repd 
The insoluble p 
add to it a quant 
about three fou; 
ployed, and prei 
phuric acid maj 
pended by stirri 1 
acid and precipi 



viour's terms, and refused him the privi- 
leges of ^their sanctuaries, so did they of 
New England shut up their hearts and 
church doors against this new apostle of 
righteousness. 

Daniel Marshall had been in all the years 
of his professed christian life no better or 
worse than the multitude of his professing 
brethren. Like them he had been baptized 
in unconscious infancy, and as a matter of 
course, upon arriving at the years of discre- 
tion, he had been inducted into full fellow- 
ship in the church of*his family and friends. 
Not only this, he had been so orderly in his 
walk and active in his church duties, he was 
made a deacon of the congregation. With 
all these testimonials from his friends and 
brethren touching his walk as a christian, 
he was yet made conscious of his exceeding 
needs when the true significance of our 
Lord's words to Nicodemus were at last im- 
pressed upon his soul. In an agony of grief 
and repentance over his blindness and dis- 
regard of the Master's teaching, he cast all 
bis old professions behind him as so many 
filthy rags, and, through a newfound faith, 
reached "the peace of God which passeth 
all human understanding." 

In the tremendous upheaval and renewal 
of christian life thus brought about under 
the evangel of Mr. Whitfield, Mr. Marshall, 
like a great host of other men, turned from 
all secular occupations, and began that life 
of devotion to the Master which was to em- 
brace the whole remnant of his stay in this 
world. In his new-born zeal he at once be- 
gan the preaching of that gospel which had 
been so long in reaching and filling his own 
soul. Nor was he content to thus discharge 
a sense of duty in proclaiming Christ to his 
civilized countrymen. In his burning zeal, 
the souls of the perishing heathen lay heavy 
upon his heart, and we find him proceeding 
to the headwaters of Susquehannah river as 
a missionary to the Indians. The war be- 
tween the tribes and white people arrested 
him in these labors, and he went South to 
continue the work thus made impossible at 
the North. It was thus the Rev. Shubal 
Stearns found him in 1753 laboring among 
the settlers of Northern Virginia, around 
a place known as Opequon. There were 
many things in common between the two 
evangelists to bind them into unusual affec- 
tion and brotherhood. They were the avaunl 
couriers of that great New Light Baptist 



ior 

er is 



ned, 
sim- 
inci- 



non, 
The 
;nu- 
in a 

nely 
nix- 
and 
will 
), on 
eral, 
rine- 
i and 
, de- 
sub- 
hese 
less, 
me ; 
alto 
era- 
sul- 
sus- 
t the 
time 



* By acidula are to be understood salts with an excess of acid, such as 
•upcr-;pxalate of potashj 8cc, 



K / 



11^ 

ert. 
vcn 
lior 
sup 
the; 

1 
rief 
tior 
whi 
par 
boi 
cid 

] 
the 
pre 
eor 
the 
drs 
sue 
ma 
hoi 

^ 

eor 

has 
qua 
des 
thai 



app 

the 

ing 

a sa 

the 

tate 

ash, 

the 

pyre 

nath 

of ai 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina, 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir IV — Rev. Daniel Marshall. 

CHAPTER TWO. 

When the Rev. Daniel Marshall came to 
the conclusion that it was his duty to bear 
the glad tidings he had so recently accepted 
in all their fulness to the Mohawk Indians, 
he was living on his Connecticut farm. This 
plantation was so well stocked and so pro 
ductive, that he and his family were in cir- 
cumstances of great ease and comfort, so 
far as mere worldly prosperity was con- 
cerned. With a wife who returned all his 
overflowing affection, and three children, it 
would seem that a mighty conviction of 
duty must have lain at ^he bottom of the 
impulse that broke up all this beautiful 
home life of ease and comfort, to undertake 
the hard and perilous mission among the 
savages. Nothing could more forcibly de- 
monstrate the zeal and unselfishness of the 
man Like*the Apostle Paul, he gave upal 1 
things-in his devotion to what he felt called 
to do in the Lord's service. He had not be- 
come a Baptist in all his sentiments until he 
reached the little Baptist church in Ope- 
quon near Winchester in Virginia. This oc- 
curred in his forty-eigh'h year, so we see 
that he was almost an old man before he 
becime fully identified with us as a.denom 
i nation. 

But though so late in reaching such con- 
clusions, Mr. Marshall's subsequent course 
in life was to largely atone for all delay in 
the performance of so momentous a duty. 
It was so provided that in one of his mis- 
sions in the Old Dominion, that he was so 
happy as to include Col. Samuel Harris 
among the number of his converts. This 
gentleman by his talents and social emi- 
nence had exerted great influence in Vir- 
ginia, and a mighty stir was made in Epis- 
copal circles by the news of his conversion 
and joining the Baptist church. Under the 
Royal Governor he had been appointed com- 
mander of one of the forts which were kept 
garrisoned at that day as a defence against 
the great northwestern tribes of Indians. 
Col. Harris at once resigned this and all 
other secular employments, and became a 
renowned and effective agent in the spread 
of Baptist principles. Perhaps not even the 
Rev. John Leland did more to make the 



chap, xns, 

lime, and pre- 
loyedfor aavura- 
:h constitutes the 
carried still far- 
cid. 

•ape of which va- 
of their prepara- 
>f sulphuric acid, 
ution five or six 
more soluble in 
ther vegetable a- 

ith nitric acid, in- 
ut being able to 
by using a very 
the tartaric into 
ler obtained four 
rumb, also, was 
the tartaric acid 
water and alco- 

taric acid is de- 
cid liquor, which 
1; and a large 
he results of its 
have inferreei 



d Vauquelin, it 
species. From 
adorous : in be- 
J s with potash, 
inguished from 
e from the ace- 
ning, with pot- 
-Influenced by 
b submitted the 
rigid exami- 
:y both consist 
. empyreumatie 



* yECT. XIII. 

stance to be di 
and afterwards 
ing principle th 
times consider^ 
printing, the ba 
to the cloth by- 
then dried, and 
gredient, whic 
basis has been a 
moved by simpl 
V. The varii 
reducible to fou 
1. Indigo is j 
does without tlj 
' chiefly, of sever? 
of America and 
L )eing cut a little 
y vith water in lat 
a ng this process, 
& t;reen, but beco: 
Pperations, by w 
Complicated, an 
a iteness. A gq 
1 n's Chemical I 
ft ' Indigo has bee 
»" om that princip 
ing boiled on 
eight of the in< 
uouched ; and 
.tract, has a red : 
d in fixed and 1 
e sulphuric acidj 
lirectly, in a diluj 
i Saxon blue. H 
*o becomes solub, 
to green. It rec 
to the air, by agai 
I fected by allowing 
J ble matter ; or by 
I phatc of iron. Si 
f gen, are green wh 
our by exposure tj 

VOL. II. 



State so great a center of Baptist influence. 
Mr. Marshall, with such a coadjutor, became 
mighty in the pulling down of strongholds. 
Overall th^; broad region south of James 
river, like Paul and Silas, these two evan- 
gelists pressed on in their work until scarce 
a man could be found who had not been 
warned and invited to accept of the terms 
of a salvation so sweeping and broadcast in 
its terms and limits. 

It was all in vain that the authorities and 
adherents of the Established Church in Vir- 
ginia sought to put a stop to such an evan- 
gel by invoking the aid of the legal author- 
ities. They filled the loathsome jails with 
Baptist preachers on the false pretence that 
these ministers of peace and righteousness 
were disturbers of the public peace. Men 
who were so meek and gentle that they re- 
fused to resent the most wanton and inex- 
cusable invasions on their personal rights, 
were held up to public scorn as malefactors 
for no other reaso-Hthan their efforts to seek 
and to save perishing souls. It is one of the 
world's ablest epics to tell of what moral 
heroism these Baptist evangelists displayed 
in their battle with the intrenched hosts of 
the intolerant Churchmen. Even as late as 
that time, when James Madison*had become 
a leader in public affairs in one of his letters 
we are told of how five blameless and elo- 
quent men of God lay confined for tedious 
weeks in his vicinity simply because they 
had felt it their duty to preach the gospel of 
Christ as they believed it in their hearts and 
souls. It was all in vain that the statute of 
1st William and Mary had proclaimed tolera- 
tion to eV^ery part of the British Empire. 
These promoters of both the law and the 
gospel, on the false plea that the Baptist 
preachers were disturbers of the public 
peace, could find magistrates of their own 

: ' ' L — "- ■*--•-.-■"■ i_i-.-_-.i__i i -. 

faith who were wicked enough to thus vio- 
late laws both human and divine. 

But in these, as in almost all other, in- 
stances of such oppression, the blood of the 
martyrs became the seed of the church. In 
spite of all the injustice and suffering un- 
dergone, the evangelists bore bravely on 
the Baptist banners until the persecuting 
Churchmen had but a pitiful remnant of the 
people left to do their bidding. The work 
thus bravely executed was also to be further 
blessed. It not only held the ground thus 
gained under suffering and tears ; the great 
mind of Thomas Jefferson and that of his 
compeer Midison were to be not only en- 
listed for the defence of the Baptist people, 
but in due season to evolve from a study of 
their practice and principles the grandest 



129 

atter 
our- 
>me- 
Iico- 
)lied 
th is 
r in- 
i the 
; re- 
are 
Ik. 

:h it 
tion, 
itive 
tfter 
ped 
lur- 
Srst 
The 
her 
mi- 
Ai- 

ers 
by 
the 
ins 

I. off; 
|er, 
to 
ed 
led 
di- 
ue 
re 
eft 
:a- 
il. 

y- 
>I- 

co 



130 

again 

maner 

THc 

ment i 

our, a: 

this, is 

dissol 

compd 

the so! 

tion td 

tercd, 

which 

erysta 

tonate 

powdl 

cid, ti 

streai 

flame 

M* 

stroys 

has b 

lutior 

plicaj 

Al 

that ! 

appe; 

cd, ai 

Tl 

tie in 

tainei 

tion c 

2. 
are ci 
from 
brazi! 
the h 
adjec 
son, i 
nece: 
whic 
hibhi 
a fug 



features of our civil polity as a republic. 
Most emphatically in this way had the stone 
which was rejected by the builders, become 
the head of the corner." 

When Mr. Marshall was dBdained to the 
full gospel ministry by his brothers-in-law, 
the Rev. Messrs. Stearns and Ledbetter, he 
assumed the pastora^pf the church on Ab- 
bott's Creek. While thus serving this flock 
as a special duty, he was also abundant and 
unceasing in his excursions to distant points 
to thus bear abroad the glad tiding of peace 
and love. This work had become as neces- 
sary to his peace of mind as the air he 
breathed- He could find no peace with the 
knowledge that men and women within 
reach were yet unblest with the knowledge 
of the Lord. He met no such stern antag- 
onisms in North Carolina as were vouch- 
safed in Virginia and were to be encoun- 
tered still later in his life in Georgia. Gov. 
Tryon and his subordinates in the Provin- 
cial Government were very harsh and un- 
feeling too often in their treatment of our 
people, but in religious matters he concerned 
himself no further than to do all he could 
toward saddling Episcopal rectors on com- 
munities that rarely washed for such gifts. 
In some.- of his letters he expressed great 
scorn for all people who were so besotted as 
to hold Baptist' sentiments, but he had seen 
too nrich of the danger of his interfering 
with popular liberty in the stamp act trou- 
ble to venture on anything like religious 
persecution. It may be that the imprison- 
ment of the Newbern Baptists had the offi- 
cious countenance of the Governor, but if 
so, we now lack evidence of the fact. As a 
rule, religious liberty was ever the undis- 
puted right t)f all North Carolina people 
without any regard to the nature of "their 
creeds. 

Thus abundaot in labors and highly bless- 
ed in all that he undertook in the Lord's 
service, Mr. Marshall spent. the term of his 
residence in the Old North State. He saw 
the feeble beginnings of his and Mr. Stearns' 
libors expand into the great historic bodj 
known as the Sandy Creek Baptist Ass >cia- 
tion, and he heard many moving accounts 
of how under Burkitt and the New Light 
doctrines were prospering in the Albemarle 
region. 

Mr. Marshall had but one son by his first 
wife, but being so unfortunate as to loseher, 
he married again in 1748 Miss Martha, a sis- 
ter of the Rev. Shubal Stearns. This re 
markable woman proved a rare blessing to 
her husband and all others who came within 
the magic spell of her personal influence. 



CHAP. XIX- 

Fording a per- 
il oxigenize- . 
■ its blue col- 
alling short of 
ted nitric acid 
indigo is de- 
rs, floating in 
ifter evapora- 
hot water, fil- 
rystals appear, 
itash. These 
. hammer, de- 
two of finely 
ting nitrous a- 
as is evolved, a 
lole bursts into 

uriatic acid de- 
sulphuric acid 
i of watery so- 
ulate their ap- 

sly reduced t» 
reen colour re- 

fen be absorb- \ 
ffords but lit- 
j„.s, usually ob- 
Sng with a por- 

pg red colours, 
o derive colour 
ircb.il, madder, 
uble in water ; 

They are all 
naturally crim- 
arlet hue, it is 

The basis, by 
his may be ex- 
will leave only 
ecoction> some 



She was as famous as her husband for her 
zeal and devotion. With no disposition to 
I ] usurp the religious functions peculiar to 
super-tartra male members (^orthodox christian church- 
es, she could still on proper occasion melt 
the hearts of all who heard her in prayer 
and exhortation. Her oldest son, the Rev. 
The ji Abraham Marshall, won a great pi tee in the 
meric, fustic l° ve anc * admiration of his countrymen for 
' his piety and eloquence. With him and nu- 
merous other deseendents around her, Mrs. 



SECT. XIII. 

super-tartr; 
muriate of 
scarlet coloi 

3 

ei 
accordingly 



tion of alum Mar-hall survived to extreme old age. 



minous base 
ide of tin, a 
and with ox 
it gives a gr 
4. A com 



131 

of nitro= 
rmanent 

ch, tur- 
colours, 
nterven- 
:he alu- 
with ox- 
orange ; 
F indigo. 



In those pre-revolutionary days in our 
history as a people, there was no little talk 
and belief in the near approach of the mil- 
lenium, At one period of his life Mr. Mar- 
shall was a firm adherent of this persuasion, 
which had oyejnated in America just pre- 
vious to the advent of iTohn Wesley and I and tan, 
is the princi George Whitfield. ^Multitudes were in daily ne jj as j s 

„ _„, I expectation of the second coming of our 

, Lord, and they^'produced a great awakening 
ures, on a b] in the hearts of the people. The most care- 
less and unbelieving, seeing such men as 
Daniel Marshall abandoning. their comforta- 
ble homes and forsaking everything in the 
shape of property in their zeal for the cause, 
profoundly dreaded the possibility -joi; such 
n event as that which was so. confidently 



the cloth a r. 
flour. The 
black die, hi 
VI. Thej 
of fixation o! 
with a base 
in water, a s 
matter is p 
what is tern 
is given by 
madder into 
that quantit) 
in a mortar, 
The water 1 
and muddy. 



, or fig- 
hting on 
j gum or 
leive the 

capable 



predicted. With the popular mind thus ibination 



possessed with the possibility of such an j nat ] t ] er 
event as the second coming of our Lord, 
it is not wonderful that multitudes fs olounng 
so impressed should have sought safety, 
both for soul and body, by making a full 
surrender of all their rebellious and sceptical 
promptings, and in seeking a part in the 
great atonement accomplished for all true 
believers on Calvary. When the times of 
such religious excitement over the expected 
coming of our Lord have passed by with 
nothing to justify such an expectation, it is 
too common for worldly people and too 
many professed christians to sneer at the 
more coloui credulity of such dupes, as they are called ; 
fifth or sixtl but let all such remember that the Master 
himself declared that this momentous inci- 
dent of the coming ages was to be as a thief 
in the night in the matter of its approach. 
um, dissolve! Then let no man sneer at his brother for a 
. , , : mistake concerting tins tremendous and un- 

A an ounc certain event which so surely awaits its ful- 
potash ; a vij filment somewhere in the coming years. If 
ter will be rJ not even tne an g e ls can foretell that day 
,, . > and hour, it may be well pardoned in any 

peatedly Wltu "••■"no- irarpr. <-.!„,, . r ....... ... 

, . human intelligence that it should be mis 

obtained, con taken in surmises on this subject. 

Mr. Daniel Marshall was not a Baptist 
when he indulged in his anticipations of our 
Lord's speedy coming again on earth. La- 
borious and useful years of service, both 
among his own countrymen and the heathen 



then or wi 
boils. — Let 



Other lake 
-stimtion of di 



forming 
process 
h crop- 
ir times 
•iturate, 
he bag. 
. opake 
a till no 
fter the 
an ear- 
; liquor 
e of aL 
itirring. 
mate of 
ng mat- 
/ash re- 
will be 

e sub- 
cocl> 



i3S 

ineal, t 
means c 



Tan 

and in t 
the lare 
and in 
affords 

I 1 
accordi; 
feet puij 

1. In 
till the ; 
ceases t 
distilled 
water fc 
cipitatei 
nin, whi 
There I 
that, by 
titled tc 
though 
rations. 

2. In 
of carbc 
ing was 
thus pr^ 
but cent 

3. Int 
precipiti 
the exct 
When a 
and rau| 

It has 1 
catechu 
gists' sh' 
being a 
subitum 
tract of 
purer foi 



Mohawks, intervened between such an ex> 
pectation and his acceptance of the truth as 
Baptists hold it. If he ever was vain and 
fantastic in this respect, it was before he 
became a member of the Virginia Baptist 
church. Let us remerdber, too, that if our 
Saviour had thus failed to realize the antici- 
pations of his faithful servant, this disap 
point ment worked no abatement in his zeal 
and devotion to the great work of. deliver- 
ance from sin and of fealty to the Prince of 
Peace. Like a tireless and valiant soldier 
of the Cross, the Rev. Daniel Marshall be- 
came, if anything, more eager than ever to 
spend and be spent in the sacred work of 
human salvation. 

It was thus that ere long Daniel Marshall 
was again found turning away from home 
and all its .creatuee comfoi ts to undergo 
harlships and sufferings in another mission- 
ary journey and settlement in the Province 
of Georgia." There selecting a home near 
what is now the city of Augusta, he resumed 
the work he had so successfully prosecuted 
in so many previous fields of labor. The 
same fervor of soul and pathetic eloquence 
were his as he implored his** new neighbors 
to seek the salvation which was so free to 
all who will only open their sinful hearts for 
its entrance. The old man more eloquent 
and dauntless than ever.f)aused never a mo 
ment in his work by reason of human obsta- 
cles. It was in vain that the civil and re- 
ligious authorities of St. Paul's Parish pro- 
cured his arrest and temporary imprison 
ment. Repeiting Peter and John's reply to 
the Sanhedrim's command and enjoining 
their cessation of proclaiming the resurrec 
tion and ascension of our Lmd, be told his 
tormentors that their orders for his silence 
in their bailiwick were impossible of being 
complied w th on his part. That as the her- 
ald of our Lord's coming kingdom in their 
midit, his duties were of such a nature as 
to transcend and overshadow in importance 
ail the Jaws and injunctions framtd by hu 
man authorities. Not even when in the 
midst of the Revolution he fell captive to 
his British enemies, did his fortitude for 
sake him. Having asked and obtained per- 
mission of the officer in charge to speak and 
pray for these enemies of himself and his 
cherished American cause, he ;j"> impresseed 
them that they at once gav? , ".- '■' 
Thus in faithful service to God and his fel 
lowmen the ^ood old man labored on in his 
mission until on the 2nd day of November, 
1784, he rested from his long and useful ca 
reer among men and went to receive there- 
ward awaiting the redeemed. 



CHAP. XIX. 



jcipitated by 



1 willow, &c. 
3od, contains 
'A, the next ; 

ie epidermis 

i' 

•'ocesses; but, 
state of per- 

jriate of tin, 
abundantly, 
quantity of 
.ity of warm 
>f tin is pre- 
and the tan- 
evaporation. 
, to believe 
scarcely en- 
ark applies, 
(lowing ope- 

ed solution 

ite, after be- 

tan. When 

jrfectly pure, 

kali. 

tic acid. A 
water, and 
f of potash, 
falls down, 
' of water, 
japonica, or 
h the drug- 
remainder 
mrities. A 
ame of Ex- 
of tan in a 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Richer* in 
■Worth Carolina. 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir V-KevTTemuel Borkitt. 

CHAPTER ONE. 



39 
ol- 



;old 



eat- 



5ECT. XVIII. 

cools. When tr 
ours. 

3. It is solubl 
alcohol. Wate 

4. Hot ether i 
ed in a spoon, it 

5. It is solub The greatest of all the doon w i , , » *»*■ 

^aciditdissi J* ;» g^^FSS idi * 

formed, a bitte, tune."' Doubtlei L °Z?J leads on '° for- . 

6. I, mayo ^atly coSSSw ^"SfflSf 1 ^!"™ U- 

r -J ^dividual and nMHnn,ii gugas P ect8 of 
Uon of resin ar^ on ^ J b ^ n ^ advancement; but bally 

lo render it soi whom it would hi ',7 $ ei \ ha ™ been 'men 

our reflectfons with anvnn -!° aSSOciate in 

would have resulted f^J™? 1 *' whic ^ :h a P" 

sequence. The Sless heart? °^ ^ K *« 

nous minds of th W pi\! a , rs and lm Pe- [. 
were as much SEJrS hty fan « 8 of men f heat ' 
p.eceJenL and S C01 ? 01 of ]aw < ances > 

their fame exceed SKS^' a ? W 
to successful adventu^r«iu 10 aiIo "ed [ H 

as the rival, Snot tt Zlf- been imm «-tal * be re- 
moved from an orator, and of Tacitus andn?' CiCer ? as d ' An 
orange-colo, feno^htdet ^ ^nls^f * hon- 
ey, having ttaatof motrn StS "» ^ ^ ar °" 
maucsmel/ in the civil developmenT o mT? f one "boiling 

uor,asitc their cases the mil sn ° do « bt *at in even les cov- 
ered with Golden opportunS^fl^ 5"£f had met , d by fil . 
tration; a ^ff^^& S£# ^ess. 
the most of S?L 'l Gnce each m ade x by sat- 
tunehad.madep1ssl & b le° Wn ^ and «* boilmg it 

cians';Xa Se c e C;/ itC]e like the1 ^- 
memoirof an h^LblT^V to P reface &* I 
analogy between M-1? P reac ber with 
historic figu r es as t^fl &Dd - SUch § ra » d 

dramatist, " One tonnh ^ . the mi gbty L- 
whole world akin » %?J natnre m akes°thi |" g ' 
a^m. These conquerors and 



This nam< 
pears to be p^ 
tion to nitric 

I. To a qt 
a tubulated i 
specific graV 
as. long as an 
a yellow mat 
While the c 
ed into a gla 
with a glass! 
thick. As i 



This mass 
urating it j 
with char 
II. Su 

1. It is 

2. It hj 
in boiling 



140 

3. 

indig 

4. 
ter hi 

S. 

6. i. 
conce 

7. 
salts < 

Th 
beric 
Chevi 
Niche 



Th. 
propri 
propei 
etable 
in the 
even t 
tic acii 
quanti; 
propor 
neitliei 
they di 
heen fc 

The 
ly it w 
natura 
ed it ir! 
solidati 

The 
Tar, M 
Turf, ; 
the Hoj 

Nap 
thin, o 
Which i 



scourges of the human race were far inferior i 
as to any good they accomplished to many a chap. xix. 
man who asked for no higher honors than 
those won in proclaiming a crucified 8a- )Iue solution of 
viour. History holds record of no moreglo- I 
rious and picturesque figure than that of ' 
him who, arising from his blindness and ! n " boiling wa- 
Pharisaical enmity, went forth to lift up and 
instrucjj the people of so many different na- 
tionalities. While subsequent records con- H 
tain no such an evangelist as Saul of Tarsus [ s obtained in 
became, though in his genius, culture, fear- ^ts. 
lessness and devotion, he will be ever unap- F 
proachable, yet it has pleased God to raise ms a class ot 
up other men of largely similar aspects. To 
the life and services of such a preacher of ties of the su- 
righteousness, this memoir, with all due can- 
dor, invites the kindly attention of the ™estigated by 
reader. 23d volume of 

In all the long catalogue of Baptist preach- 
ers who, in the last two centuries, have 
lived aijd labored for the Lord in North Car- 
olina, no greater name appears than that of 
Lemuel Burkitt. He is yet indeed, in large- I 
ness and variety of his gifts, in the abun- 
dance and beneficence of his works, and the 
power of his influence, unequaled in all our s with more 
histor}' as a civilized people. Though born 
amid all the comparative poverty and disad- » m chemical 
vantages marking the condition of the great ts of the vegf 
body of our people in that period, he rose , a j ^ ey Durn 
superior to the tramels of birth and place, 
and made himself as great in knowledge as j at surpasses 
he was in true godliness. That a man-child | a weak ace- 
so ushered into the world, amid humble and considerable 
unlettered associates, should, by his almost 
unaided efforts, so overcome every obstacle la Hy a small 
to education and consideration among his i. They are 
countrymen, goes far toward vindicating 
the opening generalization of this memoir. respect 

Lemuel Burkitt neither waited for time or iat they have 
tide in human affairs to lead him on in that ables. 
grand pathway of consecration in the ser- ',-, p 
vice of God and his fellowmen, which, in f u# roimer - 
due season, won him such glorious guerdons, p, by a sort of 
Like the great Duke of Wellington, "The jj has render- 
pathway of duty was his road to glory." He 
shed no human gore even in the rightful de- 
fence of his native land. He followed no 
glittering baubles of pride and ambition. 
His manhood was spent first in laborious . 
self preparation, and then in the most ar- ^nous Wood, 
dent and ceaseless labors for the lifting up J Amber and 
of the minds and spirits of his people. 

With so noble an ideal ever leading him 
on, Lemuel Burkitt became in due season to 
the Baptist churches in eastern Virginia 
and North Carolina almost as potent a guide 
as was Martin Luther amid the Germans of 
- Ljnnaean Transactions, 1797. 



rom the con- 



urn-, Mineral 



sts as a light, 
inflammable, 
n springs in 



sect. xix. j his time. Not only revered as the foremost 
preacher amid his clerical peers, he was 
also a reformer to chasten and elevate both 
creed and practice in the churches, he found 
so disorganized aud purposeless. He it was, 
above all others, that induced these congre- 
gations to give over their jealousies and 
fears in the preparation for a closer union in 
the Lord by means of a reformation of the 
By long exjj churches. To his vast and tireless exertions 
msses to th< as missionary i n distant regions, he added 
. . another grace in his written records of his 
times as to their ieligious aspects. Thus 
be became three over entitled to undying 
recollection and praise. 

Mr. Burkitt was born in Chowan county 
in the year of our Lord 1750. His parents 
were not blessed with wealth or much knowl- 
edge of books. They were like the great 
body of their countrymen, plain, hard-work- 
ing people, who, in the utter want of public 
schools, were thus unable to afford any large 
advantages to their eager and intelligent 
boy. It" is true, that the towns of Edenton, 
Newborn and Wilmington in the east, and 
the ^Hcansylvania academies of the western 
settlements, were in existence, but to the 
poverty of the Burkitt family they were as 
inaccessible as were Oxford and Cambridge 
Universities in England. No doubt, at rare 
intervals, little Lemuel Burkitt went along 
with his parents and saw in Edenton the 
pomp of the Colonial courts, as, amid an 
army of sheriffs - with drawn swords, the 
judges, in their bag wigs and gowns, opened 
in the King's name their solemn proceed- 
ings. He saw a still more imposing pageant 
each winter, if in Edenton when the Gen- 
eral Assembly met. The wharves, too, of 
Miner a that ancient capital were thronged at that 
of a redish ^ a ^ with vessels from beyond the seas and 
those engaged in the New England and 
resembles \ West India trade. Edenton was the fore- 
The solic most port of entry and thus held a para- 
on -- ■**',} mount importance among the sister towns 
a ' of the Province. 

To a boy of Lemuel Burkitt's natural 
M althjj acuteness such opportunities of seeing the 
higher aspects of human life were by no 
q means lost. No doubt St. Paul's Episcopal 
church, with surpliced rector and its organ 
and choir, came in also for its due portion 
of impressions on the sensitive and imagina- 
tive soul of the lad. The grand harmonies 
jof the chants, the pomp and beauty of the 
liturgy, weie alike a revelation and inspira- 
tion to him, as th^y have been to countless 
1.07 to 1.6i others, who have listened spell bound to 
flame. By distillation fle r se, it yields a light brown 



Italy, and on 
but not disa; 
according tc 
Naphtha 
smell and n 



ric or nitric 
not miscibl 

Naphtha 
in which ox; 
circumstanc, 
discovered 
action on it 
metals soon 
naphtha int< 

Petroli 
greasy fee! 
redish brow 

When di 
tained ; the 
oil ; and a 

Petroleu 
convert it i 
the same < 
with fat an 
and, when i 



and Peat. 

M 
little 
but does n 
2.06. It i! 
leaving on 

Asphal 
and does i 



141 

Jtrating 
.708, or 
enheit. 
etrating 
teration. 
eu, and 
sulphu- 
y. It is 

icd with, 
L This 
w metals 

have no 
ur, these 

with the 

id has a 
and of a 

i first ob- 
k brown 
3tort. 
ric acids 
produces 
ambining 
sulphur ; 

eum, and 

iperties it 

i 

^tic Bitu- 

s of Coal 

ilour, and 

te nails, 
1.45 to 
jjht flame, 

shining, 
ies from 
s a yellow 
oil resem 



148 

bling r 
a quani 
-Klapro 
.of his ' 

The 
require/ 
colour, 

Elas 
duetion 
It is h 
heat it i 
ttim. 

Ret 
It lias i 
Hire. 
It melt 
It is p 
bundle 

Pit-. 

of miix 

'brown <j 

Br 01, 
tinctly, 
origina 
nearly 1 
and wit 
mode o 
bears 
charrec 

Blac 
purpos 
which 
men an 
jngredi 
melt or 
tirely a 
a quant 
in soku 
oration 
produc 
■may be 
tort, a 1 



these noble prayers and confessions of the 
soul uttered by the great prelates of the 
past. 

But with all these impressive accessories 
to her system of worship, tne English church 
failed to satisfy the longings of Lemuel 
Burkitt's soul. He had made himself scholar 
enough to read King James' English version 
of the Holy Scriptures, and he had heard 
more than one Baptist evangelist giving his 
gloss as to the disputed points in the New 
Testament. The great problems which are 
ever suggesting themselves to the heart 
of man were not wanting in the early expe- 
rience of this acute sfrtd profound human in- 
telligence. He could understand how the 
wisest of men had come to the deep ques- 
tion of ' ' wherein shall a young man cleanse 
his way ?" In the mystery and suggestions 
of -the-sight reason, these fearful self- ques- 
tionings could not be evaded, however suc- 
cesfful he might be in the companionship 
and pangs of the day's duties. "What shall 
it profit a man to gain the whole world and 
lose his own soul ?" cried the Son of God, 
and the words came to Lemuel Burkitt with 
all the sanctions they had known with the 
multitudes on the plains of Galilee. In such 
communion with his own"" spirit, Lemuel 
Burkitt fled for refuge to that divine love 
and compassion, in whose unfailing help so 
many myriads of other agonized souls have 
found peace and rest. In his nineteenth 
year he thus made an open profession of re- 
ligion and became a member of the Baptist 
church, then known as Camden, but was 
really the old mother-stock, Shiloh. He was 
baptized by Rev. Henry Abbott. There is 
now no account of any other Baptist church 
in all the region of old Albemarle east of 
Chowan river and north of the sound. There 
was Meherrin in Hertford, Sandy Run in 
Bertie, and Kehukee in Halifax. It was 
thus only by some considerable travel that 
Mr. Burkitt could reach any congregation of 
his own faith and order. 

He was not alone in his glory as a leader 
of men in the ancient bailiwick of Chowan. 
There were a score or more of gentlemen 
known and honored all over the Province 
who then had their residence in its limits. 
That learned jurist, Mr. Barker, who was 
the law tutor of Gov. Samuel Johnston, was 
yet the greatest name in the courts. Mr. 
Samuel Johnston and Mr. James Iredell, his 
brother-in-law, were to reach even higher 
honors and renown that was ever the for- 
tune of their instructor. Besides these legal 
and civil luminaries Edenton numbered in 



CHAT. XIX. 

immonia, and 
ji analyzed by 
cond volume 



a, of which it 
a deep black 

> a rare pro- 
i) Derbyshire. 
, By a gentle 
la, orasphal- 

same county. 

a, glassy frac- 

jravity 1.135. 

bright flame. 

c acid. One 

earthy matter.. 

tinct varieties 

be families of 

carbon. 

exhibits, dis- 

|decay it has 

d elastic, and 

I clear flame, 

iur. In the 

i 

pearance, it 

is been half 



pplied to the 

etables from 

und of bitu- 

>f these two 

best kinds 

i almost en- 

n, they yield 

of ammonia 

icli, by evap- 

a'n immense 

gas, which 

In the re- 

ontains gen» 






SECT. H« 

quires a cole 
of this vol.) 
• 7. Alcoho 
extract; su 
acids ; vol: 
with sulphu 
carbonates 
lie bases, al 
others not a 
en up, is sti 
defect of wl 
hoi employe 
Two hum 

Borate 
Fluate 

Muria 



Nitrai 



Oxah 

Tartr 



Supc 

m 

Mr. ti 
power of 
of the ne 

' crystal 
iol, the 1 



K§ inhabitants, the Pollocks, Bsnburys, 
Swains, Brownriggs, Johnsons, Creecys, 
Jones's, and other families noted for wealth 
and culture. Reared in such a community, 
it was no wonder that Mr. Burkitt should 
have been incited to eaily and strenuous 
efforts at self-improvement in mind as well 
as the more solemn and i iiportant matter of 
escape from wrath to come in the next 
world. Like many more of his North Caro- 
lina compeers, this work of education and 
mental discipline was to.be almost wholly 
dependeut upon hisjpwn unaided exertions. 
Reference has already been made to the 
great dearth of schools ia the- Province. 
There was a parallel want of books also. In- 
deed the lists of the literary treasures in- 
cluded in the libraries of the richest and 
most intelhgent men of that day seems pitia- 
ble to the minds of men who, iu this gen- 
eration, rejoice in su ;h overflowing abun- 
dance. A few great men might add Shake 
speare's and Addison's works to their Eng- 
lish Bible, but all other British and French 
classics were conspicuous by their absence. 
It is probable that Elder Burkitt's whole lio- 
erary repertory was included in the Bible, 
Pilgrim's Progress, Watts' "Hymns and Gill's 
Theology. Not even the wisdom of Dr. 
Johnson or the wit of Pry or and Steele had 
as yet triumphed over the double obstacles 
of an intervening ocean and the stolid igno- 
rance of the people. The sole reliance of 
the great mass of the North Carolinians of 
that day, in the matter of educating their 
children in the first rudiments of literary 
culture, was in the homeless w r anderers, who 
passed from settlement to settlement and 
for brief seasons would halt long enough to 
teach fe^afbrfef season the children of their 
temporary vicinage. They thus got food 
and lodging by quartering on first one family 
and then another, and in addition won a 
stipend, meagre m, best for his labors in the 
log school house. These restless peripatet- 
ics were thus too general in their favors to 
work much benefit at any single scene in 
their careers. To such instructors the great 
preacher of the future was indebted for aft 
the small aid he received in fitting himself 
for the future that as yet seemed so hopeless 
to his most ardent imaginings. 

We may imagine, but would be utterly 
unable to describe, the added anguish of 
soul that came to young Lemuel Burkitt 
when, in God's providence, he had become 



149 

k he end 

jgetable 
benzoic 
ps- also, 
ith their 
d metal- 
Ijly, and 
are tak- 
rincipal 
he alco- 
ve of 

uns r 
1 

i 

1 
17 
88 
13 
. 5 
19 
14 
18 
14 

5 
23 

7 

7 

7 

1 

7 

7 

owing the 
re several 
heir water 
with alco- 
L-enheiti 



convinced of his duty to devote his life to a 
proclamation of the gospel. With all his 
peerless native endowments both as to mind 
and energy of nurnose. h fi f™^ „+ *"_ 




150 



Sulphat His ignorance of the orien&Tisms and filrSes 

m of Hebrew speech, the confusing historical 

Nitrate and geographical allusions, and the thousand 

otner things which dishearten and dismay 

Muriat ever y ^kolar unfitted by want of previous 

. 1 J^f^f t« comprehend- the task before 

f "f ■ But the race is not always to the 

switt. Determination, love and praver have 

— - unlocked all that is needed to bfSwn in 

• God s word to countless others far less com 

— — — , petent to struggle with such difficulties as 

Acetat] thus beset Mr . Burkitt in his first efforts in 

such a field. His want of early preparation 

made his way to knowledge far more d.ffi- 



CKAP. XX\ 



>hol at 




.834 





0.38 
0.38 
0.5 
1.5 
36.25 
0.18 
0.32 
4.75 



.817 # 

. 








50 
0.09 
0.06 
4.88 



nnif „«,. "*. .~7~ ',' — &"- iCli "jure mm- , are precipi- 

cult and protracted, but his genius sun • a :u i 

ported both by religious zeal and SahViZ ie&Y Wlth the 

omuon, m the end enabled him to become Irately, while 



b«h p 1; „ phet and priiu'rhisTtoWrgaoI 

devoted countrymen. s 



;at and a few 



8. Alcohol, when transmitted tnrougn a raa-iiot copper tube is 
decomposed. The tube is found lined with a very fine light soot 
resembling lamp-black, and an enormous quantity of carburetted 
hydrogen gas is evolved, not less, as appears from an experiment 
of Van Marum, than ten cubic feet by the decomposition of three 
ounces of alcohol. From the analysis of this gas, Mr. Cruick- 
shank has inferred that in alcohol the carbon is to the hydrogen in 
the proportion of 4 to 1.* 

9. In order to determine accurately the composition of alcohol, 
Lavoisier burned a quantity with very minute attention to the pro- 
ducts. The weight of alcohol consumed amounted to 93.5 grains, 
and 110.32 grains of oxygen were expended in the combustion. 
The water produced amounted to 106.2 grains, and the carbonic 
acid to 93.8. From the known quantity of carbon in carbonic a- 
cid, and of hydrogen in water, Lavoisier inferred that the alcohol, 
on which he operated, consisted of 

Carbon 28.53 

Hydrogen ----- 7.87 

Water (existing in the alcohol) - 63.6 



100 



Comparing, then, the composition of alcohol with that of sugar 
(a compound, as has already been stated, of 8 parts hydrogen, 64 

* Nicholson's Journal, 4to. v. 7. 



SECT. II. 

oxygen, and S 
led to the cor 
the carbon, b 
bonic acid, a 
the sugar, c 
combine carl 
rated. 

An analysi 
ble skill by S 
ed in his exp 
pour of alcol; 
by weight of 



~^=== r=r I 151 

Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 

North Carolina, t wa » 
jart of 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. f car- 

Memoir V-BevTTemuel Burkitt 

pie to 



CHAPTER TWO. 



gene- 




In the sec 
transmitting 
analyzed tb 
discovered i 
escaped del 
feions of ak( 



These r| 
true elenv 
particularj 
cent, of w 
the oxyge 
in the sta 
and nitros 

By dist 
an impor 
lighter tit 
nviscible 



Ourlast chapter left the subject of this 
memoir an the midst of his first triads and sidera ' 

hlmse 1 ! 1 fnr n t C h 0Untered 1 iu his WOrkof fi tting mploy- 
ilimself for the gospel ministry. He was *u 
neither so ignorant as to be blind to™ the Va ~ 
many needs, nor yet so conceited as to dream JO parte 

w?uld tlln»? lty - 0i Speech and Nation 
Si J v f0r ms want of knowledge. Un- 
lettered as he was, his natural acuteness and 
logical turn of mind enabled him to see how 
; utterly some of the good old preachers of 
that day failed m their efforts at expounding 
things beyond theft apprehension. P He saw 
that m most of them that beyond their >harT 
sodiesover the love and grace of God a^d i, i > 
the final perseverance of the saints there = ° ho1 by 
was^t^e left as topics of discourse Of terwards 

inen Hearers of the paramount doctrine • u u j 
touching immersion, but this could bV only llch ha * 

ne? e F e w V nf 7 ^ rief f Ud Vertiactory ma/ propor- 

ner * ew of them knew anything of the 

Kt ™ b ?° nd th , e st * te ^ts of Jhe New 

S ^ru n th e n a f n ? ell , StS - T J e "Stable and 
nxea truth of history, showing how the 

1 olrvertl ^ andcoUQcils had changed and 
perverted the ordinance was beyond their 
studies on the subject. While it was v W v i 
rue that the Bibleitatement we e o? tl e m 7 
selves enough to settle the matter for Si ' 
reasonable minds, there were still many 

he asked his B^^^U^ ™ *? 

S Ss wih n ei 7 of the Romi ^ i^Y, €Xist ' not 

cWiai* n ? ed P erve ™s of the early U carbon, 

S ordinances, were so little known 

darken ,nnf S i° Pa \ c J 9r ^ m ^ could thus , 

oomnrtte^ k f*? v distress his ""lettered undergoes 

and Sst a ^ ^"VS?* h ° W Cou]d so able nsiderably 

th7 SSu thmk that such fencing with L K1 A 

the truth was a part of his great duty in M* 1 * * nd 

justifying the ways of God with men" * id h 

' Ear ^^^ 1 ^^.. bet ^.than Lemuel 



as rcr 



»wj aa{. itn «• 



Burkitt, or any other Baptist of Albemarle, 
*53 i n that early day, that they were practicing 
the precise rite used by Jdhn the Baptist 
ceived and the apostles, yet he accepted as author- 
<'istine< itative and rightful a change in Bible prac- 
" p . ticeon no better grounds than the decrees 

of Whic f a sect his church had been for centuries 
denouncing as the*brood of the scarlet wo- 
man, and had put to death as traitois and 
heretics thousands who had dared avow 
faith in Rome on English soil. 

But let us ever be thankful to God that 
while hjer nian-leav,ening is invaluable in its 
sphere, and always a mighty helper to the 
man who undertakes to expound the myste- 
ries of godliness, yet at the same time the 
divine goodness has so ordered that those 
things really necessary to be understood in 
the Bible plan of salvation are so plainly set 
forth that even the wayfaring man may not 
err therein. Popes, prelates and councils on 
the one hand, and synods and conferences on 
the other, may set forth their interpreta- 
tions of whai they hold as*truth, but the ul- 
timate appeal of every true enquirer as to 
the way which leads to life eternal must 
ever remain in the imperishable chart God has 
given us as a lamp for our feet. It was on 
such safe and traditional courses that young 
Lemuel Burkitt turned from human glosses 
and gathered for himself from the fountain 
head of truth the rules of his own faith and 
practice. How with such meager aids to 
higher attainments he managed so soon to 
shine as a star among his humbler brethren 
in the Baptist ministry was no doubt as- 
tounding to himself as it was grateful to the 
thousands who hung enthralled on his thril- 
ling utterances. Converted in 1769 in his 
nineteenth year, we find two years later, 
when Gov. Tryon was ravaging the country 
of the conquered Regulators, a new preacher 
appeared down in ancient Albemarle. It 
was only two years later when he was called 

\o <_ the pastorate of Bertie or Sandy Run 
church. This was then the most influential 
body of Baptists in eastern Carolina, and for 
so voung a man to become their guide in re- 
ligion was no small tribute to the unusual 
gifts of the voung pastor. But this was only 
a foretaste o*f what the power and influence 
of Mr. Burkitt would soon be. 

In order that the average reader may un- 
derstand Mr. Burkitt's relations to the Bap- 
tists of Albemarle in that great era of change 
and reformation in religious and political 
affairs, it wll be necessary to recur to the 
condition of the churches of his faith in the 
eastern and western settlements. When in 



CHAP. XX. 

varieties are 
intervention 



I. % 
oi" alcol 
cool aft 
ric acic 
the ten 
heit. 
to 200 c 
lated r 
twice b 
mersec 
pour is 
lowed 
caiion 
i,in to 
The eb 
retort, 
er is tl 
probab 
quantit 
tu re m: 
ally. 
water t 
in a wc 
bout 1 r 

If wJj 
ed, andj 
dantly, I 
ver. % 
to correi 
ficient t 
remains 

II. J\ 
alcohol 
of nitric 
tin? the 



any quantity 

ie mixture to 

ated sulphu- 

ing care that 

120° Fahren-^ 

ously heated 

with a tubu- 

a glass tube, 

erture be im- 

ndensible va- 

duced are al- 

by the appli- 

materials be- 

the receiver. 

ppear in the 

id the receiv- 

contains, will 

ify it, a small 

and the mix- 

g it occasion- 

! distilled in a 

be preserved 

ployed, as a- 

ir be remov- 
xluces abun-* 
ler, distils o- 
iquid potash 
o a heat suf- 
le oil of wine 

two pints of 
half a pound 
rials, by set- 
mixture by a 



SECT. IV. 

composed ; 
over ; and, 
carbonate o 
When thi 
the vegetan 
ed with sulj 
ganese, and 
tained, also, 
phate of coi 
The crysi 
which may 
filiation in a 
colour, and 
specific grai 
be reserved | 
Derosne,* ti 
specifically 
ly acid, assu 
kali which t 
was found a 
has even le 
obtained, in 
portions of i 
of potash pr 
rectified by 
has a penetrj 
ly with the J 
is highly in; 
that it is mi: 
ities of ethei 
nitro-muriat! 
name of fiyr 
fined to the 
is owing, the 
changes in tl 
These obj 
M. Mollerat. 
precisely the) 
one containe 
The first he 

* Annales d\ 
f Annates «fe 



1773 Lemuel Burkitc oecaine the pastor of 
Sandy Run church, there had never been 
exchanged the slightest token of fraternal 
recognition between the reformed churches fs come 
of Sandy Creek Association and their Bap- 
tist brethren in the low country. Eight 
years of marvelous growth^ and expansion 
had been vouchsafed of heaven to the little 
group of the New Lights who formed the 
first congregation planted in 1755 by Messrs 
Stearns and Marshall. But a strange and 
unreasoning jealousy had been manifested 
by the older Baptist preachers and congre- 
gations toward these apostles of a purer 
faith. The same aversion to all change 
which is yet so largely characteristic of 
North Carolinians had condemned unheard 
every overture from the New Light mission- 
aries. These old Baptists of the remote past 
were as unreasoning and deaf to the truth 
as have been the misguided Kehukees of a 
later period. The truth is, that the people 
were misguided by weak and uninformed 
preachers, who had* failed to comprehend 
the logic of the situation and the force of 
the truth through the fact that they were >werful= 
unprepared to part with their prejudices. y f a j„ 
Bishop Burkitt, young as he was, had suf- , . 

fered from no such unchristian disability. " uc t s > it 
He loved the truth wherever he found it, ft which 
and the truth had made him free. In the 
might of his victorious zeal and eloquence, 
he traversed the broad territory then hold- 
ing the eastern Baptist churches and as one 
inspired he laid bare all the ruinous incon- 
sistencies of the faith and practice which 
was keeping his beloved people in error and 
disunited from their w 7 iser brethren. He 
told them that Baptists for centuries had 
warred upon infant baptism because Christ 
had required faith and repentance as pre- 
requisites to such an ordinance. Here were 
Baptist churches not only baptizing men 
and women into membership, but in more 
instancos than was at all creditable,, they 
were ordaining ministers to the work of the 
full gospel ministi-y who made no pretence 
that they had any experience of the new 
birth in Christ. Was the Saviour's declara- 
tions to Nicodemus to be set down as mean- 
ing nothing, or were the Baptists claiming ^ 
the old papal power of changing the Master's ones of 
teaching ? Was it no longer true that the ^ j ]ad 
Bible was the great Baptist rule of faith ? 
Had the churches set up some higher stand- " at tDe 
ard of construction as to the plainest teach jily 41. 
ings of the Scriptures? The young apostle j -j 
of the truth, with all his superiority of elo- 
quence and equipment, was also consum 
Chimie, lxviii. 88 ; or Nicholson's Journal^ xxv. 155. 



159 



)on with 

ric acid, 
n, mix- 
of man- 
y be ob- 
ind sul- 

s retort, 
d to dis- 
a green 
on. Its 
>roducts 
M. M. 
i though 



may be 

e latter 

acetate 

may be 

impid ; 

i rapid- 

d ; and 

cepting 

le qual- - 

ing the 

■ it the 

is con- 

ier, and 

but to 



mate in his bearing and treatment of his less 
gifted brethren. Nothing more clearly dem- [ 
onstrated his greatness of soul than the fact c «ap. XX. 
that while thus exposing the ignorance and 
that ca ™**J*" S ° f J"f * Jer ical peers, he was still Moderate heat 

with tt t v! ? / etam th ,? lr love and admiration , 
wth g for himself personally. A weaker and vainer I 
acid, b leformer would have only succeeded in ar 
quired r *3; iE g every one of them in stubborn and 
a i i unheedin S opposition to the puoposed nun- 
added fication of the churches. SoffiXls I 1 the acid ' ** 
-that tl being the qase when the ablest man among became 1079, 
From f? em ,' the Rev Henry Abbott, pastor of the re ~„iar dimi- 

Camden church, had heard all the glowing ' g 
nuuoq and unanswerable appeal, he set the needed observ ed the 
same t example of resigning his place as pastor un- \ silver. . 
I til he could be again baptized. He hade-on? Li 
Ac* i n + n fVlQ „v„««u i.-i , . ■ L j-« n <*" gone )i e properties. 



on. To this 
100 grains re- 
he gradually 



Its si 
plied; 
a silv« 
tempt 



into the church, like a host of others, with 
no pretence of being converted. Being the ^ ter when a P° 
son of the canon of Westminster in London, ^hen heated in 
he had taken as true the teachings of his L * 
childhood touching baptismal regeneration. ? hre * At the 
Thus, like another Peter the Hermit °lid and shoots 
intob fetching a fresh crusade, Mr. Burkitt fixed It appears not 
t«K. ^? prepared the minds and hearts of the f a PP earBnoc 
to be i Albemarle Baptists for his next step in the 1X transmitted 
it five program of reformation. The Sandy Run ;h the effect of 
churcr/in 1774 was the instrument for its 
consummation. It resolved in conference ; 
that in the future that body would hold fel- .nation with al- 
lowship with no congregation that would 



only s 
Th 

kalis, 
Th 



admit or continue in membership any person • , • f 

who had not claimed to have experienced ' ls P ertectl y 
white such a change of heart as is implied in the ?nie blackened 



by th 
gar. 
eold ' 
dillati 



common vine- 



Saviour's words touching the new birth. 

This apparently bold and high-handed posi-v 

tion as to her relations to the other churches P wn wei gbt of 

of the Kehukee Association was the occa- 



ohol. By dis- 

sion of, as Mr. Burkitt had foreseen, a no [ • t . 

small outcry and stir among the dry bones ^ ™ 

tic etl i a some of the churches in the region which, gases. 

Ac i Q later years, were to revolt from Bible fliquesce in the 
teaching as to missions. There was little ' 
or no discord and disunion in -the churches 
which later formed the Chowan Association, 

tillatn but beyond the Roanoke there were heard 
rumors of discontent and remonstrance over 
the course pursued at Sandy Run. 

Not only had the visit of the Rev. Messrs. 
Vanhorn and Miller failed to affect these 
churches, it was feared by a multitude of 
anxious brethren that the action of Mr. 
Burkitt's church would be no more success- 
ful. They feared that so far from any gen- 
eral' reform being thus brought about, that 
the only result would be a lasting and hope- 
less schism in the churches so lately unified 
in their formation of the Kehukee Associa- 
tion. That organization effected at the cost 

Wenzl of so much labor, prayer and tears, they 
Acetate of baiiytes is a crystallizable salt, which does not 



air ; < 
twice 



Ac 
em pic 

of Mi 
tion, 1 
water 
Fahn 
Ac 
crysta 
the ai 



d water, or in 
lestructive dis- 

!ce from being 
ame of Spirit 
Is by evapora- 
dily soluble in 
itilized at 250" 

vaporation, to 
permanent in 
According to 




WECT. IV. 



grow moisl 

the air. I< 

not quite tj 

very small 

that it give: 

coloured by 

Ace r ati 

tioned aceta 

for solution. 

Acetate 

ly in the sta 

cent, and so 

Acetate 

position, frotj 

sulphate of £| 

tance from it 

however, to 

mon alum, a 

with acetous 

The META, 

described in 
edge of this < 
made by a m 
ferent metall 
with bases of} 
siderably thai 
ly a very snu 
ing to the pr< 
ed pyro-aceti 
less definite 
we obtain a 
ties. 

Of all the v 
greatest speci 
kalis. In thi 
weight of the 
none of the py 
The residuum 
of charcoal, 
were distilled, 
and manganes 

* Amu 
vox,, n. 



ACETIC ACID. 

said was now doomed to certain division and 
moral wreck. It really seemed that these 
prophets of evil were right in their horo- 
scope of the future. Tidings from the upper 
counties were full of the resolutions of divers 
Baptist churches, who were instructing their 
delegations to. the approaching session of 
the Kehukee. Association at the Falls of Tar 
river, and nearly all of those weie in the 
plainest sort of way condemnatory of Sandy 
Run's action. 

But the patient and trusting soul of Lem- 
uel Burkitt was all unmoved at the prospect 
of his brethren's inanity. He was at work 
for God and his people, and no human dis- 
pleasure could reach or dismay a soul thus 
doubly armed in the course of duty. As the 
clerk of this same great B iptist Association, 
he had won so much love and admiration 
from all his brethren, it was sad to think 
that any part of the loving communion of 
the past should be lost by his efforts for the 
Lord. His sensitive and poetic soul instinc- 
tively shrank from everything like feud an J 
bitterness, but he recallel the fact of how 
his Lord and Master, wit- all his gentleness 
and beneficence, had yet round life so little 
a bed of roses ; so let the worst come that 
was possible to the prom ruin gs of prejudice 
and unreasoning prepossessions, the path- 
way of his duty was still left as plain and 
undisturbed as the light of the stars. 

On the other hand, there were many 
things to sustain the young reformer and his 
faithful Sandy Run congregation in their 
high and devoted course. Elder John Me- 
glamre, the moderator of the Kehukee As- 
sociation, was the first to come to his res- 
cue. His Sussex church m Virginia passed 
resolutions in conference precisely similar to 
those of the Bertie people Then came news 
of similar action of the churches both in Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina, but the great ma- 
jority had as yet been averse or silent on the 
issue. Before the month of October could 
come and witness the marshalling of the 
Baptist hosts in the discussion of their dif- 
ferences, the shots had been fired by the 
British soldiers at Lexington, whose echoes 
rolled around the world/ Loving hearts al- 
ready sore at the prospect of discord with 
brethren, saw with added dismay their na- 
tive land forced into conflict with their King, 
who was preparing great fleets* and armies 
for their subjugation to his wishes. It can, 
then, be easily imagined how anxious and 
prayerful the soul of Lemuel Burkitt must 
have grown as discord and danger, both in 

21 " ' ' 



161 

osure to 
Did, and 
■ only a 
/ix finds 
, 0.845, 

■t men- 
d water 
;d. 

but on- 
:liques- 

lecom- 
ne and 
impor- 
pplied, 
-f com- 
lumine 

Iready 
knowl« 
y been 
he dif- 
e salts 
r con- 
ig on^ 
is ow- 
term- 
>n, the . 
d, till 
oper- 

>f.the 
Jgal- 
squal 
ever, 
pper. 
rtion 
lead 
t zinc 



162 ''nhnr.vh n ;T m &;j t '"»?T^cKs. „,__.,_ -- map. xxi. 



Church and State, projeo, ea tneir ominous 

, shadows around him: S^h Lis tLM.iitle.53 " 

The pyro and patriotic countrymen, he only drew \' Chen " 

evix descrij nearer to God as the night of death and un- i a taste, 

which at fir 1 ' cer t aiQ ^ deepened around him. To follow u es cool 
which at nr on in the road of dutyand righf might bri nes cool 

and somew him sorrow and the loss of all things world" l ** e °^ s » 
ly, but there yet remained, like hope in Pan- specific 

dora's box, the consolation and support of .. : 

his soul at ease with God and himself. 



:t is very 
If point is 



but it is n 

gravity, w 

eombustibl 

138° Fahrenheit. It is miscible in all proportions, with water, 

with alcohol, and with all the volatile oils, and, at a temperature 

considerably below its boiling point, with the fixed oils. When 

heated it dissolves sulphur and wax. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 

THE products of vegetable and of animal life, though they a- 
gree frequently in external characters, and even in some of their 
chemical relations, present several circumstances of distinction, 
which, in general, sufficiently discriminate the two classes. Ani- 
mal substances are the results of still more delicate processes, and 
of a more refined organization ; and the balance of affinities, by 
which they exist, is disturbed by still slighter causes. To the 
three great components of vegetable matter (oxygen, hydrogen, 
and carbon) a fourth is, in animal substances, added, and consti- 
tutes a large proportion of their structure. To the nitrogen, which 
they contain, are owing some of the most important qualities, that 
distinguish this class of compounds. Hence it is, that instead of 
passing through the vinous or acetous fermentations; they are pe- 
culiarly prone to undergo putrefaction ; and that, during this 
change, they yield, among other products, both nitrogen gas and 
ammonia. When exposed to a high temperature, ammonia is, 
also, generated in great abundance, by their decomposition ; little 
or no acetic acid is produced ; and the coal, which remains, dif- 
fers from vegetable charcoal, in being much less combustible. 
This general description, however, though it applies to most indi- 
viduals of the animal kingdom, is not strictly true with respect to 
all. Animal jelly, for example, is rendered sour by spontaneous 
decomposition. A few vegetable substancps, it may also be add- 
ed, gluten for instance, become at once putrid ; and furnish am> 
monia when decomposed by heat. 



SRCT. II. 

to about 4| 
experiment, 
substance ii 
solid matter 
rent substan 
of egg consi 
only 15£ of 
Coagulatii 
and affords ; 
forms a ven 
in gradually 
a solution, o 
dered percq 
tical purpos 
accurate tes 
The uncc 
was not affe 
but was cop 
considers it 
mucus. 

Albumer 

insoluble in 

gestor, appl 

stitution. J 

no gas is e>, 

of the prinq 

is taken up 

monia. Fii 

acids.* By 

solution tal 

bumen, a 11 

after evapo 

he apprehe 

3. Albui 

lum, forme 

ing to The 

That prod» 

cid occasio 

so dilute a 

produced t 

* Thenarc 
f Philosoj; 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir V — Kev. Lemuel Blrkitt. 

CHAPTER THREE. 

The man who by the grace of God, his 
own native greatness and the accidents of 
fortune, is enabled to play successively, in 
the role of a reformer, is one of the noblest 
and most beneficent of human creatures. 
Though a thousand spurious pretenders and 
cranks have arisen in every age to bring ob- 
loquy and contempt on the nobler types, 
still the world will never cease to remember 
and reverence the wise and heroic spirits 
that have shown them the way to higher 
planes of thought and action. Suppose it 
were possible to strike off from the catalogue 
of mankind's social and religious privileges, 
those that resulted from the teaching and 
labors of Wickliffe, Luther, Jefferson and 
Gladstone, what a fearful outcry would as 
eend to heaven at the loss of so many things 
that make life worth living in this world ! 
The miracles of human advancement 
wrought under the leadership of Moses were 
almost in every instance as directly the work 
of God as were those of our divine Lord and 
Saviour. To such complete revolutions in 
the affairs of mankind we would be impious 
to offer contrasts with those effected by the 
exertions of the greatest of our race. As 
heaven is high above earth, so far did they 
surpass the most comprehensive of merely 
human triumphs over the errors and abuses 
of preceding ages. While this is true, yet 
we should never forget or cease to reverence 
the great men who have so largely contrib- 
uted toward making civilization what it now 
is. The church militant also has been in 
every age largely indebted to such holy and 
heroic spirits. While remembering our 
Lord's promise that the Holy Spirit should 
be ever present to aid and sustain his people, 
we at the same time know that chosen ves- 
sels in human form have been the means 
through which such protecting power has 
been exerted. 

When in October of the ever memorable 
year of our Lord 1775, Elder Burk'.tt reached 
the scene of religious conflict, amid the del- 
egations who had come to the Falls of Tar 
river were some noble coadjutors in the 
cause of reform. Chief anions; these in the 



| 16/ 

fed to 
.dated 
id the 
mspa- 
jwhite 
r, and 

umen, 
rhen it 
ling it, 
id that 
as ren- 
1 prao 
ciently 

found, 
galls ; 
i. He 
ame of 

irfectly 
Jin's di- 
al con- 
cygen ; 
-action 
igulum 
af ara- 
ged, by 
^parent 
ited al- 
ii gave, 
is fluid 

coagu- 
accord- 
ployed. 
litric a- 
ich are 
gulam 

Then^ 



168 

ard finds, b) 
been coagu 
Alum, pr 
albumen ; t 
500 of watc 
but no prec 

4. Albun 
Union of co 
latine or mi 
single drop 
weight of a 
some hours, 
sel. The s 
containing o; 

Solution o 
whole of the 
is a compoui 
of about one 
ihe quantity 
pose entireb 
the latter ; i 
composed, i 

Nitro-mu 
the foregoin 
tercd by th 
Nitrate of si 
ral, from its 
slate of gold 
taining ^^ 
dant dense c 

5. Solutior 
When an infi 
100, is added 
no immediate 
tate ensues, 
lution of albu 
not susceptibl 
tanned leathe 

6. Albume 
to be slow in i 
some weeks i 
cording to Sc 



ulates 
jart in 
alum ; 

. So- 
on ge- 
bn. A 

fta its 
end of 

le ves- 

liquid, 



lpitate 
>ortion 
From 
ecom- 
tity of 



matter of personal influence was the vener- [• ^ X1, 
able moderator, Rev. John McGlamre. This 
nobleman of nature as well as of grace was \&t has 
of Huguenot blood, and in the purity and 
beneficence of his life atoned for any want 
on his part of the larger mental gifts of his 
younger brother in the Lord, Mr. Burkitt. 
So loving and faithful had he been in his 
walk, that he had become more influential 
with many people than others of higher 
gifts as an orator and theologian. His posi- 
tion also as presiding officer in so numerous 
a body, through the last ten years, had given 
him not only weight in their councils as a 
trusted leader, but the added advantage 
that always can be afforded from the chair 
in matters it may please the presiding officer 
to favor. 

But Mr. Burkitt's greatest assistant on 
this important occasion was found in the 
person of a layman, Col. William Home 
then of Edgecombe, who was the grand- kte thS 
father of the late Hon. William Home Bat- 
tle, one of the Justices of our Supreme 
Court* and displayed great eloquence and no 
little skill in biblical criticism in his impas- 
sioned appeals for reform and unity in the 
creed and practice of the Baptist people. 
Col. Horne does not seem to have lingered 
long in the vicinity of the Falls of Tar river ;jy d e 
after this episode in his life, for we find him 
representing Bertie county in the lower 
house of the State Legislature in 1780, and ly than 
for twenty years thereafter he was intrusted not a i_ 
with the representation of that ancient and . 
renowned constituency, sometimes in the , m "K7« 
Senate and then again in the House of Com- jquivo- 
mons. It may have been that this very con- 
troversy in the Association inclined him to 
seek more congenial brethren further east. 
Elder Burkitt was further assisted in the 
debate by the Rev. David Barrow. He was 
a successor in holy orders to the lite Mr. 

^ nf a l rn | men HVf. !!•-■ ■■■ ■"■I"" 

Sojourner in care of Baptist interests in Isle 
of Wight county in the State of Virginia. 
Mr. Barrow was, in some respects, a very 
considerable man in his day. Fluent and 
impassioned, he was ever impressive in his 
addresses to the multitude ; but he lacked 
the power of analysis and arrangement, 
which were so manifest in Messrs. Burkitt 
and Martin Ross. 

The church with which the Kehukee As- 
sociation was then in session, was under the -jpears 
pastoral guidance of the Rev. John Moore. 
This rugged and indomitable, old conserva- 
tion was a type and representative of the 
people, who so much admired and trusted 
him both in things spiritual and temporal. } 



ro-mu- 



abun- 



i is so- 



SECT. II. 

luble in dilut 
centrated. J 
cid, Mr. Hati 
ble in water, 
Many thee 
of albumen ; 
pears to hav< 
bumen he su 
and its coag^ 
with some of 
by some re<j 
When the w 
ic battery, a 
negative po 
This more 
have been c 
order to pre 
er, it should 
sary to the 
White ol 
water. Wl 
ter, and thi 
which is th 
tity of coag 
ulating pov 
When ti 
strong galv 
tive cup ; 
the positivf 
and muriat 
grains of di 
line matter 
ed, of phos 
From tr 
may be ap] 
men, whic 
way he pre 
eral anima 
ist. It ha; 
ulated by j 

* Syst 
f Phil( 

VOL. II 



His age, experience and strong will made 
him the most formidable of all the spirits 
that were then arrayed against the move 
ment for greater spirituality in the Baptist 
churches. It was all in vain that Scripture 
and argument demonstrated the falsity of 
his premises. It was enough for hi in and 
the men he influenced, that the churches 
had managed to live in time past with their 
mixed herd of saints and sinners ; and he 
was content, he said, to let well enough 
alone. He despised innovations. He de- 
nounced them as dangerous and sure of 
bringing on discord and schism. He was 
supported in such objections by Elders Wil- 
liam Burgess of Toisnot and Charles Daniel 
of Kehukee and John Thomas. The debate 
between Messrs. Home and Daniel was said 
to have been especially warm and exciting. 
It was all in vain that ELJer Burkitt and 
his allies called the attention of the body to 
the fact that in the confessions of faith adop- 
ted by all Baptist churches and the Kekukee 
Association, it was held that only upon a 
profession of faith in the Lord Jesus, could 
baptism be lawfully administered to any 
candidate — that any other baptism of un- 
converted men and women was opposed not 
only to Christ's commandments, but to the 
plain letter of our confessed creed on the 
subject. The result of the debate was a se- 
cession of the malcontents from the house 
where they had been in session and the in- 
stitution of a rival body, which still laid 
claim to being the Kehukee Association. 
Reference has already been made to the 
fact that the Baptist churches which thus 
in those ancient days so obstinately clung 
to error were the same which just half a 
century later, after their surrender of this 
lunacy were to again go in eclipse far more 
hopeless an I enduring, when in 1827 they 
revolted again against the truth and the 
light in their sinful and inexcusable warfare 
on missions. This singular instance of thei 
power of heredity in transmitting spiritual 
and mental traits from one generation to 
others far removed in the line of descent has 
had its counterpart in the political history 
of our State. In the bloody troubles known 
in our history as the War of the Regulation, 
the very same counties that were singled out 
and scourged with fire and sword by Gov. 
Tryon were, exactly a century later, the very 
head centre and chief arena of the Ku Klux 
Ktan's operations. It would thus seem that 
Certain races of men have as natural a bias 
to error and schism, as others toward a 
dauntless and iirepressible spirit of resist 
auce to any interference with their civil 
rights and liberties. 



169 

en con- 
litric a- 
as solu* 

juration 
ject ap- 
ty of al- 
matter, 
turation 
nfirmed 
Jrande.t 
galvan- 
mnd the 
ve wire, 
pears to 
uired, in 
al pow- 
s necea- 

kali and 
the wa- 
e liquor, 
ill quan- 
he coag- 
kali. i 
osed to a 
he nega- 
umen in 
free soda 
nett, 500 
were sa- 
Imention- 
of soda. 
;alvanism 
s of albu- 
. In this 
le, in sev- 
sed to ex- 
i is coag- 
Fect even 



iro 

even the i 
albuminoi 
electricity 



proposed 
ntities of 



The ter 

sense, unti 

parts of anl 

nite meani 

the same s 

er. The 1 

is soluble i 

the gelatim 

prove that 

properties, 

tine 4 Foi 

be consider 

an enlarge 

mouth, the 

ral, all the < 

pose, from 

tion of nitr< 

they are mi 

The subs 

was the sali 

appearance 

ture of this 

and suffered 

No distin 

adding nitn 

galls. Gou 

after some t: 

ed by the tai 

decided and 

Tan is a mo; 

gree, affect 

but not of jel 

* Philosophi 

* Nicholson'' 



d general 
omponent 
oore defi- 
cations of 
each oth- 
e, which 



animal suncf i» -«r*t» wn 

Thus in his twenty-fifth year Lemuel Bur- ™ Ai% xxsr ' 
kitt, by the help of God and his own great 
exertions at last had succeeded in breaking 
do.vn the false barriers of pride- and obsti- 
nacy which, for twenty years past, had 
arisen, as a great Chinese wall, dividing the 
hosts of Baptists in the Kehukee Association 
from all fellowship with those of other sim- 
ilar American organizations. He must have 
been saddened beyond measure when so 
many men he loved arose and went off from 
the great christian fold that he and they had 
so much delighted in building into grander 
dimensions. Like all men of high, natural 
genius, he was thereby more capable of 
grief and depression. He had succeeded in 
committing the Kehukee Association to 
what he knew in his soul was truth and 
true Baptist usage ; but the gi-and organiza- 
tion was left wounded and maimed by the 
heroic treatment it was necessary to admin- lo assume 
ister for its salvation. The dejected and Loured to 
defeated partizans of emr had acknowl- j 
edged that the reformers were the true rep- tram 01 
resentatives of the Kehukee Association by hal gela° 
their revolt and secession. The residue of | c j a j m to 
the faithful left with the old historic body 
were all the more valiant and effective from ! term, m 
the fact that all discordant elements had |ates the 
thus voluntarily gone off to themselves. ij n g. ene _ 
Men like Col. William Home were seen ' » 
leaving their homes to find congenial spirits ne y sup- 
in the reformed churches. Peace reigned I propor- 
in all the Baptist circles of old Albemarle ; L 
but a far different order of things arose in r [ ever V 
the seceding churches. The wiser preachers |mists. 
and laymen made their conferences stormy j> e made 
with their well-founded complaints of the i * 

fatal mistake made by their delegates at the r n# -^° 
late Association. The peace that had been pmpera- 
dearer to Rev. John Moore than even the 



truth as it is in Jesus, utterly failed of its B 

-»»/-* nl i nro +- inn t r\ t run Wki o£aY«.:j Vtlin lccno rt£i non HA 



porated, 



us, by 
of 

and, 



Ision 



done so much to bring about. Instead of 
peace flowing like a river around him, like 
the infatuated and mistaken Greek of old, 
he had but sown a crop of dragon's teeth to 
spring up and divide every church that fol- broduc 
lowed his devices, until, ten years later, like Ljijgi. _ 
repentant prodigals, they were to return to " 
the fold of love and abundance. 

Elder Bur kitt had, like all his clerical 
brethren in the Kehukee Association, con- 
fined his duties as pastor to the single con- 
gregation in Bertie. The unfortunate habit 
of frittering away their usefulness on four or 
more different churches had not obtained 

, „. v ««-*«-. ■$ .annates ue umme. IXVli 



elatine. 

iny de- 

pucus, 

trary, 



■ 

SECT. IV foothold in North Carolina or indeed any- 171 

] where else. This system, which the later 

eminent divine, the Rvv. Dr. J. 13. .J^ter, jot affected 

used to denounce as "ecclesiastical polyg 

amy," is one of those un scriptural irmova 

tions of later days. But while Jfius confin 

ing his relations to a single change, he was 

not the less abundant in labors. He made 



which dis 
by either 

Hitherl 
a method 
compoun 
is, that m 
common 
to say, he 
. causes, 
lead and 
the rnuru 
of saliva, 
grains wt 
of the tra 
not coagi 

In ord< 
Mr. Brar 
this view 
termedia 
i. fig. 82, 
the other 
Fibres of 
In about 
was form 
positive 
va, thou j 
alkali too 
disposed 
ate of soc 
subject, I 
by farthei 

When 
terial chi 
substanc< 
ter. Ne: 
lation, it ; 



Fibri: 
mals, and 



to devise a 
icus in any 



the gospel had not yet illumined, and thus 
not even the Cumberland settlements of the 
future State of Tennessee and Kentucky 
were too distant for the missionary whose 
home was so close down by the waters of, 
the Atlantic ocean. No railways were then 
in existence to bear along the Lord's mes- 
senger as with the ru-h of the cvclone Not 



excursions in many fields that the light of \ l " ls kind 

to contain 
impossible 
le separate 
r acetate of 
ist both of 
000 grains 

even a lumbering stage coach had yet been iich twenty 
utilized to connect the men of the western " , 
frontiers with the civilization of the east. the mucus 
By means of the Watauga trail, first blazed nucus, was 
out by Daniel Boone, he could reach the 
"dark and bloody ground," just south of the 
Ohio river, but so lugged was this highway occurred to 
of the early settlers, men generally made ;ity. With 
the journey on horseback. Such a journey , . 

undertaken by a traveller was as full »f av 21 " 

bodily perils as it was of the loneliness!'' only (see 
and hardship in locomotion. Prowling-^e positives 
bands of Indians from the great prairies be- 
tween the Mississippi and Ohio rivers were a PP ara tus. 
ever and anon gliding like phantoms through two others. 
their former hunting grounds, to bear off to , coa p:ulum 
captivity and death every pale faced intru- 
der they could find beyond the reach of the none on the 
log- forts of the white settlements. Nor were >art of sali» 
the Indians of that day the only source of 
danger to such men as were unwary in their 
selection of lodging places, when the shades 
of coming night warned them to sheek shel- 
ter for the wayfarer and his steed. Cut- 
throats and villains of the blackest dye not l0le ot tlns 
unfrequently erected cabins on the trail for illustrated, 
the special purpose of murder and robbery 
of the misguided guests who listened to their 
treacherous offers of hospitality. Mr. Bnr- ea *> noma- 
kitt, no doubt, gave such terrors as this last transparent 
but small consideration, for he well knew • . . 
that men of his calling bore charmed lives 
in all such dens of guilt and blood. No mur- : tive distil- 
derer was so ignorant and stolid as to dream atter. 
of finding money on the body of a peripa- 
tetic preacher. And besides this, there was 
some mysterious awe and consideration in 
the hearts of the vilest of the human race 
for such a man toiling on and being spent 
on his mission of love and mercy. Strange 
and almost miraculous tales were told of rrts of ani- 
how some unseen influence would stay the . , . . 
uplifted hand or ward off the be<| directed nc soluo * e 



paration of 
Brande is 
and muri» 



parts have been 
from blood, by ] 
ing water upon 
For the purp 
Mr. Hatchett o 
15 days, in wat< 
ing such as no\ 



W2 j rifle-snots from the persons or tne Tieroic T 38 *' 

heralds of the Cross. One such was said to 
have deliberately ventured into deadly peril fined 
to carry consolation to a dying sinner who Un- 
asked for his presence. He thought he was! 
alone in the stillness of the night, but assas 
sins lying in wait for his return reportedtents, 
that a horseman rode on either side of their! • 
intended victim and thus frustrated theiij Unng 
purpose. he be- 

10 excue puTrcIaUrt^T.r" * ..~ ~*.»~w„ v.. niuscle 

were then boiled for five hours every day, during three weeks, 

changing the water at each boiling ; and, finally the residue was 

put into a press, and dried by the heat of a water bath. 

Fibrin has the following characters. 

1. It has a white colour, and is destitute of taste and smell. It 
is soft and elastic, and becomes of a deeper colour, on drying. 

2. It undergoes no change, when exposed to the air in a moist 
state ; nor is it altered by being kept under water. 

3. When heated, it contracts, and moves like a slip of horn, ex- 
haling at the same time a smell of burning feathers. Exposed to 
a stronger heat in close vessels, it yields water, carbonate of am- 
monia, a thick heavy fetid oil, and carbonic acid, and hydro-carbu- 
ret gases.' — It leaves a larger proportion of charcoal, than remains 
after the decomposition either of gelatine or albumen. 

4. It is insoluble in water, except by the heat of a Papin's di- 
gester, and also in alcohol, ether, and oils. 

5. It is readily soluble in acids. Sulphuric acid dissolves it and 
acquires a deep-brown colour ; charcoal is precipitated, and ace- 
tic acid is formed. Muriatic acid converts it into a green jelly. 
Acetic, citric, oxalic, and tartaric acids, dissolve it ; and the solu- 
tions, when concentrated, assume the appearance of jelly. 

6. From acid solutions, alkalis precipitate fibrin, in flakes, 
which are soluble in hot water, and which resemble gelatine in 
properties. 

7. Diluted nitric acid separates a larger quantity of nitrogen 
gas from fibrin, than from any other animal substance. The dis- 
solved portion, when concentrated by evaporation, and again dis- 
solved in hot water, is precipitated by tan and nitro- muriate of tin, 
and possesses, therefore, the appropriate characters of gelatine. 
A larger digestion of fibrin in diluted nitric acid converts part of 
it into a kind of fatty matter, which swims on the surface. This 
concrete oil contains a considerable redundance of acid, from 
which it may be freed, by melting it, once or twice, in water. 
From the residuary nitric acid a proportion of oxalic acid may be 
separated by evaporation. 



SECT. IX. 

smell ; it dii 

boiling wate 

tates. 'The 

bines readily 

alkaline carl 

able quantit; 

ed compoun 

are not muc 

of uric acid 

ere lions fou 

2. Nitric 

the skin of i 

and nitroge 

evaporation 

]y distilling 

decomposei 

a strong sir 

deposites cl 

monia. Oi 

ammonia, a 

3. Whei 

■weight of a 

but a new 

drops of th 

monia, wit! 

tained. Ii 

II. The! 

ite from tti 

under the 

this sedim 

lime, a pe 

blance in I 

fers chief! 

having lit! 

of gold of 

properties 

and its ex 

gree que: 

III. T| 

Vauquel) 

slow evai 



appearan.i 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATU HISTORIAN. 

Memoir V — Rev. Lemuel Burkitt. 

CHAPTER FOUR. 

The war of the Revolution was a great 
interruption and obstacle to many others of 
the godly laborers in the Lord's vineyard 
besides Elder Lemuel Burkitt. So direful 
grew the struggle in p.irts of North Carolina 
that even the pitiless soul of Col. Banastre 
Tarleton grew sick of such butchery as mark- 
ed the forays of David Fannin, and declared in 
his memoirs of the period, that another year, 
such as 1781, would depopulate the State. 
While the Albemarle region was almost 
wholly exempt from such evils, still British 
outrages at Suffolk in Virginia were so close 
at hand that the alarm that was occasioned 
led to the suspension of the sessions of the 
Kehukee Association for several years. 
Many church-members of that fold were 
either in the Continental army, or they were 
enrolled under the standard of Gen. Greg- 
ory. It was during the^e stormy years of 
blood and confusion that a great bond of 
love and confidence was formed between Mr. 
Burkitt and Godwin Cotton. So close was 
this tie, the great preacher bought a farm 
alongside that of his friend and brother in 
the Lord. They were nearly the same age, 
and to both the cause of the Baptist people 
was paramount to all other humau affairs. 
Not that either felt for a moment in any 
way indifferent to the freedom of America. 
On the contrary, their brightest hopes for 
the emancipation of their faith were bound 
up in the success of the revolted Colonies. 
With the overthrow of King George's con- 
trol in America, they had much reason to 
believe there would come at the same time 
the downfall of the Church Establishments 
all over the Republic. Gen. Washington 
gave noble testimony to the united and zeal- 
ous support given him in his seven years of 
perilous combat, and as the first President 
of the United States certified to the world 
how they had been alike strenuous as soldiers 
in the field and in yielding loyal and unques- 
tioned fealty to the revolutionary officials 
in civil affairs. 

When British violence and brutality to- 
ward the people of Suffolk and its vicinity 
had with other- reasons resulted in the sus- 



179 

>arts of 
irecipi- 
1 com- 
ith the 
nsider- 
saturat- 
u rales, 
jination 
le con- 

^ stains 
nic acid 
fed. On 
epeated- 
i wholly 
-ed ;.and 
ary fluid 
b of am- 
iuriate of 

fourth its 
ric acid ; 
. A few 
i of am- 
, are ob- 
larcoal. 
a depos- 
diseases, 
o Proust, 
jsphate of 
its resem- 
irves, dif- 
water; in 
g muriate 
r, that its 
chemist ; 
some de- 

ircroy and 
i which, by 

> a brilliant 
vegetable 



ISO 

blues ; is sc 
which it sep 
in heated al< 
neutral salts 
er acids. I 
it precipitat 
mercury, or 
monia and p 

IV. The 
which the a 
one eighth ; 
ter to the re 
lime combin 
by oxalic ac: 
state, dissoh 
ence of hoi 
When the a 
mains pure. 

This acid 
tallized, anc 
alkalis and < 
and zinc, wi 
the oxides o 
semblance 
proved that 
thy of extra 
disguise its 

V. The t 
sugar of mi 
acid, and d: 
leaving it tt 
this, the lie 
forms, whic 

It may, a 
in a stoppe 
short time, 
over, and t 
gradually s^ 
The powder] 
saccholactic 

This acid 
water. Of 



soluble 
1" forms 
by oth- 
does 



»«"«"■ RTJBSTANCE8. rr . , - CHAP- XXI. 

pension of the sessions of The Kehukee As-Y 
sociation, the heart of Mr. Burkitt was widSJ f 
owed of many of its chiefest joys. He not '*> 
only pined for the presence of so many to 
whom his soul was knitted. The valiant 
soldiers of the Lord, who were still waging 
a dubious conflict for emancipation in Vir- 
ginia, as well against the ecclesiastical ty- 
rants at home as the King beyond the seas, r .. 
no longer met in annual conclave to concert i . ' 

measures with their Carolina allies. All his pits am- 
many plans for missionary concert of action | 
among the preachers and the churches were , # f 
in complete abeyance. To that reverend k » tror * 
father in the Lord, Elder McGlamre as the to about 
Moderator, and to Mr. Burkitt as the Clerk, i me . wa . 
the Kehukee Association had committed au- ■ 
thority to call another meeting whenever an " the 
they should think such action prudent and cipitated 
proper. For some reason now unaccounta- : muure 
ble in its strangeness, the chapel of St. John " # 
in Hertford county was first selected as the consist- 
place where the session should be held in Solution. 
October, 1782. Capt. Arthur Cotton, the 
father of Mr. Burkitt's peculiar friend, as 
one of the chur.h wardens of old St. John's, 
had given his consent to the use of the Epis- 
copal chapel, but just before the arrival of 
the delegations, Col. Robert Sumner, the 
other warden, made such violent objection Ives iron 
to what he said would be a profanation of . with 
the ancient fane, Capt. Cotton invited the ' 
Baptist people to his own spacious brick res- 
idence. There under the shade of wide- 
spreading mulberry trees, arrangements had 
been made for the comfort of the delegates 
and visitors. The village of St. John's and 
the many farm-houses of Ahoskie Ridge 
gave ample entertainment to all the many 
good people who gathered there to rejoice 
over the renewal of old Kehukee's power 
and usefulness. 

Just a year had gone by since along with 
all true Americans the Baptist people of the istead of 
Kehukee churches first heard the glad ti- sediment 



acid re- 



ng crys- 
nes with 



most re- 
d, have 
a quan- 
y, which 
264.) 
nvdered 
of nitric 
On 



dings of Lord Cornwallis' overthrow at ^ 
Yorktown. The ablest and most effective of 
all the British commanders had, after a no- 
ble career of victory, at last came to such g h eat a 
entire defeat thai the seven years of war ye cQme 
were virtually ended. We can not in our 
day appreciate the feelings that actuated our 
forefathers on that occasion. In our pleni- 
tude of power and safety from all apprehen- 
sions of invasion from foreign nations, we ^> A * 
fail to remember how feeble in comparison | 
were the thin settlements strung along the 
Atlantic seaboard With all the conjoined 
dangers of Indian and servile insurrection, 



m arabic 



powder 
lecantedo 



a in cold 
| is acid, 



SECT. IX. 

and redden! 
■with alkali 
earths, forr 
With potasl 
cold water, 
equally solu 

The saccl 
heat, and y 
crystals. A 
quantity of 
rable prop 

VI. Thcj 
animal fat. 
ton. To 1 
quicklime, 
towards th< 
found to ha 
boil them t< 
separate o 
This salt i: 
may be sej 
pose the oj 
again dry, | 
luted with 
tained by i 
itate solub 

1. The 
smell. It 

2. Byd 
partly dec 

3. Itur 
dissolves 

4. Nitr 
tic acid. 

Accord 
merely ac 
this, how 
which is i 
hogs' larc 
solution, ] 
tate, wine 
No acid i 



added to the blo7>3y~w6rk~of the British sol- 
diers and Tories, the wonder is that men 
could be found brave enough to risk such an 
aggregation of perils. But the men who 
thus dared so much to be free, were not to 
be balked in the line of duty by any sugges 
tion of evil to come. They had an unfalter- 
ing trust in the God of battles. They felt 
assured of that divine protection promised 
to all who, in the direst grief and danger, 
put their trust in the Lord. Had they been 
modern agnostics with their sneers and 
doubts, they would have prated about the 
maxims which tell us that God is neutral in 
such human complications, and that the sole 
arbitors of every conflict at arms are the 
heavier battalions and larger purse of those 
who may be so fortunate as find themselves 
possessed of such advantages. 

The war had largely circumscribed, during 
its pendency, the area of Mr. Burkitt's ac- 
tivity as a missionary. With the return of 
peace, he put on a double portion of that 
wonderful activity that was so largely char- 
acteristic of the man in every portion of his 
career. Like his noble compeer in grace, 
Elder Silas Mercer of Halifax county, he 
was no longer to be circumscribed by State 
lines. No pent up Utica should longer con- 
fine his powers. Strange peoples and un- 
known lands were to be now visited and 
thrilled by his eloquent appeals. This same 
distinguished Baptist divine, the Rev. Silas 
Mercer, was present at the Association of 
1783. He was one of the foremost preachers 
ever born in North Carolina, and the great 
crowds gathered beneath the spreading trees 
at Mulberry Grove were enraptured with his 
splendid discourse on Sunday. 

Another of the fore most American Baptist 
preachers was seen and heard on the same 
occasion in the person of Elder Abraham 
Marshall of Georg'a. He was the son of 
that Rev. Daniel Marshall whose life and 
services were commemorated in the preced- 
ing memoir. With broader culture and a 
more finished elocution, Mr. Marshall was 
even more powerful in the pulpit than his 
honored father in his palmiest days. But he 
or some one else brought great loss to North 
Carolina by inducing Mr. Mercer to leave 
our limits and make Georgia his future 
home. 

With the return of peice to the American 
people, Mr. Burkitt was further cheered by 
the continued applications of the different 
revolted churches of old Kehukee, which had 
gone off on a tangent at the Fills of Tar 
river in 1775. Soon the vast christian broth- 
erhood had with hooked shields again formed 



ltl 

jervescc's 
Lai is and 
Glaciates. 
weight of 
ia a salt 
I solution, 
■it a red- 
le-shaped 
isiderable 
I conside- 

species of 
itof Guy- 
ulverized 
g the heat 
f-d will be 
of water ; 
d salt will 
jacic acid, 
n which it 
to decom- 
md, when 
c acid, di- 
be ascer- 
, a precip- 

.enetrating 
*cid, and is 
litric acid, 
ble in ace- 
escribed is 
Besides 
:rved, ani 
,t distilling 
The watery 
ky precipit- 
in a retort . 
atter in the 



182 

retort, there 
arated, and 
solves it, an 

The seba; 
out smell ; t 
mus. Whe 
saturated \vi 
copiously, 
lead, and ni 
form soluble 
barytes, or s 
er temperati 
it resembles 
j VII. Th 
sition of ani 
of blood, ev 
with one pai 
calcined in i 
the material 
must be con 
issues from 
to be extini 
mass, when 
lew hours ; 
the liquor, ; 
ask acquire 
of two parts 
ing water : ; 
or precipitat 
boiling wate 
of a quantity 
sulphate of 
blue colour, 
heat. In xh\ 
consists of a 
perties have 

From prr 
the following 

Mix two o 
acid, with foi 
the mixture 
bg frequent 1 



ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. CHAP. XXI. 

their phalanx of old. But the body got to | 
be so huge and unwieldy that in 1790 the L e sen _. 
Virginia churches withdrew and formed the . 

Portsmouth Association. A year or two ply dis 
later the churches around Newbern followed 
this example in the formation of the Neuse 
Association. These movements curtailed 
the amount of Mr. Burkitt's labors as Clerk 
of the Kehukee Association, but the favor of 
his brethren soon more than restored the 
sum of his labors by making him the histo- 
rian of the great Association he so much 
loved. We have only to read the chronicle 
he was thus induced to prepare and compare 
it with the rapid and jejune continuation by 
other hands, to see how remarkable a man 
he must have been. Confined by the di- 
rections of the committee who had the pro- 
posed history in charge to a mere skeleton 
of a narrative, he yet managed to store it 
with many incidents of movement and in 
his terse style was always abounding in pun- 
gent and pertinent observations. The little 
fragment, meagre as it is in size and detail, 
is still the only source from which we can 
recall the Baptist movements in eastern Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina for the period em- 
braced in its pages. Thus as leading preacher 
and man of affairs in the Kehukee Associa- 
tion, besides his great role as reformer, IMr. 
Burkitt had bargained out into still another 
great, department of usefulness. It was thrice 
fortunate for his own fame and memory 
that he thus left his imperishable record ; 
for great as he was without this book, we 
should have but a mutilated tors), instead 
of the full statue of the man. No doubt many 
traditions would have handed down to after 
generations dim glimpses of his power and 
usefulness, but at best these would have 
been vague and shadowy. 

But Mr. Burkitt had great sorrow along vjjditioM 
with many of his brethren that the late war 
had so completely steeled the hearts of the k of the 
people to any religious influences. It was eautiful 
ail in vain that the most moving discourses 
were delivered in the hope of a revival of 
religion. It seemed, on the contrary, that 
French skepticism and atheism were poison- 
ing and blighting the hopes of heaven over 
a large part of the new Federal Union. 
France had given such noble and timely 
aid to the suffering Colonies in their late 
struggle that great love and gratitude was 
felt by all the American people for their late 
gallant allies in the bloody struggle. This 
sentiment, so natural and honorable in itself, 
was used by French emissaries of the infidel 
v. sriiicr. tire suiuiiuii, iu.au i3 a jnussmie oi mer- 



is with- 
d of lit- 
water 
jolves it 
ury and 
\ it, and 
)f lime, 
a high- 
iculars, 

compo- 
te parts 

mixed 
fh,) and 
tiled by 
:ination 
e flame 
1 likely 
row the 

soak a 
Filter 
as long 
m posed 
of boil- 
:scence 
tes with 



gentle 
which 

Its pro- 

> v. 

ated by 

i nitric 

tnd boil 

shak- 



sect. I. philosophers to debauch the minds and souls 
of the trusting American people. Alas ! the 
task seemed but too easy when in place of 
the old trust in God doubt and blasphemy 
were heard all over the land in the little de- 
bating clubs which were organized to spread 
abroad this foreign contagion It was all in 
vain for Lemuel Burkitt to expect God's 
blessing on a people thus perverted aud ap- 
parently undone. When the Associations 
• met, there was only a meagre list of addi 

only admitte) tions to the churches to be reported. He 
gives these reports for a number of years, 

considerably and so smali were the y tnat t0e loss b F 
j death and dismission must have more than 

bonic acid < countervailed such small gains. The future 
of America seemed overcast with a hopeless 
gloom. Men of God were on every side de- 
pressed and with only one hope left. They 



of exfiiratio: 
pose for whi 
bout twent] 
quantity tak 
of Messrs. 
with little il 



state of the 
thy of oxygj 



cording to t neV er forgot that " Christ is able to save to 



the uttermost part of the world," and they 
trusted, in* good reason, their hope would 
yet be realized. 

At last came tidings from Tennessee an 1 
Kentucky that the Lord had visited his peo- 
ple. A great pentecostal season of refresh 
rnent and conviction flowed in upon the new 
countries like some mighty tidal wave of 
God's grace. The careless and skeptical 
multitudes came flocking by thousands and 
to have pre m y r j ac i s to find the Lord they had learned 
er generate to doubt and neglect. The great spiritual 
of that fluic rey i vai 0I 1801 and 1802 is yet one of the 
wonders of our history as a nation. From 
most proba <jead a p a thy and distrust of all things heav- 
The onlj enly and pure, the same communities awoke 
to newness of life. From the Atlantic sea- 



carbonic ac 
been prove 
lows that a 
have been i 
it has unite 
be doubted 
the vessels 



take place 



tain quanti sippi, the great tide of grace rolled on, and 



the substit 
When, ho 
Pepys ha 1 
tion; but 
replaced t 



coast to the wilderness beyond the Missis- 



America was saved from the foul embraces 
of a creed which had already deluged France 
in blood and ruin. 

The glad tidings from the West filled the 
soul of Mr. Burkitt with such joy that he 
mounted his horse and set out for the thea- 
tre of such glorious blessings. How, as he 
of nitrogei went on his way, he found the great gather- 
and oxyge 1D g s or men an d women seeking the way to 
life ; and how, through both of the new 
proportion StateS) te thrilled so many thousands with 
may be re ( the magic of his eloquence and zeal, is yet 
tution of r a nousen °ld tradition in many a family 
whose ancestors found peace in his preach- 
ing and prayers. He had long prayed for 
the coming of the Holy Spirit in all his power, 
and lo ! here was what surpassed and dwarfed 
his loftiest dreams. Thus in a continuous 
* Philosophical Transactions, 1808. 
t, Philosophical Transactions, 1809. 



consider a 

edge alto 

Beside 



I 

he pur- 

don, a- 

i be the 

.riments 

expired, 

ng once 

'ier cent. 

)eatedly, 
of car- 
hen the 
aquan- 
me, ac- 
, to the 

r 

jicid has 
s, it fol- , 
n, must 
irtion of 
owever, 
coats of 
uppfsed 
,ot rath- 
i carbon 
to be the 

roved to 
of a cer- 
hed,) and 

acid gas. 
[\llen and 
combina- 

has been 
j addition 
hydrogen 
the same 
?as found, 
he substi- 

a fact of 
jar knowl- 

,s emitted 



313 (;nu»T»», "nun «.-«-—.- " H ip XXM. 

I round of abounding grace, Lemuel Burkitt P A 
f lingered until, when duty called hirn home, 
irom the he D came back with a light in his face that ' when the 
atmosph had never been seen there before. He was periments, 
?♦ m *,r h, iik3 Moses when he descended worn Sinai, ; '* m -,„.,,« 
5 may b< the glory of the Lord had not yet ceased to > a minute - 
Until lab illume his features. * ' >e generat- 
ed in the »• — — - — ith the hy- 
drogen of the blood ; but this hypothesis is inconsistent with the 
experiments of Messrs. Allen and Pepys, which have traced the 
whole of the oxygen into combination with carbon. It is proba- 
bly therefore nothing more than the condensed vapour of a por- 
tion of that fluid, which is ordinarily secreted into the bronchial 
cells. 

An important purpose of the function of respiration is, that it 
contributes to that equable temperature, which the animal body 
preserves, amidst all the changes in the surrounding medium. 
This is peculiarly the property of living matter ; for all other 
bodies have the same degree of heat with the substances that are 
in contact with them. In the human body, the temperature va- 
ries only a very few degrees from 96°, whether it be exposed to a* 
cold of many degrees below the freezing point ; or whether it be 
surrounded by an atmosphere, little short of the heat of boiling 
water. There must, then, be certain processes in the animal e- 
conomy, by which, in the former case, caloric is reduced from a 
latent form to that of temperature ; and, in the latter case, by 
which the great excess of caloric is absorbed, and prevented from 
becoming injurious by its accumulation. 

Though we art ignorant of those precise differences, which 
constitute the distinction between venous and arterial blood, or in 
what way the function of respiration converts the former into the 
latter, yet a fact of considerable importance, on this subject, has 
been discovered by Dr. Crawford. The capacity of arterial blood 
for caloric he found to be superior to that of venous blood, in 
the proportion of 1030 to 892. When, therefore, arterial blood is 
Converted into venous, a considerable quantity of caloric must 
pass from a latent to a free state, and must prove an abundant 
source of temperature. Now this is precisely what is constantly 
taking place in the body. Caloric is evolved by the combination 
of the inspired oxygen with carbon ; but as the capacity of blood 
for caloric is, at the same tin • , enlarged, its temperature is not 
raised by being thus arterialized. In its progress through the 
system, the blood again suffers a diminution of capacity ; and the 
caloric, which it had carried in a latent form to the remotest ex- 
tremities, is extricated, and applied to the support of animal tern- 



SECT. I. | 

perature, 
the lungs, 
imals, plac 
important j 
not go on j 
from this s 
under sue 
takes placj 
a loss of \| 
Journal, x 
It is not 
mospheric 
skin throu s 
portion of ; 
ed that the 
bonic acid, 
fluid trans] 
Thebloj 
mal econoi 
a variety o 
tial to our 
is derived 
cles, whic} 
enable us 
same sour 
perform a 
chine. TJ 
orated by ! 
secretions} 
the busine 
ble to dis<i 
gous to thj 
in many sj 
albumen, 
imate elei 
gone fartl 
ultimate t 
manner a 
sis, whiclj 
of the am 
ble prod* 



a _ j g 9 

Sketches of Pioneer Baptist .-Preachers in 

North Carolina. Isive in 

In an- 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. ', , , 



Memoir V — Rev. Lemuel Burkitt. 

chapter five. 

The treatment of historical safepsKte is 
largely subject to the same rules of »8#&Sieifft} 
that regulate a painting illustrative of some 
event in the past. Thus we find the artist 
gives prominence' of place in his grouping 
and the highest lights to the chief actors in 
the scene he depicts. On the same principle 
in our reproduction of the Baptist past in 
North Carolina, we must give Lemuel Bur- 
kitt all the space and position his unequalled 
services merited. It takes more space to 
tell the story of such a life because it was so 
much more frequent and abiding in its in- 
fluence for good. He had brethren, nc doubt, 
who were as zealous ' and faithful as he, but 
the measure of his deeds and achievements 
so far surpassed them all that comparisons 
would be simply odious. Indeed with the 
single exception of the great work of enlist 
ing Baptist support iu the cause of Foreign 
Missions and Education, he had left nothing 
to be added to the completeness of his work 
as a reformer. Nor was he to withhold his 
aid from those other s>ps for higher useful- 
ness and consecration in the individuals and 
churches. He was to align himself along 
side of Martin Ros«, when that great preach- 
er introduced nis first memorable resolutions 
into the session of the Kehukee Association 
held in 1803, whereby they were exhorted to 
put themselves on the same level as had 
been lately witnessed among the Baptist 
people of Kettering in England. Dr Carey 
had gone on his way to seek the lost mil- 
lions of British India, and Andrew Fuller 
was left to lead his people into a proper sup- 
port of the new apostle to the Gentiles. 
American Baptists had manifested great in- 
terest in the salvation of their Indian neigh 
bors, but that they owed any duty to hea- 
then nations beyond the seas had never sug- 
gested itself to their minds. It required 
just such leaders as Ross and Burkitt to 
bring on so great proposals. Of corns-? the 
old conservatives were there in force to pro- 
test against the Lord's work, simply because 
they and their fathers had not found it their 
dutv to help in the conversion of the heathen 



od does 
derived 
ie body 
i which 
:ated by 
poison's 

i on at- 
s to the 
ed in a 

Icertain- 
\i of car- 
| watery 
tus. 

the ani- 
>repared 
;e essen- 
ce blood 
ie mus- 
levers, 
e to the 
s, which 
ited ma- 
nes elab- 
h termed 
Pledge of 
• were a- 
s analo- 
gs. But 
dance to 
pre prox- 
ii st have 
iting the 
in a new 
f synthc- 
bstances 
i vegeta- 



Of the Sea 
( 

Saliva 
the mouth, 
mastication 
tute of smc 
Its specific 
cording to 
pared its c< 
forty parts 
fore no effe 
siderably. 
and, during 
interval.* 

Saliva, \v 
ly a very sr 
plates ; or, 
mains, crys 
air, it appe 
sistence, w 

There is 
through wa 
two fluids ti 
tained, was 



the 



190 millions. But with two such champions (if 

missions to thunder forth the defence of the 
work they had embraced, the smaller na 
tures were either abashed or so silence J, 
that a proper circular was framed and sent 
out to the churches urging them to go for- 
ward in the work of the Lord. 

It was remarked at the conclusion of the 
last chapter that Mr. Burkitt came back 
from his recent participation in the great 
revival in the West in 1801 as one who bad red into 
been freshly inspired and magnified in his during 
office as God's ambassador to perishing men. 
Never before had his voice such wondrous j» clestl " 
power on lstening multitudes. It seemed t>f blue, 
that some wonderful spiritual magnetism ov ac . 
flowed out from his person and prostrated 
the hardest hearted and most unbelieving of JJ com " 
sinners. Vast crowds were in tumult of a'gum in 
varying emotion as the great preacher waxed L tnere . 
ever more impressive and resistless in his P 
pictures of the terrors awaiting the unrep nt- [ es con- 
ant death-bed With equal force, but in :he ^ daily ; 
most melting appeals, the safety and beati- 
tude of those who trust in Chr st's atonement 
was presented as the wise alternative. His 
first meeting with his Baptist people on his 
return was at the Kehnkee. Association, held 
that year with the church at Great Swamp 
in Gates county. In a sermon he told of 
the wonders of God's grace he had witnessed 
in the West How in eight months more 
than six thousand souls had been converted, 
and how the work was still widening and 
deepening as it extended over the settle 
ments of the new States. The effect was 
profound in its immediate and consequent 
results upon the people attending the ses- 
sion. 
Great revivals at once began in the sur- 

ymuriate of rounding churches, and the next year two 
. thousand additions to the membership of 

some noui ^ e con g re g a t;ions were reported to the As- i..Y . 

liquid nearl sociation. As a specimen of the deep con- 

striking effe cern which had taken possession of the peo- ich had 

been sevenn^^^s in re i a ti n to the YalvatW' of oi S alls 
precipitateq their souls, a short and exceedingly modest filtered 
f. T , account from the pen of Mr. Burkitt him- [ ou i arc p s 

liquoi. in g^fj^heiewith given. Says he : . 

extract, and " At a Union Meeting at Parker's (Meher- nments, 
Dr. Bostockrin) Meeting House in August. 1803, it was [ten, and 
supposed there were four thousmd people. g e j at i ne> 
also a quant , rhe weat b er proved very rainy on Sunday, p 
To the quantThere was a stage erected in the meeting- 
house vard, and at about half after eleven 



le same 

i 

:lds on- 
sparent 
nly re- 
to the 
er con- 
it. 

saliva 
ing the 
.hus ob- 
,.f Ox- 
jt, after 
ing the 



proximation 



o'clock Elder Burkitt ascended the stage to 



Fourcroy, Systeme, 4to. v. 2S8. 



Nicholson's Journal, xiv. 147. 



sect. it. ipyeach, arid it was expected from the ap° 
I pearance of the clouds it would rain every 
and his ex[ moment, and before he was done preaching 
a knowledc| it did so - Yet notwithstanding, the numer- 
ous congregation still kept together; and al 
siderably ; i though every effort was used to shun the 
and someli rain by u nbrellas, carriages, blankets, etc., 
Tt * eklr y et WP De li eve one thousand people were ex- 
posed to the rain without any shelter ; and 
some crying, some convulsed ou the ground, 
some begging the ministers to pray for them ; 
and they composedly stood and received the 
falling shower without ever being dis- 
persed." 

This was in all truth a severe test upon 
Mr. Burkitt's powers in holding the atten- 
tion of his congregation. Very rare have 
been the instances of such unusual influence 
over a mixed multitude. It proves conclu- 
sively that he was inieed a great orator. 
Yet those who heard him preach said that 
his voice was far from being strong and so- 
norous. He was of medium height, well- 
formed and active in his movements So 
much was he loved and trusted by people of 
all creeds that in the State Convention called 
to meet in Hillsboro in 1788 to consider the 
propriety of adopting the new Federal Con- 
stitution, he with no solicitation on his part 
was chosen along with Ma j Samuel Harrell 
as a delegate to represent Hertford county. 
He had been so uniform in his support of 
the American cause and so firm in his adhe- 
sion to the «»M* democratic views of Mr. 
Jefferson and his supporters, that it was 
safely left to his discretion to determine for 
his constituents as to what should be done 
in the premises. 

With increasing years beginning to warn 
him of failing strength. Lemuel Burkitt, 
after his return from the revival in the West, 
only redoubled his previous zeal and labors 
for the Lord. Though not yet an old man 
so far as the lapse of years is concerned, he 
was yet sensibly feeling the results of cease- 
less labor. The night was close at hand 
when a long rest would be his. He who 
giveth his beloved sleep had one more great 
work for the faithful servant, and then like 
Moses on Pisgah, all the weary load of toil 
and responsibility would forever be k>.\t in 
to dissolv the peace of God. The famous query touch- 
itate from * D § ^ e ^ nt J °^ tDe Baptist churches then 
constituting the Kehukee Association as to 
Foreign Missions had developed in the en- 
suing years plain proofs of a wan: of uuity 
'J and homogeniety as between the congrega- 
but as thei tions east and w * estof a oano ke river^ While 
Corrected by reducing- me proportion m 'water. 



in it a cer 
present in 
is filtered, 
emits the 
fords an 
This extr 
are found 
and phosp 

All the 
large quar 
from each 
no picrom 
in human 
Stances. 
lowing : 
Water 
Yellow m! 

a varia 
Yellow m 
Albumen 
Resin 
Soda 
Phosphat< 

riate of 



The ye 
that of o: 
ter, but 
which it 
which it 



195 

i 

j> accurate 

jaries con- 

|ih yellow, 

ry bitter. 

uspended 
imes even 

When it 

thick and 
iess, it af- 
f the bile. 
jie salts as 
! sulphate, 
f iron. 
; from it a 

separated 
ite of lead, 
icnt found 
>a}ine sub- 
Ire the fol- 



If bile 

* These 



a trace. 
2 
1 
5.6 

4.5 



similar to 
; very bit- 
ohol, from 
talis, from 
rs scarcely 
n a precip- 

Brande has 

cueil, i. 57 ;) 
wiM best fe 



196 

found that 
soda also a 
acids are c 

Biliary 
fers in diff 
which is ri 
entirely de 
so much t 
undergo m 
ture they r 
ducts, giv< 
is phospha 
and in ale 
they are { 
riatic acid 
Hence the 
ties identic 
and of hun 

The cal 
tively exai 
that they 
kalis, and 
of their di 
de la Salic 
cipitable, 
terwards ( 
especially 
ready des( 

Of thee 
formed of 
pocirous. 
from 88 to 
substance, 
their intei 
blackish b 
nally were 
there wer 
Calculi frj 
the gall-bl 

We maj 
calculi of i 
that others 



COMPLEX ANIMAL PRODUCTS. r.MAP, XXII. 

the ascendency of Messrs. Burkitt and Mar- 
tin Ross was coo great for open opposition 
to a scheme of love they both so warmly ad- 
vocated, yet there were such delays in ac- 
tion and such cold commendation from most 
of the churches lately returned from their 
temporary revolt, that the two great preach- 
ers, along with Hon. George Outlaw of Ber- 
tie, were convinced that if the Albemarle 
Baptist churches ever expected much chris- 
tian growth and development, then it was 
time to sever all entangling ties with the 
torpid and lifeless crowd that only hung as 
an incubus on their best efforts to advance 
thf c mse of the Lord and his people. 

Moving on this line, petitions were sent 
up from the Albemale churches to the Ke- 
hukee Association as it met in session at 
Meherrin in 1805 Then and there the great 
body, since known as the Chowan Associa- 
tion, had its origin. It was in the next year 
that the first session was held, and from 
t'nat day t« this the mighty results on the 
one hand wrought by the new body, and the 
schism, slow decay and total non-effective- 
ness of tbe other, show how wise and timely 
was the movement, (f Burkitt and Ross had 
been gifted with such length of years as Me 
thusaleh, and the leavening power of the 
Chowan churches had still in the clear vis- 
ion of old by sheer force of higher zeal and 
faith kept this people from the ruin and 
downfall of 1827, it would have been accom- 
plished at great cost. Not only would many 
a noble step taken in reaching a higher 
plane of usefulness been checked and re- 
tarded by the crowd who could see nothing 
good beyond what was practiced by their 
fathers, but the wear and tear of souls thus 
chained to a body of death would have real 
ized something of the Apostle's torture when 
he cried out in his anguish as to who should 
deliver him from such tribulation. There is 
no curse greater to any christian sect than 
churches which are so lifeless and avaricious, 
that they were ever found as stumbling 
blocks in the way of others who are anxious 
to give themselves and their means to the 
Lord's cause. The human heart is never so 
cunning and remorseless as when framing 
excuses for withholding any bestewal of its 
hoarded treasures. Men who are apparentlv 
godly in other respects, find their shibboleth 
on such an occasion. With all their sighs, 
groans and loud prayers in public, they find 
it impossible to part with that accursed gold 
that has stolen their souls from the Master. 

Elder Burkitt had planted a new church 



e, where 
hosphoric 

stions dif- 
js of bile, 
i they are 
yellow of 
It. They 

tempera- 
iimal pro- 
ter which 

in water 
am which 
iling mu- 
zm green, 
s proper- 
: of oxen, 

>re atten-* 
tig known 
at the al- 
3n. One 
'oulletier 
, and pre- 
urcroy af- 
hem, and 
s been al- 

iber were 
tirely adi- 
*, besides 
colouring 
yellow in 
5t, with a 
but inter- 
tly white, 
water — 
p those of 

ne of the 

icire ; and 

addition 



SECT. III. 

of a quantil 
brown. \\ 
the yellow 
same subst; 



The mill 
Mammalia 1 
considerablj 
the followini 

It is an oj 
tinge of blu; 
varies occas 
iraal. Its sj 
ing to Briss, 

The milk 
gents that d 
to three pro 
. 1. The C! 
ter it has st<j 
an oil ; is si 
the same mi 
days, it becq 
ih which th< 
cheese is su 

When en 
churning, it 
by the nami 
same prope 
This chang( 
the cream w 
though pert 
excluded. 

Butter hi 
At the temj 
state for soi 
it ; its trans 
time render 
kept longer 
it is in part 



at Potecasi, but, it was Dot organized until 
the year after his death. He saw the Chowan 
Association move off on that noble and illus- 
trious career which, under God's providence, 
has resulted in so many blessings to the 
Baptists of the whole State. He served as 
its Clerk for the two years he was spared to 

his people, but his long service in the sime 
capacity in the old Kehukee made his soul 
still yearn f( r the presence and companion- 
ship of m^y that he loved very tenderly. 
It was thus that he Diiteaa no session of the 
venerable mother of *1 many Associations. 
The greetings were as warm as of old, and 
on Sunday the great crowds of people lis- 
tened with a strange awe and delight to a 
preacher they had long thought the greatest 
in the world, and yet here he was aflame 
with a strange light in his eyes, and his 
voice thrilled with a burden it never bore 
before. Overflowing with the greatness of 
the issues at stake and the shortness of his 
time in this world, he would descend with 
streaming eyes from the pulpit, and, falling 
on his knees, he would rlpseeen his hearers 
t > be reconciled to God. 

The premonition of coming death was one 
of the strangest incidents in the life of this 
extraordinary man. He was but fifty-seven 
years old and apparently- n health, but the 
inner voice was repeating ever ""and anon, 
'•Labor while it is vet day, for the night 
cometh wherein no man can labor. 1 ' The 
event abundantly justified the correctness of 
these mysterious premonitions. He was 
preaching in July, 1807, when in the midst 
of his discourse he. was seized bj r an ague. 
The end sure enough had come at last. 
They bore him in much love and tender- 
ness to his humble home and were soon to 
bear him to his grave. Like Charles II., he 
never rallied from the fatal effects of those 
awful chills that slew so many thousands 
before the world and the doctors had learned 
the value of quinine. 

Thus passed from the theatre of his use- 
fulness a most richly and variously gifted 
man. In thirty years he had managed to 
bring about larger and more lasting improve- 
ments in the eastern Baptist people than all 
his predecessors had been able to accomplish 
in the century preceding. He was not one 
of those men who was great on a single line 
of human excellence. He was no more elo- 
quent or successful in the pulpit than he was 
deep and accurate in his theological stores. 
With a strong bias to -p*wt.ieal- fancies, he 
could yet make as deep and subtle an analy- 
sis of any chain of reasoning as if the im- 
passioned images of his vision never led to 



197 

i or dark 
fer from 
o be the 



the class 
differing 
dmits of 

| a slight 
jful; but 
jf the an» 
| accord- 
1)40. 

jtly by a- 
nents in- 

y- 

milk af> 
erties of 
cloth in 
or some 
)ft solid, 
i that of 

ocess of- 
1 known 
ctly the 
cream, 
lation of 
•s place, 
te air is 

istence. 
t in this 
te from 
ie same 
may be 
.ble that 
mtcs to 



&<lK 



Csl 



I 



the prcserv 
as an anima 
When mi 
certain sub 
it undergoes 
separation i 
whey. Thi 
acids, and b 
etable juices 
of the inner 
lation by ac 
form, with t 
solution tha 
always to co 
been produc 



isidered 

ed with 
iS sour* 1 



iprecipi- 

pat they 
later for 
is found 
tion has 



i such rapturous flights in his oratory. His W. 
greatest usefulness after ah were the per- 
sonal magnetism and tact (hat enabled hitn 
to win all hearts and then ^eep them in 
spite of the fact that he was so often 
brought in temporary Antagonism with such 
friends as he pressed on his way as a re- 
former of abuses. It was seen and known u in 
that though only thr. Cier^ sf the Assqcia rb 
tion, yet it was' Lemuel Burkitt's will and jd called 
schemes that were the rule of all the great ',; by all 
christian body. Yet no one ever resented or L. - 

denounced this powerful control exercised ;.b 

by a subordinate "officer. It was accepted lniusion 
as a matter of cour.-e and the reformer was 
thus left to go on his way rejoicing. But 
these and all things else earthly were be- 
come things of the past when the Rev. Aa- 
ron Spivey as the preacher of the funeral 
sermon, and his sorrowing brethren far and 
near, gathered to bury his remains out of 
human sight. " A great man and a prince Jmnot be 

thus account in Israel' - bad fallen in his armor. He had ! Thus 
, . r . served long and nobly, and in dying had left ; 

the infusion QOt Ms Hke in all the land so abundantly >n half a 

crown, coagi blessed by his life and labors. cheese 

of sixty pou — -» JL - „_ ^ MMtJ ^x vwwgiHiaMa 

matter cannot in this case exceed a few grains. > Yi 

The curd of milk^ when pressed, salted, and partly dried, 'com- 
poses cheese. In good cheese, however, there is always a large 
proportion of butter, which is enveloped in the curd, and is not 
afterwards easily separable. Curd, therefore, for exhibiting its 
chemical properties, should be prepared from milk, which has 
been deprived of cream, and should be made by the intervention 
of rennet. It is a white solid substance, insoluble in water and in 
alcohol, but readily soluble in pure alkalis, and precipitable there- 
from by acids, though in a state more like tallow than the original 
curd. During solution in alkalis, a strong smell of ammonia is 
produced ; and hence curd appears to be converted, by their ac- 
tion, into volatile alkali and fat. Liquid ammonia also dissolves 
curd ; and it appears to be soluble by the pure alkaline earths. 
From the resemblance of its properties to those of the coagulated 
white of an egg, Scheele was induced to regard cheese as identi- 
cal with albumen ; and it is not improbable that if the curd could 
be obtained perfectly pure, their properties would exactly agree. 
By the combustion and calcination of curd, it appears, however, 
to afford a larger proportion of phosphate of lime and other sa- 1 
line substances, than is obtained from the coagulated white of ati 

* 'Es'^ays, p. 267. ■ -1" Holland's Cheshire Report, p. 263. 



SECT. V. 

■ ' I 

water, a ni 
ed, resemb! 
the weight! 
action of til 
and to the 
bonate of 
section on 

From th 
may be se] 
hoi, and d 
rated. Its 
stated, by 
or one hali 
tains a nui! 
muriate of 
Muriate oi 
along with 
separated j 
riates, at ai 
is to be rl 
cold, depo 
are the ph« 
of phospha 

Along w! 
up by the 
shown, by 
in muriatic 
benzoic ac 
that of hert 
worth exti 
forms abou 

Albumei 
xiable prop 
tempeiatu) 
This is in ] 
resulting i 
coagulated 
dissolve th 
albumen is 
by heat an 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina, 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir VI— KeV. Martin Ress 

CHAPTER ONE. 

"The kingdom of God cometh not with 
observation " was the declaration of our 
Lord. There were myriads of men in many 
different lands waiting and watching for the 
signs which were to disclose the advent of 
the long expected Messiah, yet the star of 
Bethlehem was an unheeded signal to all 
save the three wise men of the east and the 
humble shepherds of the srord*^.-piain^ The 
Pharisee, set and rooted in the nes-t- df"~hts 
own preconceptions of the pomp and splen- 
dor necessarily attendant upon an eveut so 
august and potent in human affairs, dis- 
dained the thought that the King of the 
Jews could be identified with the puling 
baby, making his entrance upon life in the 
cattle stalls of a -vil'age inn. It was the 
same incredulity that led this sect thirty 
years later to mock at all the miracles of a 
Saviour who had been so long known as a 
village carpenter. A great feature in Christ's 
visit to this world seems to have been to 
mortify and banish from the hearts of his 
people all such vain and selfish expectations. 
We often find the true successors and repre- 
sentatives of these ancient self- deceivers in 
persons who have fixed up in their minds 
the way they will find release from their 
consciousness of sin and want of acceptance 
with God. Some expect to be converted by 
some manifestation from heaven almost as 
miraculous as that by whic'a Saul of Tarsus 
was arrested on his bloody errand to Damas- 
cus. Others more reasonable await less sig- 
nificant manifestations on the part of the 
Holy Spirit, but with all their evident thirst 
for deliverance, we invariably find that such 
people are the last to be blest in the richest 
seasons of revival. But let us be thankful 
that not even stupidity and obstinacy are 
proof against the infinite mercy which sees 
and pities our poor human frailty. " If any 
man thirst let him come unto me and drink," 
cried the Lord Jesus to the listening multi- 
tudes, and so says he to-day even to men 
and women who would dictate the manner 
and style of their receiving pardon from the 
' urts of heaven. 

swumcs ucr yjinmie, ixix. oil, 



265 

• deposit- 
Df £ or * 
d by the 
n urine ; 
the car- 
(see the 

led urea,, 
vith alco- 
ly evapo- 
has been 
he urine, 
idue con- 
f potash, 
ammonia, 
dissolved, 
of being- 
The mu- 
le, which 
>n, when 
which 
onsisting 

io, taken 
2 may be 

pouring 
onsists of 
1 ; but in 

as to be 
in that it 

very va- 
e boiling 
ns in it. 
ammonia 
contains 
c acid to 
portion of 
tion both 
fusion of 



206 

galls, by a 
shank, to ■. 

Sulphur 
serves, blai 
are detach 
hydrogen i 
been kept 

The san 
sred carbo 
arise from 
however, tl 
eompositio 
source, ah 
by Proust 
By the dec 
and this, i 
would doul 
ence of th 
quently ha 
adding rau 
thus indicr 

The ace 
had discov 
they were 
which he ( 
not a little 
fresh extrt 
ter by dilu 
grow thick 
acid being 
produced 1 

The pul 
somewhat i, 
urea, whicl 
nate of am 
precipitate 
uniting wit 
settles in v 
salt is the 
large a par 
contained i 
deposited, 



COMPLEX ANIMAL PRODUCTS. CftAP. XXII. 

Such a line of thought was suggested by 
the- life and conversion of Martin Ross, 
whose career in this world will form the 
subject of this memoir. A lad born in se- 
clusion and comparative poverty amid the 
dense swamps which then fringed both 
banks of the Roanoke river, and then at the 
earliest moment of his fitness for military phuretted 
life going off to mingle in the carnage and which has 
confusion of contending armies, would ap- 
pear to have slight prospect of usefulness in 
the future, so far as christian beneficence id discov* 



Cruick- 

d, he ob- 
nd scales 



was. concerned. His alternations of labor on 
his father's farm near Williamston, and then 
months of toil, exposure and evil connec- 
tions amid the net fishermen, of the Roan- 
oke, were a poor school of morals at best, 
but counted as nothing when contrasted 



les which 
tie doubtp 
m the de- 
the same. 



with the countless temptations and sinful *ie, found 



examples encountered in armies so largely 
composed of French infidels and atheists. 
Yet a youth thus exposed to so many dan- 
gers of soul and body was, by the help of , in urine, 
God, not only to survive the perils of the 3na i p res , 
battle-field, bui almost immediately on his 
return to his old home, he found the pearl 
of great price. 

We have in the life of Rev. Reuben Ross, 
a brother of Martin, a vivid picture of the 
old Ross homestead and of life on the Roan- 
ake in those far off days. It seems that one 
William Ross had come as the first of the 
name, and made his home on the same farm 
near Williamston. He left a son, also named 
William, who was born Aug. 9th, 1731. 
Nine other boys and girls, beside Martin, 
made full the quiver of this pious and pro- 
lific old man, the second Wm. Ross. He jhous mat- 
was a member of Skewarkey Baptist church, - mn j nc . f 
and held with unquestioning faith all the ' ' ° 
extremest Calvinistic teachings and deduc- j excess of 
tions on the subject of predestination. It resin thus 
would be amusing if so much that is tragic . 
and ruinous did not mingle with the story, 
to tell to what lengths these well-meaning I changes, 

„ : — .. :*~ aJ^XHn-i^ The 

people carried their deductions of the fact 
that God has foreknowledge and control in 
human affairs. That men had at the same 
time been ieft in possession of their own 
wills in such matters, was as entirely ig- 
nored as if Christ had never taught the 
truth, that men are free to accept or reject 
his terms of mercy. With a fatalism that 
would astound even a Saracen dervish, these titutes so 
ultra Calvinists said it was "love's labor 
lost" to teach the way of life to their chil- 
dren. If they were of the true elect, then it 
was, they said, forestalling the work of .the j 
Holy Spirit to be thus attempting to save a j 



een kept, 
formed ; 



for it fre- 
brmed by 
itic acid ; 

agined he 
sing, that 
processes 
y urine is 
istilling a 



n. 

to carbo- 

:ids, and 

mmonia, 

t, which 

1. This 



gelatine 
lakes are 
c acid is 



SECT. V. 

generated 
sarbonate of 
appear, thei' 
putrefaction 

Some in? 
shank, resp 
ent diseases 
by heat and 
blood. Wlj 
the liver, thi 
small in que 
portion of pi' 
In inflamma 
albumen. I 
deposited a 
nute quantit] 
and some p< 
of jaundiced; 
discoverable! 
was remark] 
had scarce^ 

The com 
classes of ai 
of all anima 
uric acid is 
•which conti 
That of the 
milky afterj 
bonate of liij 
of magnesia 
urine of thj 
holds in soil 
potash. — TI 
the same pa 
Vauquelin, 

Urinary 
that of the c 
occasion a ( 
remedy. I 
tion, till thd 
ny other su 
towards ace 



vessel perhaps ccKisfgnecl'to" eternal wratli 
from the foundation of the world. Thus be- 
yond regular family worship there was 
scarcely a semblance of effort to mould and 
direct the moral growth of their owu off- 
spring. They weie left to follow their own 
devices as to how they should spend Sun- 
days It was a matter of small concern to 
old Mr. Ross, and men of his ilk, that his 
boys forgot that the Sabbath was not to be 
profaned. If they drank too much apple 
brandy on these Sunday frolics, it was set 
down a> only an incident of youth and in- 
discretion which would be all forgiven 
when, in his own good time. God should 
call the prodigal from the error of his ways. 
The Ross family lived just east of the 
town of Williamston on a farm then known 
as the "Islands." It was so situated that 
great advantages were obtained as to rear 
ing and fattening live stock. William Ross 
found that the rich bottom lands of the Ro- 
anoke were a mine of wealth in their many 
sources of food for both hogs and neat c ittle. 
The never failing supply of reed forage and 
the great crops of acorns and other kinds of 
mast sustained his cattle and hogs of them- 
selves, and corn was only used to keep them 
gentle and mindful of human help. A low, 
rambling house built around a large central 
room, with a huge, wide spreading mulberry 
tree shading the front door, were the chief 
elements in the rural landscape containing 
the old Ross homestead. In that humble 
and unpretending home of simple, homely 
abundance were to be reared three ministers 
of the gospel. Two of them, Martin and Reu- 
ben Ross, were to attain great usefulness and 
influence in their separate fields of labor, 
while their brother James, in an humbler 
sphere, was to be no less zealous and useful. 
That so many of William Ross's sons thus 
became so useful in God's service, shows 
hjw much more pregnant and convincing is 
a pure and consistent christian's life than 
oceans of advice and admonition, wanting 
the proper sanctions of sincerity in the mon- 
itor. It is breath wasted for an inconsistent 
parent to talk morality to a boy who is 
aware of how such things fail to influence 
the life of him who thus essays to show the 
way to holiness. The father who dogma- 
tizes and utters loud prayers all the week 
and still can not visit the stores on Saturday 
without getting fuddled with bad whiskey, 
rather disgusts than edifies the boys he 
would seek to influence for good. Old Mr. 
William Ross took just the opposite course. 
He walked close with God and let his exam- 
ple alone plead with the youths he loved and 



i 207 

I 

ate and 
osphate 
i by the 

Cruick- 
11 differ- 
npletely 
i of the 

state of 
d to be 
iderable 
Proust.) 
led with 
le urine 

ery mi- 
of lime ? 

e urine 
hich was 

1 urine 
intSj but 

different 
he urine 

but the 
urine of 
oic acid, 
ecoming 
n of car- 
rbonates 
e. The 
dc acid, 
jriate of 
through 
:roy and 
cid. 

urine is 
id which 
s and its 
omposi- 
> on ma- 
lit steps 

acid in 



208 

one of tl 
urine, h« 
tained, r 
most ab! 
and Vai 
state th; 
lus wert 
less dist 
plicity v 
experiro 
the Nat; 
belongs 
The 
than th<j 
substanj 
sufficier 
moniac( 
animal 1 
ingredh 
but, in t 
is in ra 
these si 
nance oi 
characte 
signed, 
trived. 
which t 
In these 
been att 
ic distin 
of arran; 

I. Ca 

II. C; 
phospha 

III. C 
and 

iv. <j 

oxalate 
I. Tli 
•ccurre: 

* Se 
7A1 



yet only aided as to council, in his prayers 
made in their hearing, that God would yet 
iu his own good time give them "the peace 
that passeth understanding." 

Martin Ross no doubt pondered long and 
well over those weighty questions touching 
providence, free-will and that soul fatalism 
he saw overshadowing the life of his honored 
father. His strong, natural affections in 
earlier years might lead him to accept as 
true any gloss, however monstrous and in- 
credible, that he got from William Ross; 
but that keen, undaunted intelligence that 
was in late years to make him immortal, 
earlj 7 began to question many of the deduc- 
tions made by the fatalists in their pretended 
amplification of Paul and Calvin's teaching 
on the subject. When in the stress of the 
Revolutionary war, Mr. Ross had sent Mar- 
tin to join his twj older brothers, John and 
William, on the tented field, the future ora- 
tor and divine found a new school of lasting 
impressiveness. His ideas and emotions 
hitherto had been colored only by the hints 
he received at the old-field school and in the 
godly lives of his parents. In the army he 
found every day experiences showing the 
contrasts of strength and weakness in hu- 
man character. He saw men grown to be 
veterans in the ranks who yet trembled and 
sought every means to avoid going into ac- 
tual battle. On tte other hand were a mul- 
titude that would be grieved and shamed if 
accident kept them back from the post of 
duty on such an occasion. He saw these 
same men freely volunteering to make up a 
forlorn hope, whenever their commander 
thought so bloody and dangerous a resort 
should be used against the insolent foe. He 
heard all shades of ecclesiastical teaching 
mooted and discussed around the winter 
camp fires and much to weaken his faith in 
Calvinistic fatalism. The Methodist chap- 
lains and the reformed Baptists never grew 
weary in expatiating on the love and mercy 
of Christ for all our race. Tnat his atone- 
ment was for all conditions and tribes, and 
that peace awaited every weary and heavy- 
laden soul that would really accept of Je- 
sus. Such great Baptist preachers as John 
^anOrJqhn Leland and Jeremiah Walker in 
-"their, addresses to the troops preached a re- 
ligion so much broader and more merciful 
thaii,the ^rpn-clad tenets Martin Ross had 
b88n r Uiearing at Skewarkey, that his soul 
acquired a breadth of love and faith in the 
world-wide mercy of God that could never 
again cramp itself into the gloomy and hope- 
less fatalism of his parents. 

When happily in 1781 the young soldier at 



pHAP. xxif- 

he ordinary 
since ascer- 
ts have been 
of Fourcroy 

fiowever, to 
es of calcu- 
hemoir, not 
by the sim- 
erwards the 
nunicated to 
questionably 

is numerous 
;>e the only 
this sort, is 
llime ; am- 
ex ; and an 
o the earthy 
te of lime; t 
lority which 
f that any of 
ie predomi- 
its peculiar 
ould be as- 
e been con- 
lree genera, 
'lve species, 
fences have 
Is for specif- 
ery purpose 
g heads : 

D-magnesiaa 
late of lime; 

bperty from 

i 

if very rare 

the charac- 



SECT. VIll 

branes con 
quantity o 
them. By 
earthy mat 

The sea 
compositioi 
are more n< 
of alternate 

The skin 
on the outs 
of blood ve: 
Between th 
called rete 

1. The 
separated f 
Hot soluble 
centrated t( 
kalis howe\ 

/ agulated al 
tinge from 

2. Thee 
number of 
considerabl 
water entir 
jnates on c( 
Verted into 

The true 
tine ; but u 
water. It i 
two imports 
ception of t 
. 3. Of th 
the skin, or 
continued a 
in the negr 

Hair has 
lin. He ef 
pin's diges 
quired, ho\ 
was decomi 
oil, and sulj 
ftortof biturr 

vol. ii. 



contrary, 
jomposed 

embrane 

one, full 

nsibility. 

ubstance 

j 

, is best 

it. It is 

itly con- 



the age of nineteen years returned in peace 
and safety to his home on the Roanoke, both . 
his own soul and those of the family went ! P°suecl a 
out in gratitude to that protecting provi • dissolve 
dence which had not only shielded him from port j on f 
death in battle, but had brought him back l 
without wounds or any of the diseases that 
wreck so many strong men in camp and chemical 
hospital. He had not as yet made any open 
profession of religion, but the matter was 
not to be much longer deferred. Befoie the 
year was out, he was baptized as a member 
of Skewarkey church. There, young as he 
was, the congregation were edified and as- 
tonished at the mingled grace and power of 
his modest ^n^^shtrrt addresses in confer- 
ence. He soon yielded to his impressions of 
duty and requested the church to give him 
license to preach the gospel! They not only 
did this, but at an astonishingly early pe- 
riod in his life and ministry called him as 
their pastor. 

In the thick veil of oblivion which Mes for- 
ever hidden away from all human knowl- 
edge so much of the lives and transactions ne * A *" 
of even of the greatest, men -in North Caro- with co= 
lina, we have lost all the details of how Mar- a yellow 
tin Ross, under so many disadvantages, yet ! 
made himself the great pfeacher of after j 
years. We are left to imagine how the jists of a 
strong native intelligence was alternately [ j . 
exalted and then grew almost desperate in j 
his struggles for more light. It was vain to jOilmg in 
seek aid of the illiterate brethren he met in ih welat- 
Union Meetings ; they could not venture in i,. 
exegesis beyond the plainest of bea'en paths \ Y con * 
in their limited field of Bible construction. 
Some had read Dr. Gill's opinions on some f » e i a „ 
of the deep things in Scripture, but as a , f . 
rule not even so great a Baptist authority "Uhle in 
as the eminent English commentator was mals for 
known to men who set themselves up as the „ t u e *„ 
spiritual guides of a people almost perishing .*. 
for want of higher light and knowledge. ue * 
Such perfunctory guidance of his people it part of 
could not for a moment satisfy the con- s , , 
science of Martin Ross. His clear, unclouded Jm ** Ion S 
vision saw all the defects in himself and hkound that 
older brethren who were trying to break the 
bread of life to the still more ignorant peo- v 
pie. With great wrestling in prayer and Vauc l ue ° 
close study of every literary aid in his reach, ng a Pa- 
the rich natural endowments soon began to 
show increased lustre as the result. A won- 
derful young preacher, they said one and all, 
as the speaker warmed up into enthusiasm in 
the progress of his discourse. A flowing and 
yet severely logical style c Vl>r°aching was 
the charm that delighted, and at the same 
28 



ture re- 
the hair 
eumatic 
tained a 
that ©f 



218 .'. " n ""-»r AWFMAL PRODUCTS. OHAP. XXII* 

time convinced such multitudes of their 
u l • *u- 1 s P iritual needs. It was an elocution that 
the hair whicl grew m0 re finished and powerful as the ora 
solution was ] tor waxed greater in know ledge and experi- 
acid ; but did e *? ee - And thus he went on from one degree 
. . ,. or grace and strength unto another until 

cipitate, whic all eastern Carolina was ringing with h fe 
was precipita. praises. 



U, the 

iriatic 
a pre- 
iSilver 
Id of a 



brown. ~ ~- — »— — — =— — 

A diluted solution of potash dissolved hair, excepting a little 
oil, sulphur, and iron ; and the compound was a sort of soap. 
The oil, if red hair was employed, had a yellow tinge. Alcohol, 
also, extracted from hair a portion of oil, the colour of which va- 
ried with that of the hair. 

The coal, obtained by incinerating hair, afforded phosphate, sul- 
phate, and carbonate of lime, muriate of soda, silex, magnesia, and 
oxides of iron and manganese. The whole of these substances 
bore a very small proportion to the hair, and varied in hair of dif- 
ferent colours. Hair, therefore, appears to consist chiefly of an 
animal matter resembling coagulated albumen \. of an oil of vari- 
ous colours ; of sulphur, silex, carbonate and phosphate of lime ; 
and oxides of iron and manganese. ^ 

Feathers probably agree in composition with hair. The quill, • 
Mr. Hatchett has shown, consists of coagulated albumen without 
any gelatine. 

The composition of wool is not accurately known ; but from its 
forming a soap with pure alkalis, it probably consists of coagulat- 
ed albumen. 

We are equally ignorant of the true- nature of silk. It is inso- 
luble both ih water and in alcohol, but dissolves in pure alkalis 
and acids. By the action of nitric acid it affords the peculiar 
substance already described under the name of the bitter prin- 
ciple. 



SECTION IX. 

Of the Substance of the Brain. 

The medullary matter of the brain and nervous system appear* 
to differ from all other organized substances. It was first exam- 
ined by M. Thouret, with a view to explain why the brain was 
exempted from the change, observed in the bodies which were 
interred in the Cimetiere des Innocens. Fourcroy afterwards add- 
ed many important facts, and corrected M. Thouret in several 
particulars. 

The medullary substance of the brain is of a soft consistence, 






SfXT. IX. ' 

and forms, wh 
es through th< 
perature of 1 £ 
men is separa 
but the coag' 
takes place fi 
alcohol, it lo: 
tibn, which h 
the form of Is 
are obtained 
cire ; but dif 
temperature 
mains in solu 
ter or by eva] 

The medul 
goes spontani 
passes to the 
time without 
effects upon i 
separated; b 
of carbonate < 
in the retort. 

Diluted sul 
another part, 
ed by evaporf 
are formed yi 
salt, sulphate: 
phates cf sods 

When braij 
agulates and I 
increased, am 

acid formed a 

l 

A portion of c 
hydrogen gas* 
affords traces 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina, 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir VI — Rev. Martin Ross. 

CHAPTER TWO. 



The Rev. Martin Ross did not at once leap 
into that leadership and control of religious 
affairs, as was seen in his great friend and 
cotemporary, Lemuel Burkitt. His early 
opportunity for social and literary culture 
had been inferior to that youth's, reared in 
the superior wealth and refinement of Cho- 
wan county. It was thus several years after 
Martin Ross had begun his career as a min- 
ister of the gospel before we find any men- 
tion of him in the history of the Kehukee 
Association. But this modest and proper 
delay on his part in assuming a leading part 
among the preachers and laymen of so great 
a body only enhanced his power, when after 
years of patient observation and preparation 
he made known the mighty resources of his 
mind and soul in the great Baptist conclave. 
Burkitt saw with much delight that here 
was a debater as skilful as himself in all the 
resources of synthetic and analytic treat- 
ment of the most exalted and abstruse prob 
lems of theology. He further recognized in 
the flowing and magnetic elocution, the so- 
norous tones, the pleading eyes and sympa- 
thetic bodily movements, elements of power 
that surpassed even hi3 own resources in 
such respects. That another great religious 
orator had come to share his honors and in- 
fluence gave the true man of God never a 
twinge of jealousy or uneasiness. He loved 
the cause to which he had devoted his life 
too deeply for any such sinful and unmanly 
feelings to find lodgment in his heart. He 
and Martin Ross, on the contrary, became 
loving yokefellows in the same great lines 
of development and progress for the Baptist 
people. In all the efforts for advance and 
higher living among the Lord's people these 
two were ever found with interlocking 
shields pressing resistlessly on against the 
advocates of discord and delay. Mr. Ross, 
like other Baptist preachers of his day and 
generation, was largely given to making 
preaching excursions in the different outly- 
ing sections of country, that were still near 
enough to enable him to reach home in time 



219. 

it pas.s- 
a tem- 
| albu- 
acids ; 
which 
d with 
le por- 
ling in 
| which 
adipo- 
higher 
ch re- 
of wa- 

under- 
fore it, 
a long 
i same 
gen is 
lantity 
found 

ulates 
ntrat- 
rystals 
:s this 
phos- 

it co- 
ie at is 
rbonic 
jnonia- 
[retted 
which 



i»i»ECTIO 



1 HE 

of mineral 
of chemic 
ance with 
substance 
essential t 
terminatk 
Such min 
periments 
general k 
assist in d 
not attenv 
shall only- 
insight in 
constituei 
in genen 
Before 
proper to 
ly its phy 
bourhood 
specting i 
be stated 
a rainy o 
Carefully 
inquired ! 
ities of ta 
certained 
may be fc 
a known 
v.hh the a 



for his regular appofnfmeats at Skewarkey. 
Some of these trips were doubly blessed. 
Both the missionary and the people were the 
better for his visitations. To the compara- 
tively rich and cultured denizens of the 
counties lying between Chowan river and the 
Atlantic, Martin Ross seemed a gift from 
heaven. They always heard him gladly, 
and hundreds found the pearl of great price 
under his ministry. Many of the wealthiest 
and exclusive families that had looked with 
disdain on Baptist preachers and their doc- 
trines were at last seen humbling them- 
selves before the Lord and casting their fu- 
ture lots with their despised neighbors. 

f n such a community Mr. Ross found that 
the Baptists were quite a different people 
from the gloomy and iron clad fatalists he 
was vainly seeking to lead into a more lov- 
ing and gracious estimate of their Creator. 
While fully agreeing with the old Baptist 
tenet as to predestination as a necessary 
part of God's foreknowledge, he yet remem- 
bered the fulness of our Lord's offers of 
mercy to every one who would come and 
drink of the waters of life. He could not 
set down as unmeaning so many of those 
gracious and unlimited offers of the Master, 
simply because the Apostle Paul, in the 
course of his argument, had asserted that 
God, from the beginning of the world, had 
foreseen who would be saved. It seems a 
monstrous perversion of the whole tenor of 
our Saviour's career of loving benefactions 
and continual forgiveness of injuries and 
sins, that he should in advance decree the 
damnation of the least of his creatures. But 
it was all in vain that Martin Ross reminded 
his Skewarkey people of the fact that free 
will was left to every human creature, and 
it was thus the fault of the negligent and 
not that of God that men found no mercy at 
his hands. This church, with those at Ke- 
hukee and the Falls of Tar River, were the 
centres of the baleful hyper-Calvinistic fa- 
talism. They rolled this doctrine as a sweet 
uc coniems 01 me wa'fr: me m-.n'- • •■ ■■■■- > 
morsel u ir their tongues, and felt much 
of the o] Pharisee sentiment of contempt 
for all vv were not numbered among the 
elect of 1. 

It must have been a painful task for Mr. 
Ross to sunder his pastoral tits with the 
people he had known from infancy, and who 
had bestowed on him so many touching 
marks of their love and confidence. He had 
found peace and been baptized in -this very 
fold. These people had been swift to per- 
ceive and encourage his gifts as a young 
preacher. His stern but faithful father had 



MINERAL 



iters, and 

It subjects 

acquaint- 

s class of 

therefore 

ninute de- 

of bodies. 

i the ex- 

of life ; a 

lffkientto' 

I shall 

alysis, but 

afford an 

ion, of the 

substances 

jater, it is 
I attentive- 
the neigh- 
Blions re- 
ear should 
ether after 
? must be 
ie quantity 
isible qual- 
ao best a$- 
" the water 
containing 
ture, filled 
rature. It 



SECT. I. 

case, sulpha 
40.) 

3. Baryte 
der. 

4. Nitricj 
little water) 
composed : 
monia, be 1 
distinguish! 
appearance^ 



These aci 
cations as tt 
recommend 
that contain 
sulphurette 
sues on add 
latter, a sli^ 
becomes lej 
cipitate of a 
that this is ( 



The oxal 
rates from ! 

1. If a 
milky on a( 
air through 
we may infe 
found pure 

2. If the 
boiling, the 

3. Ifafte 
any of their 
casioninga; 
acids deconj 
lime, prevej 
88.) 

The oxa 

formed by s 

a solution o 
vo£. II. 



died in the same fold in 1801. But with all 
these things to sadden him, Martin Ross felt 
in his soul that his work was to lie elsewhere 
in the future. Influences beyond his or any 
other human sagacity had tied up and cir- 
cumscribed his influence in such a way at 
Skewarkey that he was forced to the conclu- 
sion that some new man should take the 
place he held. It was thus that the great 
preacher at last freed himself of the last in- 
cumbrance upon his soaring spirit. Passing 
over the broad waters that divided old Al- 
bemarle from the more western settlements, 
he went to the church at Yeoppim. It was 
almost like entering upon a new and higher 
stage of existence. The strong man in all 
his genius and power felt how much stronger 
he grew with a multitude of sympathetic 
souls sharing in his glorious aspirations for 
a day of better things among the Baptist 
people. 

Burkitt and his allies had done great 
things for the churches, but there was still 
pressing need for advance along other lines. 
Not a letter or a delegate had ever been seen 
at the Kehukee from Sandy Creek or any of 
the Associations that once formed a part of 
her constituency. There was not even the 
semblance of fraternity, much less any con- 
cert of action, between the great bodies of 
Baptists thus enrolled in separate and al- 
most hostile camps. With that keen, natural 
sagacity, which was one of Martin Ross's 
leading features of mind, he selected the re- 
cent extension of missionary work to foreign 
fields as the lever to lift the discordant divis- 
ions of his people into unity and fellowship, 
though all Christendom was ringing with 
conflicting comments upon the great work 
undertaken by Dr. William Carey. Though 
a great impulse was pervading myriads of 
christian souls in different lands, as yet no 
man had gone from America to aid the brave 
and godly Englishman who, in despite of so 
many opposing influences, had yet begun 
the work of saving the souls of men and 
women "sitting in the region and shadow 
of death." While all Baptist traditions and 
records showed how, in spite of the most 
cruel and bloody laws to the contrary, the 
old preachers had passed from land to land, 
and though often impiisoned and burnt 
at the stake, these heralds ofg the Cross 
were still found faithfully prosecuting the 
work. In Anitfica there were not only the 
heathen Indians but many outlying settle- 
ments in the wilderness to tax the best ener- 
gies and resources of a poor people in the 
work of their evangelization. As so much 
was yet to be done at home in America, the 
29 



225 
aljxviih 

ite povr- 

! 

in very 
are de- 
ure am- 
ar. For 
;e of this 



me indi- 
jias been 
waters 
rain only 
itate en- 
■ ; in the 
ie water 
ss a pre- 
?ncludes 



it sepa- 

become 
blowing 
iss tube,, 
yet been 

lot after 
i. 

xcess of 
from oc- 
ist- some 
xalate of 
rs, page 

3asily be 
.alia with 
tion, and 



2£fi other dusky and almond-eyed races swarm- 

I ing on the opposite side of the world, had 

are orefef not eQ t ei ' e d at a ^ m tne matter of their con- 

P victions of duty. But the Lord was opening 

these oxa the eyes and hearts of his people to the fact 

atic or nil of the universal brotherhood of mankind, 

ted an( ^ M artm Ross was the first man in North 

satura j Q aro i ma % ur g e U p 0n hi s people their duty 

itation wi in helping to send the gospel even to the far- 

The qv on " Asiatic multitudes. 

» It was thus that we find in the session of 

by nrst c, the Kehukee Association in 1803 that the 

into a ca{ matter was brought to an open issue by the 



cid, by 



of oxalat 

Thefl 

a most d 



following query offered by the Rev. Martin 
Ross, "Is not the Kehukee Association, with 

Accordir a \[ h er numerous and respectable friends, 
called on in Providence, in some way to step 
forward in support of that missionary spirit 
which the great God is so wonderfully re- 
viving amongst the different denominations 

bonate oi °* good men in various parts of the world ?" 
Let it be remembered that Martin Ross, 

serving tl Dorn an( j re ared in the darkest haunts of 
fatalism, was yet the man to take such 
ground nine years before Judson and Rice 
had started to India. Of course, so impor- 

1. Th< tant and exciting a matter was bound, under 
whether all the rules and precedents of old Kehukee, 

• { . to undergo many ordeals before reaching 
. " \ anything like approval from the Associa- 
present i tion. Mr. Moderator, the Rev. Jesse Read, 
being di-J' e ^ errea ^ the whole matter to a very select 

committee, including the leading ministers 
tate so rr f t ^ e DOC jy ) w ith instructions to report at 
very pre the next annual meeting their impressions 
the coloi on q J? subject. 

This was the beginning of a great work in 
recedes Baptist circles in North Carolina. Its first 
ed earth effect was a prodigious stirring up of the dry 

• bones in the congregations beyond the Ro- 
anoke. Here was another step in advance 

ly be gn proposed as to the Lord's work, and that 

2. Pu was enough to set all the old-fashioned con- 

servatives in solid opposition. The Associa- 
monia, ^ tiQQ ^ held ftt Menerrin in 1804) not on i y an _ 

dissolve swered the query in the affirmative, but ap- 
when a i pointed delegates to meet others invited 
from Portsmouth and Neuse Associations at 
Cashie church in Bertie. There was inaug- 
urated the movement which, long after- 
wards, resulted in the formation of the 
North Carolina Baptist State Convention. 
As was eminently proper, Mr. Ross was 
chosen to preach the introductory sermon at 
the Cashie Convention. 

This memorable body convened on the 
third Sunday in June, 1805, and Revs. Lem- 
it does { uel Burkitt, Martin Ross, Aaron Spivey, 
Jesse Read and John McCabe were Kehu- 
kee's representatives on the occasion. The 
Convention proceeded to formulate plans for 



3. Ca 

4. P 
Beside 
liquid t 
precipit 
cess of 

5. C? 



to ascer 



CHAP. %, 

Yet even, 

^rith muri° 

it must be 

A precip- 

be known, 
ihe oxalate 
carbonic a- 
1 crucible, 
le give 109 
f 

I find to be 
jdding car- 
; vessel, ob- 



ind metals, 
only in cer- 
ine may be 
)0, without 
lis precipi- 
afford any 
its. From 
re white, or 
i precipitat- 
and its pre- 
n\\ present- 1 

lasis of am- 
he salts are 
s it exhibits 
ight near, 
fects. 

tallic salts. 

lour to any 
llution ; the 
Id by an ex- 

except that 
hs. Hence,, 
ion, add thr 



carbonate of a 
the liquor; ra 
ammonia. Ii 
presence of m 
tria, and glue 
they have nev 
ence can scari 



1. Lime-w; 
detecting carl 
acid be mixed 
be present, ei 
ly appear, wl 
gain be disso! 

2. Lime-w 
mate by a bri 
mon arsenic^ 
will occasion 
which is verj 
mixed up wii 
garlic smell < 

IX.- 

1 . A solut 
water in det 
more portab 
.earth, the ba 
ed. In disc< 
similarly to 1 

. manner, a pi 
ic acid. 

2. Theba 
^; acid and its < 

soluble in rm 
test. The q 
weight of th^ 



I. Of the I 

of hydro-sul] 
quicksilver 1 



M7 



the establishment of regular contributions 
for Home and Foreign Missions, but made 
no formal report to the Kehukee Association 
of the results of their labors. This grew out 
of the fact that when the year 1806 came, the 
Chowan Association had been formed, and 
to this far more sympathetic organization 
the leaders in the work belonged. Elder 
Biggs, in his continuation of Burkitt's his- 
tory, says no report ever reached old Kehu- 
kee. This may be true, but we yet know 
her churches sent up funds repeatedly for 
missionary purposes "to the General Meeting 
of Correspondence, year after year, until 
their final adumbration in 1827. 

The debite in the old historic church at 
Meherrin must have been one of the most 
inspiring ever heard in this country. With [ c ac id 
Ross, Burkitt and George Outlaw to uphold 
the cause of missions was to insure a glow- 
ing and exhaustive presentation of the rea 
sons that had led to the introduction of the 
query. It is not astonishing that with such 
advocates the stolid and inert tide waiters 
on the other side of the question should have 



filter 
1 pure 
:r the 
n, yt- 
;; but 
■pres- 



8y for 
in this 



ediate- 
will a- 



subli- 
(com- 



known 



but little to say. They were in fact, as a L jj et j 
class, men of very few words on any occa- j m ' 
sion. If they could be induced to listen to is acid, 
argument and entreaty, it was to very little ; when 
purpose. To reason and Scripture, to elo- 
quence and persuasion, they simply opposed 
the v is inertia of their moveless natures. 

But whatever of grief Martin Ross may 
have felt in the want of sympathy of such 
people with things so dear and momentous 
to him, he was largely compensated in the in ii m e = 
spirit so opposite to all this evinced by the, . 

churches of the new Chowan Association. 3 muc 
Unanimity and enthusiasm were accompa- 
niments of every appeal to their souls for 
longer interest in the extension of Christ's 
kingdom of this world. The zeal and devo- 
tion which have all along marked and enno- 
bled the record of this great christian body, 
led the people to accept the plain letter of 
our Lord's latest command without ever a 
doubt as to their duty in the premises, ujphuric 
Christ had told his people assembled on. 
Mount Olivet to witness his ascension, that ltate not 
beginning at Jerusalem they should preach'ects as a 
the gospel to all nations. Mr. Ross had only j j^ t jj e 
aroused and fastened their attention on a ^ 
plain matter of duty. Like Carey and Fuller 
in England, the preachers even had to be 
reasoned with before seeing the full weight 
of fealty they owed in the matter. The tor- 
por and forgetfulness of God's people in this reseTJce 
great responsibility they owed the heathen if a little 
was passing away like a nightmare of the ,_. . 
past, and nations were making ready to be- '" 



of this 
prepar- 
is used 

in like 
muriat- 



228 g[ n the new crusade against the stocks ancTTiAP. I. 

stones of the swarming millions of the far- 

either of these off East. The car of Juggernaut might still i film, 

„ i oi^i,; roll on in its deadly course over the crushed 
and, on shak bodieg Qf Ms ^^ but the dayg Q{ guch rom it. 

Silver is spec fatal delusions were numbered. Deliver- 

2. The m<7 ance long delayed was coming at last. ^ ^ 

principle of e. ***" ft iron 

plate, immersed in a boluiion of sulphate of copper, soon acquires 
a coat of this metal ; and the same in other similar examples. 

XI. — Sulphate qf Iron. 

This is the only one of the sulphates, except that of silver, ap- 
plicable to the purposes of a test. When used with this view, it 
is generally employed for ascertaining the presence of oxygen gas, 
of which a natural water may contain a small quantity. 

A water, suspected to contain this gas, may be mixed with a 
little recently-dissolved sulphate of iron, and kept corked up, in a 
phial completely filled by the mixture. If an oxide of iron be 
precipitated in the course of a few days, the water may be inferred 
to contain oxygen gas. 

XII. — Sulphate, Nitrate, and Acetate of Silvc*: 
These solutions are all in some measure applicable, to similar 
purposes. 

1. They are peculiarly adapted to the discovery of muriatic a- 
cid and of muriates. For the silver, quitting its solvent, combines 
with the mutiatic acid, and forms a flaky precipitate, which, at 
first, is white, but, on exposure to the sun's light, acquires a blue- 
ish, and finally a black colour. This precipitate, dried and fused 
by a gentle heat, Dr. Biack states to contain, in 1000 parts, as 
much muriatic acid as would form 4251 of crystallized muriate of 
soda, which estimate scarcely differs at all from that of Klaproth. 
The same quantity of muriate of silver (1000 parts) indicates, ac- 
cording to Kirwan, 4541 of muriate of potash. Dr. Marcet's ex- 
periments and my own indicate a larger product of muriate of sil- 
ver f'om the decomposition of dry muriate of soda, viz. not less 
than 240 grains from 100 of common salt. Hence 100 grains of 
fused muriate of silver denote 416 of muriate of soda, and about 
19 grains of muriatic acid. A precipitation, however, may arise 
from other causes, which it may be proper to state. 

2. 1 he solutions of silver in acids are precipitated by carbonat- 
ed alkalis and earths. The agency of the alkalis and earths may, 
however, be prevented, by previously saturating them with a few 
drops of the same acid in which the silver is dissolved. 



fcjECT. *. 

the discover 

nionia has i 
physician tc 
chalybeate, 
ders's Trea 
The suci 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir VI— Rev. Martin Ross. 

CHAPTER THREE. 



cient 
precipitate, 
containing i 
til it ceases 



The soul of Rev. Martin Ross must have 
or ammomj been overflowed with thankfulness as he 
In applying witnessed the growing usefulness and zeal 
r ,1 of the new Chowan Association. This chris- 
tian organization, which at once became the 
pride and hope of the whole denomination 
in North Carolina, exhibited so many signs 
of sympathy and support of the plans Mr. 
Ross was formulating for greater unity in 
tained, cons, the Lord's work, that like one of old, he 
a little wax "thanked God and took courage." But in 
1 the mysteries of providential ruling in the 
about 70 fi^ affairs of this world, a great loss and sorrow 
it appears t was close at hand. Just as the full blessed- 

orecinitarei ness °* ^ e wor ^ ^ e au( * Burkitt had accom- 
* plished was made plain to the meanest ca- 
pacities, the great preacher, who had done 
so much to aid him in his plans, sickened 
and died. It was like David, heart-broken 
over the fatal tidings from Gilboa, when 
Martin Ross fully comprehended that his 

excess of at c ^ e ^ brother in the Lord and hearty co- 
worker in all good things was sure enough 

tion, and h< ^c Qa( j an( j a t, j^e en( j f . d \\ ^g man y labors. 

these two el It'^was indeed a cruel and inexplicable loss 
entirely del t0 t: ^ e survivin g partner in the Lord's work. 



give 148 o 
about &7\ 
2. The 
Ekeberg, p 



He was hardly weak enough to do, as so 
man/ others in similar circumstances have 
done, in his sorrow and confusion suffer 
doubts and resentment to overcloud the 
clearness of his trust and faith in the good- 
(ii. 2 1 4,) th ness of God. Such men are only staggered 
in their perception of the wasted plans and 
j hopes crushed in such calamities. As they 
realize how well even the greatest of men 
can be>pared from the teeming millions of 
earth, the old faith and confidence replace 
the shadows of doubt and sorrow, and the 
future plans are rearranged. 

It was so with Mr. Ross. God had taken his 
chief helper and friend, but a multitude of 
less effective and loving assistants were left 
phosphoric « to do what they could to supply the loss. 
For this pur His brother, Rev. Reuben Ross, had also 
.J grown into fame and usefulness as a preach- 
with a portid er> jj e was t0 become a great light unto 
per, for a fe' the regions north of Nashville, Tenn., and 
_„„..,.•,. _ in the southern parts of middle Kentucky. 
^ . He, too, turned from the extreme Calvinis- 
to contain m tic features of the Skewarkey creed and was 

VOL. II. 30 



12 parts of* 
ammonia, i 
precipitate) 



An easy 
feeen suggei 
which fully 
dissolve the 
solution of j 



233 

of am* 
Marcet, 
Brighton, 
r. Saun- 



of soda 
sect. 8. 
is suffi- 
ces the 
solution 
riate, un- 
te is ob- 
jed with. 
>ntaining 
:rimentSj 
cid, then 
nth wax, 
indicate 

and Mr. 
;iderable 
as no ac« 
iration of 
alum be* 
precisely 
cinate of 
No. 70,) 
Klaproth 



esia has 
property 
; first to 
ed to the 
earth to 
pie salt 
>repared 
on a pa- 
tfi of the 
ispected 
Jvapora- 



2U 

tion. No F 
soda is add* 
dried in a t< 
dred grains 
muriate of ! 
ty of crysta 



Muriate 
of alkaline 
sometimes 
exists in th 
of a few sp 
detected bj 
all the thre 
for those s; 
effervescei 

With re 
ash may be 
ly and imn 
is not affec 
by its smc 
while it ha 

To estin 
any water 
real acid v 
cid saturat 

This so 
hardness o 
out any c 
es a milk 
from the 
a tolerabl 
owing to 
a water ail 
than it has 
metallic s 
ters, whic 

Alcoho 



phate of 
fet this be 



heard proclaiming the 3ame great doctrines cBAF r* 
of love and hope for the human race that 
illustrated the discourses of his elder brother. 
The old homestead in the Islands had been 
forsaken years before by John and William 
Ross and they were living also in the great 'One hui> 
West. Another brother, Rev. James Ross, ^vrt 86 of 
went over into Bertie and planted the church i 
which still bears his name. The old life of r 4 uantl * 
alternate labors on the farm and then of ex- 
citing weeks, as the young men captured 
the year's supplies of shad and herring from 
their nets in Roanoke river, still went on as 
when Martin was a boy and no great wars 'presence 
had called him to the tented field. The vil- have 

lage of Williamston with its single strag- ' ' j 
gling street and the Skewarkey church were *>f potash 



both as sleepy and lifeless as ever ; but Mar- 
tin Ross was in the thick of a battle that ex- 
cited his soul and mind as much as did the 
thunder of the guns at Yorktown and Eutaw 
Springs. 

With a mind that delighted in system and 
organization, he was stretching all of his 
great powers, mental and physical, to the 
task of triumphing over the inertness and 
often mistaken conservatism of Baptist 
brethren all over the State. He saw what 
a 'power for good was already created in the 
Chowan Association ; what limits could be 
set to a similar body embracing the organ- 
ized Baptist hosts of the entire State? His 
dreams were not confined to a simple em- 
bodiment of the churches for promotion of 
missions. He longed for more light to the jresent *& 
preachers and the people. No man better 
appreciated the blessings of education. He 
knew that ignorance had been the hand- 
maid of superstition in all ages of the world's 
history. Though Wake Forest College was 
to be for many years still a thing of the fu- 
ture and no positive efforts were made for nparative 
its establishment, still in the labors of the [ . 

' — ,-ed, with- 

Rev. Luther Rice in building up Columbian it p roc j uc . 
College at Washington City, Mr. Ross saw _ 

the beginning of the end for which he ^ re > a™* 
prayed. , ml derive 

As the years went by and tidings came of 
the wonders Adoniram Judson was bringing 
about with God's help in Burmah, the ear 



.he water 
nate was 
e. Of 
idicator ; 
lble with 

;alis, pot- 
1 distinct- 
unds, and 
iscovered 
alumine 



weight of 
phuric a- 



s effect is 
present in 



liest of bis North Carolina supporters felt ir affinity 



arthy and 
ty in wa- 



ll is soul lifted up with joy and thankfulness 
When in 1803 he had dared to set this ball 
in motion, he was almost alone in his faith 
in such things; now great societies of many 
differing creeds, in widely-scattered nation- 
alities, were contending in noble emulation 
as to which should do most for the salvation , nof aboUt 
of the duskv races. Even the cold worldli- 



SECT. II. 

which are al 
ed native m« 
monly are in 
substances, a 
them in that 
both, an ore.' 
metal is foun 
The copper i 
phur, and th 
copper. 



Method of e 

A MINER 

any previou 
red to one oi 
general kno 
minutely. 

I. To asc 
matter, let ! 
state of fine 
ly with 30 ti 
130°. Afte 
the bottle or 
a funnel, 
filtering paf 
whole be ac 
than the joi 
tering papei 
the decreas 

In certair 
of boiling \ 
of solution 

Should tl 
going expc 
proportion 
ter be laid < 

II. The 
their insolu 
Bninflamau 



ness of the rulers of the British East India 
Company was relaxing under the blessed re- 
sults they saw effected by Dr. Carey and his 
successors in that field of labor. Instead of 
jealous and hostile criticism from the re- 
views and newspapers, the press was true 
to its great work of education and enlight- 
enment, and thus warm words of commen- 
dation were seen replacing the late diatribes 
of such men as the Rev. Sidney Smith. The 
home governments were no less changed. 
They were no longer alarmed at and op- 
posed to the whole system ; they ceased to 
leave the missionaries to the tender mercies 
of any native king or other petty ruler who 
should see fit to murder or imprison the 
daring men who came on their way in de- 
spite of his threats. The missionaries, on 
the contrary, were recognized as entitled to 
all the protection their citizenship might in- 
dicate, and the native rulers soon learned 
that these strange visitors were not to be 
harmed without a due penalty for such an 
outrage. 

We have in this memoir dwelt more on 
Mr. Ross's labors and triumphs as an organ- 
izer and reformer in ecclesiastical relations 
than on his extraordinary gifts and graces 
as an evangelist. Like his lost compeer, Mr. 
Burkitt, he was so eminent in both respects, 
that it is hard to say in which particular 
department of usefulness he was greater or 
more successful. As a preacher, he was un- 
matched in all those thronging years of mar- 
velous growth and advancement generally, 
which marked the first two decades in the 
history of the Chowan Association. In his 
comprehensive and exhaustive treatment of 
religious topics in the pulpit, there was 
something to be heard that reached the con 
sciences of all his audience. Pride, preju- 
dice and frivolity were arrested and so held 
up to the introspection of men and women 
concerned, that the last subterfuge and 
evasion were swept from their possession, 
and like Adam and Eve after their sin in 
Paradise, such sinners became fully aware of 
their shame and peril. He was the first 
Baptist preacher in our State to make heavy 
inroads upbn the Episcopal and wealthy 
classes. Pride and social exclusiveness had 
almost barred access of Baptist truth to such 
hearts until attracted by the outcry of Mar- 
tin Ross; these people ventured out to be 
amused, and in many cases went home hap- 
pily converted to God, and for the rest of 
their lives became humble and useful mem- 
bers of Baptist churches. Such people were 
by no means rare in the beautiful peninsulas 
that lie north of Albemarle sound. The 



243 

re call- 
y com- 
letallic 
at sets 
und of 
ii'j this 
ilphur. 
id sul-r 
ore of 



h is un~ 

without 
e refer- 
attain a 
alyze it 

saline 
in the 
peated- 
1 20° or 
tents of 
aced on 
ler on a 
, let the 
ibly less 
the hi- 
red, and 

portions 
difficult 

he fore- 
ind and 
I hereaf- 

lished by 
by their 
iching 5. 



244 



If, thereft 
foregoing 
in considt 
iron ; we 
ble body. 

III. Th 
are ores c 
merely by 
heavier th 
weighed 1 
er to desci 
cannot wi 
suspended 
a balance, 
Let it next 
of distilled 
ing the vv 
scale from 
necessary 
necessary, 
the weight 
going case 
in water, a 
heavier th 
though pro 



heavier tha : 
al, and ma 
IV. Infli 
away, eithi 
and by the 
thrown inu 
which con' 



chap. 



Harveys, Swarm's, ^or£ers7 Planners, Ba- 
kers, Blounts and others were rich enough 
to educate their sons at the great English 
universities and to deck their daughters in 
all the finery of the period. It was among 
such families that men like Mr. Thomas 
Brownrigg were won as jewels to shine in mflamma- 
the Baptist coronet. 

It was in this way that Mr. Ross planted 
that noble church in Perquimans county 
since known and honored as Bethel. He ingnished 
had been serving Yeopim as pastor up to 
this year of our Lord 1806, but from this 
time until his death twenty-one years later, 
the new congregation was added to his re- 
sponsibilities. Ballard's Bridge was never 
directly under his pastoral care, but still en- 
joyed the benefit of his frequent visits. He 
was indeed in virtue of his superior age and 
talents a real Baptist bishop, largely direct- 
ing and controling their religious affairs in 
all the ancient domain known as Albemarle. 
It was like the loving oversight exercised by 
the Apostle to the Gentiles, who, in virtue of 
his part in the salvation of his people, claim- 
ed the privilege of advice and admonition in 
the Lord's work. To no council, consistory, 
synod or conference did he or Martin Ross 
look for his credentials in such relations. 
They both recognized and enforced the inde- 
pendence of the separate churches, while 
still claiming, as their fathers, in God the 
right to condemn all such sin and disorder as 
was found among the men and women of the 
churches at Corinth and Galatia. 
The Rev. Martin Ross was given a lease 

weighed in of life just twenty years longer than had 
fallen to the lot of his compeer, Rev. Lem- 
uel Burkitt. They were born about the same 
time and had so largely shared in the same 
plans and aspirations for their people, that 
their brotherhood in the Lord became a very 
close bond of union between these born . 
leaders of men. As the new churches crowd- ltre > a 
ed in upon the Chowan Association, and 
that gyeaV body year-^by y ear be came more 
permanent in its influence in North Carolina, 

answer to t the only grief left in Mr. Ross's soul was 

mable subs *^ e Efficiency of the body known as the 

General Committee of Correspondence. This 

I shall nc consisted of delegates sent up each year, who 

curate exai generally met in Raleigh and transacted the 

small business affairs entrusted to their con- 

[ trol. It was an abortive attempt by men 

doing the best that could be attained out of 

the obstinate aversion to change, that as a 

, rule marked all Baptist movements of that 

A SOJ l and earlier days. He saw how far short 

per (see p\jgc -iio,j ui«v ? v **ww./ evaporated? anu i<cLt to cool 



ied in tl 
wholly oi 
a red-hot 



g always 

it may be 

be prop- 

i founded, 

incral be 

scale of 

50 grains. 

n a glass 

contain- 

, to the 

its as are 

rains are 

dividing 

the fore- 

e weight 

ve times 

e metal, 

h, when 

re, times 

n a met- 

burning 
lot iron ; 



however, 
; matter, 
y inflam- 

more ac» 

sses. 



mg man- 



SECT. IV. 

(E) Whet- 
same soluticj 

(a) Precij 
of potash ; 1 
of carbonate 
may be sep 
which will d 
this solution 
itate ceases 
well with dis 
heat, in a c 
of alumine. 

(F) Magr 
cess: Evap 
ness. Weij 
dish,* more 
a sand-heat 
as to expel i 
and digest it 
dissolve the 
lime, which 
ter, and drie 
deduct, fron 
to Klaproth 
tains one th 

If the lit 
the two sul 
crystallizing 

From KU 
cific gravity 
To saturate 
quired, or 1 

The mag 
the carbonal 
cipitate, afte 
an hour. It 
magnesia c( 

(G) Ifm 
{the absenc 

* The bott 
well, and bear 
tic acid. 

VOL. If. 



ANALYSIS OF MINERALS. 

this make-shift fell of what he had desired 
in his soul and was saddened at the failure. 
But this did not so becloud his judgment tftat 
despair of the future wa his. He was la- 
boring and hoping for years for the estab 
lishment of such a body as was seen in the 
town of Greenville for the first time in 1830. 
He was not spared to this world long enough 
to see and be happy in that great event, for 
he died in the year of our Lord 1827. 

If he missed this realization of so many 
bright hopes in the past, Martin Ross was at 
least spared the grief and shame that filled 
the hearts of so many good people that year 
over the sad course pursued by the Kehukee 
Association. Since the formation of the 
Chowan Association and the death of Lem- 
uel Burkitt, the Rev. Joshua Lawrence had 
been growing more and more powerful iu 
his influence over these people He saw and 
encouraged all the wor-t features of their 
fatalism and aversion to everything not sanc- 
tified by prescriptive Baptist usage. Instead 
of laboring to soften the asperities and gloom 
of such men and women, Joshua Lawrence 
added the venom of hatred and distrust of 
all others who dared in any way to differ 
from him and the peopM he thus misled. 
Under his influence the 'dder ties of love 
and fraternity were all ca*t to the wind, and 
insults and open hostility arere assumed as 
the proper treatment of those who had so 
lately also been members of the Kehukee 
Association. The most malignant and un- 
founded aspersions were spread broadcast 
over the country as to the creed and prac- 
tices of the regular Baptists, while this ill- 
natured, little rump set themselves up as the 
only visible saints of the Lord then left in 
the world. Martin Ross or Lemuel Burkitt, 
had they been alive and visited again the 
Association, both of whom had rendered such 
great services to her in the past, would have 
received no more recognition than a horse- 
thief or a stray Jesuit Mr. Joshua Law- 
rence completely succeeded in adding hatred 
and bad manners to the previous faults of 
his people, and must have enjoyed the 
charms of the Chinese wall thus erected 
against all outside influences. But Martin 
Ross was beyond the malice and machina- 
tions of all such spirits. After long and 
sore battle the veteran spent in the stress of 
such a conflict, at last rested from every ill 
and toil. He had not only been faithful in 
his day, he had risen so far superior to its 
general level that he entitled himself to a 



349 
I in the 

irbonate 
1 consist 
alumine 
potash, 
(c)To 
5 precip- 
e cipitate 
low red- 
pportion 

ing pro- 
to dry- 
porating 
Apply 
heat, so 
y mass, 
jThis will 
ohate of 
lore wa- 
I of lime, 
cording 
me con- 

lagnesia, 
of lime 

;id, spe? 
ulphate, 
are re- 
hate by 
•the pre- 
ined for 
ntity of 

solution 
ice of a 

sxtremely 
i sulphilr- 



350 ANALYSIS OF MI IJO A T.5. "HAP. II.' 

place in that shi>rt catalogue of men who, * \ 

have made whole communities wiser and i 
better. "Surely the end of such a man is | ns raa F 
peace." But alas! ' the ^tyug staff and the I f am . 

beautiful rod were broken." The beauty and \„ ., 

strength of Israel had fallen in her high 
places. The great preacher was in his grave 



precipitate, 
be separatee 
monia. Th 
washed, and 



the two eart and had not left his like in all our borders. 
ed, recomnu 



Elected, 

ition of 

follow- 
I 
Jgnesia, 



remaining in solution, may be precipitated by carbonate of pot- 
ash ; heat being applied, to expel the excess of carbonic acid. 

Magnesia and alumine may, also, be separated by succinate of 
soda, which precipitates the latter earth only. (See sect. 1, xvii. 
of the chapter on Mineral Waters.) 

When the solution of magnesia, of alumine, or of both, contains, 
a small proportion of iron, this may be separated from either or 
both of the earths by evaporating to dryness, calcining the residue) 
during one hour, in a low red-heat, and dissolving again in dilute 
nitric acid, which does not take up iron when thus oxidized. 

(H) The insoluble residue (A) may contain alumine, silex, and 
oxides of metals, so highly charged with oxygen as to resist the 
action of nitric and muriatic acids. 

(a) Add concentrated sulphuric acid, with a small quantity of 
potash, and evaporate the mixture to dryness, in the vessel de- 
scribed in the note, page 249. On the dry mass pour a fresh por- 
tion of the acid ; boil again to dryness, and let this be done, re- 
peatedly, three or four times. By this operation, the alumine 
will be converted into a sulphate of alumine and potash, which 
will be easily soluble in warm water ; and, from the solution f 
crystals of alum will shoot on evaporation.* Let the sulphate of 
alumine be waslied off, and the insoluble part be collected and 
dried. The alumine may be precip'itated by carbonate of potash ; 
washed, dried, and ignited ; and its weight ascertained. 

During the evaporation of a solution of alumine, which has 
been separated from silex, portions of the latter earth continue to 
fall, even to the last. (See Klaproth, vol. i. pages 66 and 75.) 
These must be collected, and washed with warm water ; the col- 
lected earth added to the portion (6,) and the washings to the so- 
lution (a.) 

Alumine may be separated from oxide of iron by a solution of 
pure potash. 

From whatever acid alumine is precipitated by fixed alkali, it is- 
apt to retain a small portion of the precipitant. To ascertain thtp 
* Klaproth procured crystals of alum from one fourth of a grain of alu* 
mine. The quantity of alumine he estimates at one tenth the weight oi 
t&e crystallized alum which is obtained- 



'SECT. VI. 

•« — An exam 
Klaproth, v 

13. Ores 
the solutior 
be consider 
and will ret 
tained by e 
nitrate of ar 

14. Ores 
contained i 
cid, which 
may afterw 
take up the 
arise, if a gel 
liar smell, an 
exposed to t| 
cipitated by 
becomes bla 
contain man; 
acid, when o 
may be sepa 
which take^ 
of an ore of : 
and of a cotn 

Ores of n 
they impart! 
(See chap. J 

15. Ores 
acid, whichj 
or in dilute i 
if any iron h 
Then add ci 
and uranhin 

, ammonia, w 
when dissor 
crystals of a 
If copper 
by the amm 
much less d 
evaporation, 

1 6. Ores 
seems to be 

V©L. II. 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina, 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE HISTORIAN. 

Memoir VII — Rev. Jeremiah Walker. 

CHAPTER ONE. 

When the young king, George ILL, made 
his late Scottish teacher the Earl of Bute 
and Prime Minister of the British Empire, 
many tide waiters hastened to do hom- 
age to the man who was thus shown to be 
so high in the monarch's trust and affec- 
tions. Among others who thus sought to 
recommend themselves both to the king and 
his minister was the adroit and unscrupu- 
lous Gov. Tryon of North Carolina. That 
fair region now included in the counties of 
Warren and Franklin was formed into the 
county he and the General Assembly called 
Bute. But the name proved as evanescent 
as the power of the man whose patronymic 
it bore. The great Revolution came and 
with it the name of Bute disappeared from 
our map to make room for those of the 
statesman and the hero who are still pre- 
served to human remembrance in the names 
of Franklin and Warren. It was in this fa- 
vored region that in the year 1747 a man 
child was born who was to be widely known 
and honored of men. They called him Jer- 
emiah Walker, but in such poverty and ig- 
norance were his parents and neighbors that 
small hopes were entertained by even those 
who loved him best as a child, that anything 
beyond humble obscurity could ever be his 
lot in this life. But that obscure child amid 
the red hills of Warren was not to be chained 
down by either the accidents of birth or the 
stress of social environments. In the miser- 
able system, or rather, absence of all system 
as to school facilities then seen in our coun- 
try, the lad early evinced a passionate de- 
sire for acquaintance with books and letters. 
Turning aside from all the amusements so 
dear to the great majority of boys and girls, 
young Jeremiah Walker could be found, 
book in hand, whenever the stern require- 
ments of labor on the farm did not compel 
his assistance. With the small start he 
managed to get at the hands of a strolling 
teacher, the dauntless and tireless orator of 
the future managed to continually augment 
his slender store of acquirements until long 
before his majority was attained, the coun- 
try side was filled with the fame of his 
knowledge. He early became a member of 



263 

seen in 
579.) 
add to 
.all may 
metals, 
be ob«- 
s till the 

metals, 
nitric a- 
The ore 
lich will 
icid will 
ts pecu- 
s papei* 
,e is pre- 
e, which, 
icted to 
dphuric 
iganese 
potash, 
analysis 
je 510; 

i . ••. 
I colour 
vv-pipe. 

ie nitric 
>f iron j 
)n ; or, 
by zinc, 
of zinc 
in pure 
This, 
oration, 

tie zinc, 
i, a salt 
ich, on 

jatment 
up the 



266 

earths ; 
yellow ( 
tion of 
this oxii 
heat the 



the Baptist cnurcn and in conference charm- I CHAT, ft 
ed all hearts with the ease and grace of his 
elocution. I - - 

As young Walker seemed deeply pious, it re 
was no wonder that a people who rejoiced to the addi- 
in such weak preachers as generally served To reduce 
our churchers of that day should have leaped , . , . , , 



rare oc< 
detail, 
amples 
18. i 



Nicholson's 



vessel of the Lord. Of course, a young man cible, which 

should I ^k° so frtr sur P assed a11 the 7 had ever'heard iour at i east . 
in his utter inces on sacred subjects and who ! 
17. C also professed to feel that he was called or jy ne9s J wi y* 
nitric a @od to preach the gospel, was gladly wel- insoluble ia 

corned into such holy and tender relations. ta i s exceof 
nitric ac It wag thus whi]e gtm - n hig ruddy y 0Uth< !«**! 

iron, fp ere the beard and bronze of manhood had : muriatic a- 
cids - .1 ^s^ed bis cheeks, that young Mr. Walker in cold, but 
* ' was ordained and set apart to the full func- _» Wl ,_ 
colourlc tions of the g 0S pei ministry. In his marvel- omy ' 

when th ous success in such relations, it seemed that lett's Analy- 
sis of tl a ^ ^ e naste and precipitation of his exalta- p a j Transac- 
tion were abundantly justified. He went on 
tions, P< to astound and conquer all hearts in the 

Pcsp ma gi° of his splendid oratory. Nor were the Scient infpr- 
more needed graces of humility, zeal and ^ e general 
mation devotion to God wanting in his conduct. As b - , 
student, matchless as he was in the pulpit, the more T are °* suc " 
trying ordeal of the fireside but the more tem more in 
endeared him to the purest and best of his il Des t ex ., 
brethren in the Lord. He seemed to them | 
some miracle of grace vouchsafed from on 
high to lead them on in the green pastures |fe PhysiquCf 
and by the still waters of a higher life in the 
xxxix. Lord. As they listened to his glowing ad- 
Journal dresses in church meetings or heard his 
ready and luminous expositions at home of 
"9* ' the deep things in Scripture that had been 
C so dark and inexplicable to them, they j 
^ would wonder and ponder by what possible i xxv. 

means this youth, reared amongst their own Jq2 # 
I unlettered neighbors, should have gained so ' _ 
I much insight into the deep things of the Phil. 1-rans. 
theologians. 

As has been intimated before in the pre- * rans i gQ4, 

ceding memoirs of this series, the Baptists n( j Vauquelinv 
and a vast majority of the other white peo- » 
Niche p-e of the Colony of North Carolina had re- 
lapsed into a state of profoundest ignorance 
so far as literary learning was concerned. 
I Most of their preachers had managed to 
learn enough to be able to read the Bible, 
because this was the one sine qua non neces- 
sary to their license and ordination. But 
To what a pitiful stock of extraneous and yet 
most necessary learning was theirs, to aid them ^nd should al- 
ia understanding and explaining to audi- 'strata, a more 
ways eEC63 s till more ignorant than themselves, j r j t t, 

eomp the many historical, geographical and ori- IUIII « U - C > 
muffi ental - allusions so thickly scattered all These have a.U 



20. 
21. 

22. 
23. 
1805. 
24. 
25. 



ch affords the^ 



3ECT. yii- 

ready been er 
again describ 

The reduct 
ing to expel i 
lay be effect 
jecting the m 
formed, may 
subsequent e> 

As many of 
application of 
flammable mi 
duced particle 
instead of seal 
fusible ingre^ 
the reduced 
of the crucibl 
called fluxes 
another end, ■ 
attached to a 
separated. 

The ores cj 
metal, requir 
individual ca; 
shall, therefb 
erally applied 

The black ■ 
part of nitrat< 
which affords 
a fine light cj 
hot crucible < 
of soda, previ 
dered lime, o 
or 400 parts d 
two parts off 
a part of chai 
The ore, afte 
three or four 
with a little f 
be luted on, 
wind-furnace 
a very intens 



through the holy book. What, for example, 
would be such a commentator's understand- 
ing of Luke's enumeration of the nationali- 
ties represented at the famous feast of Pen- 
tecost. Such men, ignorant from the start as a 
rule, toiled all the week on their farms, with 
neither hope nor desire of higher attainments. 
The beggarly salary allowed them for their 
pastoral services was so small, that it scarcely 
entered into their estimate of necessary rev- 
enue as a support. They could say with the 
Indian, ''If my preaching is poor, so is my 
pay." In the general poverty of the coun- 
try at the time, the people were sorely put 
to, to get hold of money by any means. 
English merchants, to aid their own selfish 
schemes, had procured orders in the councils 
fi( royalty in London forbidding the issue of 
Colonial script, and there was n:> other cir- 
culating medium worth mentioning in the 
Colony of North Carolina. The steady drain 
of gold and silver coin sent over the seas to 
purchase things needed by the wealthier 
families kept the Province entirely stript of 
the valuable metals. Besides this, the an- 
nual taxes had to be paid in coin after the 
suppression of Colonial issues of paper bills. 
We can, then, neither wonder at the smali- 
ness of the amounts paid to pastors or the 
poverty of means generally in the land. 

In such a community and amid such cler- 
ical peers, Jeremiah Walker flamed up like 
some resplendent meteor on the bosom of a 
starless night.' His zeal, piety, eloquence 
and affability to all classes made him a par- 
agon to admiring thousands as he passed on 
his victorious way from county to county, 
and later, from State to State. It may be 
that some reader may incline to the opinion 
that this picture of the youthful divine is 
overdrawn. For the benefit of such doubt- 
ing Thomases, the following fine picture of 
Mr. W 7 alker is copied from the pages of Rev. 
Dr. R. B. Sem pie's History of the Virginia 
Baptists : 

'•The invincible energies of his genius 
towered ab' ve every obsti action . He quickly 
shone forth with such splendor as to make 
it questionable whether the obscurity of his 
education, as well as the unlearned n ess of 
his society, did not, by having his mind un- 
shackled from scholastic dogmas and criti- 
cal strictures, rather advance, than impede, 
his real greatness. After preaching in his 
native neighborhood and in Pittsylvania 
county, Virginia, for some years, he was in- 
duced by the new church called Nottoway 
in Amelia county, Va., to move down and 



2$f 
trill be 

roast- 
»r this 
d pro- 
i, thus 
'ed for 

lat the 
of in-' 
le re- 
mass, 
, some 
fusion, 
sottom 
ses are 
e also 
ay be 
if not 

same 
r each 
k: I 
t gen- 

)f one 

>tash ; 

t, with 

a red- 

uriate 

pow- 

ircoal; 

d; or, 

id half 

Eluxes. 

d with 

ucible^ 

' must 

it in a 

equire 

1 by a 



2J0 

ar gls 
gravh 
after • 
water 
ence < 
at the 
must! 
perim 

(a; 

distill 

. (b; 

phure 
sedini 
of ace 

(C) 

ammo 

It is 

posed 
of any 
us,* tl 
probal 
resein 
and th 
preser 
deep s 
nation 
and of 
hydro 
eral t 
grains 
drogu 
rendei 
of arse 

(D) 
solutic 
lulion 
manifs 
the su: 
with t 
pearai 
The c 



DISCOVERY OF POISONS. 



Sketches of Pioneer Baptist Preachers in 
North Carolina. 

BY JOHN W. MOORE, STATE "HISTORIAN. 

Memoir VII — Uev. Jeremiah Walker. 

CHAPTER TWO. 

As the Rev. Jeremiah Walker and other 
Baptist evangelists of that period traversed 
Virginia, they found an Episcopal rector 
and chapel for worship in every parish. The 
laws and individual inclination had con- 
joined in bringing over an entirely different 
class of people to the old Dominion from 
those who settled the other colonies. No 
persecuted dissenter was so ignorant as to 
venture from England or Scotland for exile 
on James river. It was but "jumping out 
of the frying pan into the fire." The colony 
planted at Jamestown in 1607 was the pet of 
King James I. and all his unlucky dynasty. 
The settlers who were induced to go there 
were all of the high church type. They 
hated Catholics and dissenters with a hatred 
that seems strangely unaccountable in our 
generation ; but this was counted as God's 
service in that wicked and adulterous pe- 
riod that preceded the English revol ition of 
1G88. Many families of wealth and consid- 
eration transferred themselves and their 
fortunes to the beautiful land where the 
doctrines of Laud and Filmer were so much 
more highly respected than even in merry 
England. As was natural, the heads of 
such families became the leaders and law- 
makers of the new land. They carried all 
their prejudices and want of charity into 
the General Assembly at Williamsburg and 
enacted such codes of laws as required the 
restraining powers in London to temper 
their harshness and cruelty. When King 
William III. and his gentle partner of the 
throne had procured from the Convention 
Parliament the enactment of the famous 
statute, known and reverenced ever since 
as the Toleration Act, this law, the noblest 
monument of one of the greatest kings of 
modern times, was \ tended for the protec- 
tion of people agb religious persecution 
in all parts of the i^tish dominions ; but it 
found slow and meager respect in Virginia. 
Men like Mr. Walker thought themselves 
comparatively safe from the priestly tyr- 
anny of old until they ventured into the bat- 
tle-field where the Baptists, backed by Pat- 

* Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, v. 



CHAP. I- 

J 7 

tater specific 
led separate, 
Jsions of cold 
till the pres- 
be expected 
wder, which 
mitted to ex«? 

;w ounces of 
e solution, 
ted with sul- 
;olden yellow 

: a few drops 

t 

f sulphuret o£ 
page 263.) 
s are decom*. 
ttere addition, 
stock assures 
)t to afford a 
bear a close 
ed antimonyi 
the sulphur 
:ic presents a 
i of discrimi- 
tets of arsenic 
(. sulphuretted 
inly as collate 
licacy : sixty 
jiphuret (hy- 
nost instantly 
£ white oxide 

op of a weak 
drops of a so- 
scnic will be.l 
1 a portion of] 
potash, and-' 
a similar apjl 
: be present*! 
eristic. It h 
166. 



279 



V. — 4cetous\ 

If vinegar 1 

contaminated 

condensation,! 

The former \ 

pure ammoni 

ammonia, or 

(See the prec 

It is not un 

to add sulphu 

Lby solutions o 

fterated, throw 

VI— 

Genuine bo 
weight of boi! 
should emit a 
hexangular scj 
specific gravit 

This acid o 
a portion be di 
added. A pre 
entirely re- 
little pure acet| 
phuric acid is I 
is adulterated i 
cipitat 



Acid of ami 
and its combin 
with muriate of 

Sulphuric aci 
by carbonate of 



rick Henry, Thomas Jefferson" and James 
Madison were struggling for liberty andgos- | 
pel privileges. That the eloquent young ^iegar. 
divine had the heart and faith to take his 
part in such a conflict, adds another to his 
many claims upon our regard and admi- 
ration. 

North Carolina Baptist evangelists had 
been for several years unceasingly active in 
their incursions into Virginia. As Rev. Dr. 
Whitsitt remarked iu his Wake Forest sermon 
of 1889, the Old Dominion was chiefly won 
over to Baptist principles by these mission- 
aries from the Old North State. Thus an- fl 
other element of offense entered into the & ' 
quarrel which the Churchmen got up with 
the young preacher from Bute county. He 
was not only one of the despised Baptists, 
but an emissary of the same school that had 
been making such fearful inroads upon Epis- 
copal pastures under the preaching of David- 
Marshall, Samuel Harriss and others. It 
was a matter of especial offense that these 
men as a rule were like Mr. Walker from 
North Carolina. While the British tolera- 
tion act promised and did secure immunity 
from the imprisonments and scourgings of 
older times simply on an allegation of a 
want of conformity to the State forms of 
I religion, still in the recesses of the enraged 
J Churchmen's hearts there was yet a hope 
| left of vengeance on their religious disturb- 
ers. Some soulless and unprincipled lawyer 
suggested a trick and perversion of the laws 
V J fry which the most harmless and holy men 
5 " should be subjected to the pains and penal- 
ties intended only for the restraint of the 
lawless and violent disturbers of the public 
peace. It was so arranged that Episcopal 
roughs should be on hand to disturb and 
insolut break up by open violence any Baptist meet- 
ing they could hear of ; and then these same 
men of Belial should go before some com- 
pliant magistrate and swear out a peace 
warrant against the Baptist preachers as 
disturbers of public tranquility. These vil- 



being 
for its 
olved. 
ion of 
retted 
ogen. 



vered 
adul- 

\ 

— W<- 
3S its 
i fire, 
small 
Its 



i, let 
ad be 
e, is 
by a 
sul- 
acid 
pre- 



acid 
thers 






the 
ong 



lians, who had beaten or half drowned the 
unoffending man of God, would be used as acid 
( witnesses to prove that his persistence in > %ie . 
and muriate of a P reac h in g the gospel was the whole cause of 

all the trouble. 
acid, and by a i it was thus that£ , f .; Walker, after one of 
smell of ammoni his most powerful £ courses, found himself 
Pur* o • l f hustled and insulted by the minions of the 
rure acid or a Est , ab i is hinent, and, amid the tears of his r ste, 
soluble in twentj people, was led off as a prisoner to answer \ j s 
volatilized, wher for nis offense against the peace and dignity ; 
„ t , ., 1 of his Majesty's Colon v of Virginia. To the ^ nes 

or other residue 1 warrant alleging his guilt as a disturber of i 



2*80 nv.TECTION OF ADULTERATIONS. CHAP. II. 

the public tranquility, he pleaded "not 

guilty." When the wretched Dogberry of 

jX a magistrate had heard the testimony of his 

accomplices in this mockery of justice, but 

This ac slight attention was paid to the best citizens ^est has a 

brilliant w of tbe countr y as tDe y swore that Mr. Wal- 
ker's conduct had been entirely peaceful and 

ble in a 1^ blameless. Of course, his conviction and 
punishment were foregone conclusions from 
the beginning; but when he was called upon 
to pay a fine and costs, and further to give 
security for his future good behavior, he 
told the court plainly that he had committed 
no offense against the laws of God or man, 
and should therefore give countenance to no 

dissolve e such iniquitous proceedings by paying a vater 

anv thine sir, g^ e cent ; that as for preaching the gos- 
5 pel, he owed allegiance to a higher tribunal 



residue w 

X— Su 

The sa 

muriate c 



It is solu- 
leaves no 



P.L. 

phate and 

It should 

and 

s an impu- 



rity. Sorthan the greatest of earthly courts, and hus be de- 



tected, th 
tain the i 
diluted n 
solved, 
this will 
anoth 
salts 



her pj 
; an) 



therefore would endure imprisonment, the 
spoiling of his goods and the loss of life it- 
self sooner than obey any man's orders for 
bis silence on that subject. With such scorn 
of his jurisdiction, the court was swift to 
sentence its prisoner to the county jail until 
a more submissive spirit should mark his 
course to so exalted a tribunal. 

Thus like many of his clerical brethren 
did this great Baptist preacher suffer the 

tect calca pains and penalties which his ecclesiastical 
s< opponents thought were due to heretical ob- 
stinacy and presumption in thus daring to 
give voice to his belief in matters of re- 
ligion. Mr. Walker's patince and meekness 
as a prisoner of the Lord, and his glowing 
■ sermons preached through the jail windows, 
1 his nj ma( j e jjj m more than ever an idol of the 
people. That generous sympathy for the 
wronged and love of fair play, which marks 
the Anglo Saxon race in every part of the 
globe, made him friends in the most unex- 

tate shot| pected quarters. So far from this persecu- ;e in dilute 
tion staying or stopping the young enthusi- ^ . y ^ 
ast in his work, it but fired his soul into " 
fresh ardor. When the jail doors were ; A redun- 
opened and he was for shame begged to de- ce , on add- 
part, the people thought him more like one 
inspired than ever before, as he revelled m 
the flood tide of resistless argument or melt- 
ed all hearts with his pathos and tears. 

With that noble band of Baptist coadju- 
tors, who through so much labor and tribu- 
lation worked out their deliverance from the 
least dread of future persecution, Mr. Wal- 
ker hasted on until the glorious end at last 
came. The fight was long and sore, but 
with liberty achieved, all the sufferings of .uriate and 
the past were counted as dust in the bal- 
ance. A great people, long misled and mis 
taken as to human rights, woke up from 



The 

carbonati 

XI. 



ration wi 
of carboi 
remain ti 



muriatic 
precipiia 
dancy of 
ing dilut 
cipitate 
means of 
This sc 
pint may 

XII.- 

C arbor 
sulphate i 



To ascer- 
pure and 
in undis- 
if barytes ; 
kitate. To 
br muriatic 
ich will de- 

i 

Masses sub- 

ier. 

P.L. 

s, by satu- 
i speaking 
ash should 
t" a precipi- 



white pre- 
)lution, by 

fexact wine-' 



P. L. 



to a little 



ICMAP. «• 

of the carbon^ 
rytes, to detec 
ascertain the 
will be shown 
acid to a stron 
cultly soluble 

XIII.— Solutil 

This shoulc 
on the additio 
i adding alcoho 

XIV.— Car 
This salt s! 
remain, when 
Hme may be 
be present if t 
of a powder 
Sulphuric anc 
adding to the 
already often 

XV.—Solutio 

The volatil 
sible by wate 
which it is aj 
contain nothir 
perfectly fret 
water in the { 
£alts may be 
with pure- nit j 
riatic acids. ! 
ing the soluti 
is not precipi 
mining the st 
ty, which, at 
to 1000. 

This may 
with the disti 

VOL. n 



momte 



rvesce 
am on 



L, 

thing 
i or of 



their dream of oppression and wrong to be- 281 
come the light and hope of the human race. 
Had they no other title to renown than the f Da . 
production of Thomas Jefferson, that single 
fact would be glory enough for unfading ' er » t0 
immortality. It was through him and his potash 
no less illustrious coadjutor, James Madison, tarous 
that religious liberty was made the law of all 
the republic. The light kindled first by Roger * dun- 
Williams in Rhode Island having, after so 
many years, flamed up in the great Virginia 
beacon, was thus spread over the American 
nation and is yet on its way round the world. 
It was to take many years before its final 
triumph in such places as Massachusetts, 
but even there the mild and gentle teach- 
ings of our Saviour were at length accepted 
in all their mighty scope of mercy and for- 
bearance, and the difference of men in re- 
ligious opinion happily ceased to be treated 
as a crime against worldly and often un- 
godly magistrates. Even in free and liberal 
North Carolina, the last vestige of this old, 
unchristian habit of visiting pains and pen- 
alties on people considered unorthodox, was :ely to 
not purged from our constitution until the » form 
year of our Lord 1835, and even then such 
wise, just and capable men as Nathaniel umps. 
Macon were heard advocating a continuance red by 
of a policy which, if enforced, would have e «* ests 
unseated William Gaston from the Conven- 
tion of which he was the greatest pride and 
ornament. 

With the full establishment of American mQn i x 
independence and the coming on of the 
peaceful days after so many years of blood 
and confusion, the times were still illustra- 
ted by the eloquence and activity of the Rev. 
Jeremiah Walker. The sun of his fame and 
usefulness was yet undimmed. The olden should 
zeal and fervor in his work of salvation , , , 
knew no abatement to all human appear- 
ances ; but like David and many others who d with 
have truly served God in this lower world, ,f other 
Mr. Walker was yet to prove the frailty of . . 
the flesh even in our best estate. The wis- > omtlon 
dom and justice of the Saviour's declaration, id mu- 
" Let him that thinketh he standeth take 
heed to his ways lest he fall," were never 
more clearly demonstrated than in Mr. 
Walker's sad and unfortunate ending of his 
stay in Virginia. Like many another pop- 
ular preacher, he was the object of almost 
adoration to many young and lovely women abouts, 
who had professed religion under his minis- 
trations. These, under the cloak of religious 
attachment, too often burned with less holy 
sentiments toward the great preacher they 
so much idolized. In an evil hour for his 
fame and usefulness, he so far yielded to 
improper feelings and desires as to seriously 



anden- 
under 



n mix- 
hy salt 
deter- 
gravi- 



fair it 



282' 

gency of i 
The fraud 
it ; for, if 
proved, 
not ensuii 

gravity of 

j 

XVII.-— S 

This sa 
both of \vl 
222. Noi 
former of 
siaie of pc 
of barytes 
ver, or m( 
of potash i 
phate of s 
is little ri 

XVIII— 

The pi 
as that of 
pretty se< 

XIX.— JV 

Nitrate 
muriate < 
chemical 
cover mi 
ed as lo 
ed and di. 
note aboi 

Sulphj 
riate of b 



Comn 
bases, el 
vn the br 



compromise his christian character. His 
punishment was swift and humiliating. De- 
posed from the ministry and stript of ail the 
olden respect and preference so long enjoyed, 
the fallen leader had nothing left but the 
memory of how much her had forfeited by 
his sin. 

After months of sorrowful repentauce, his 
brethren were induced to give him another 
trial, and trusting that Oorl had forgiven a 
soul thus apparently so full of remorse, be 
was restored to his former privileges as a 
preacher of the gospel. But nothing could 
hide the stain on bis escutcheon. He found 
that his usefulness in the old haunts was a 
thing not to be recovered. On this account 
he sought strange faces and cover from the 
knowledge of men by removing to Georgia. 
There his fall had its legitimate fruit in the 
lowering of his former b.gh standard as to 
creed by surrendering all that was good in 
Calvinistic teachings and the aloption of 
extreme Arminianism. The old belief that 
had been so dear in his C iys of innocence, 
that told him of his election and adoption 
through grace, with 'the further assurance of 
his his and every other redeemed soul's final 
perseverauoe had passed into doubt and dis- 
may. With the great Dutch teacher, he had 
come to believe that salvation was not only 
in reach of all the race, but was dependent 
solely upon their own will? and works. His 
great debate with Rev. yilas Mercer before 
the General Association ot Virginia, showed 
that all the astuteness and oratory of the past 
were yet his ; but the soul and cream of his 
Baptist strength had been lost in the sense 
of his double departure from purity aud the 
truth. The case of Mr. Walker, along with 
others of a similar nature, might well show 
tho people of ail creeds calling on the name 
of Christ, how useless it is to continue men, 
convicted of disgraceful sins, in their former 
pastoral relations. Such offences against 
God and man are sure to have their legiti- 
mate effects on the soul of the offender. Pe- 
ter sinned grievously and was restored to 
God's favor ; but we must remember that 
was an age of miracles. Tho forgiveness 
and absolution of our Loi i could call even 
the dead back to life, but we have no such 
resurrections now. The minister who, in his 
sacred functions deliberately tramples on 
God's mercy and the trust of his people, is 
forever nnworthy of return "o his forfeited 
place as the under shepherd of the Lord. If 
he is truly repentant, let the church restore 
him as a layman, but as a ptstor and guide, 
never. 



CHAP. It. 

of wateri 
ated spir- 
;eration is 
rvescence 
p specific? 



Glauber's 

] 

or alkali, 
Mis, page 
salts; the 
r by prus- 
ig nitrate 
Jue of sil- 
Sulphate 
The sul- 
;alts, there 



. — Vitriol- 

1 

me means 
renders it 

itre or Salt 

tirely from 
^pt for nice 
i. To dis- 
ust be add- 
ate, wash- 
s will de- 

ite or mu= 



dth earthy 
e contained 
fay be pre= 



OHAP. II. »ETKCTION OF ADULTERATIONS. 2$3 

cipitatedby carbonate of soda, and the precipitated lime and mag- 
nesia may be separated from each other by the rules given page 
249. 

XXI. — Muriate of Ammonia? — Ammonia Murias, P. L.—Sal Am* 

moniac. 
This salt ought to be entirely volatilized, by a low heat, When 
laid on a heated iron. It sometimes contains sulphate of amn»- 
nia, however, which, being also volatile, cannot be thus detected. 
To ascertain the presence of the latter salt, add the muriate or ni- 
trate of barytes, which will indicate the sulphate by a copious, and 
insoluble precipitate. 

XXII Acetate of Potash,— -Potassa Acctas, P. L. 

Genuine acetate of potash is perfectly soluble in four times its 
weight of alcohol, and may thus be separated from other salts that 
are insoluble in alcohol. The tartrate of potash (soluble tartar) is 
the adulteration most likely to be employed. This may be discov- 
ered by adding a solution of tartaric acid, which, if the suspected 
salt be present, will occasion a copious precipitate. The tar- 
trate is also detected by its forming a precipitate with acetate 
of lead or muriate of barytes, soluble in acetic or muriatic acid ; 
and sulphates by a precipitate with the same agents, insoluble in 
acids. 

XXIII. — Neutral Tartrate of Potash, — Potasste Tartras, P. L. — 
Soluble Tartar. 
This salt should afford a very copious precipitate on adding tar- 
tarous acid. The only salt likely to be mixed with it is sulphate 
of soda, which may be detected by a precipitate with muriated ba- 
rytes, insoluble in diluted muriatic, acid. 

XXIV.— Acidulous Tartrate of Potash. — Potasste Sufiertartras, 
P. L. — Cream of Tartar. 
The only substance with which this salt is likely to be adulterat- 
ed is sulphate of potash. To determine whether this be present, 
pour, on about half an ounce of the powdered crystals, two or 
three ounce-measures of distilled water ; shake the mixture fre- 
quently, and let it stand one or two hours. The sulphate of pot- 
ash, being more soluble than the tartrate, will be taken up ; and 
may be known by the bitter taste of the solution, and by a precipi- 
tate, on adding muriate of barytes, which will be insoluble in mu- 
riatic acid, 



§84 DETECTION OF ADULTERATION!*. CHAP. Ui 

XXV. — Compound Tartrate of Soda and Potash, — Soda Tartar!' 
zata, P. L. — Rochelle or Seignette's Salt. 
Sulphate of soda, the only salt with which this may be expect- 
ed to be adulterated, is discovered by adding to a solution of Roch- 
elle salt the acetate of lead or muriate of barytes. — The former, if 
the sulphate be present, affords a precipitate insoluble in acetous 
acid, and the latter one insoluble in muriatic acid. 

XXVI. — Sulphate of Magnesia, — Magnesia Sulphas, P. L.— -Ep- 
som Salt. 

This salt is very likely to be adulterated with sulphate of sodai 
or Glauber's salt, which may be made to resemble the magnesian 
salt in appearance, by stirring it briskly at the moment when it is 
about to crystallize. The fraud may be discovered very readily 
if the salt consist entirely of the sulphate of soda, because no pre- 
cipitation will ensue on adding carbonate of potash. If only a 
part of the salt be sulphate of soda, detection is not so easy, but 
may still be accomplished. For, since 100 parts of pure sulphate 
of magnesia give between 30 and 40 of the dry carbonate, when 
completely decomposed by carbonate of potash, if the salt under 
examination afford a considerably less proportion, its sophistica- 
tion may be fairly inferred : or, to discover the sulphate of soda, 
precipitate all the magnesia by pure ammonia, with the aid of heat. 
Decant the clear liquor from the precipitate, filter it, and, after 
evaporation to dryness, apply such a heat as will volatilize the sul- 
phate of ammonia, when that of soda will remain fixed. 

Muriate of magnesia or of lime may be detected by the salt be- 
coming moist when exposed to the air, and by a precipitation with 
nitrated silver, after nitrate of barytes has separated all the sul- 
phuric acid and magnesia. Lime is discoverable by oxalic acid. 

XXVII. — Sulphate of Alumine, Hum. 

Perfectly pure alum should contain neither iron nor copper. 
The former is manifested by adding, to a solution of alum, prus- 
siate of potash, and the latter by an excess of pure ammonia. 

XXVIII.—- Borate of Soda, — Soda Boras, P. L.-^-Borax. 
Borate of soda, if adulterated at all, will probably be so with al- 
um or fused muriate of soda. To discover these, borax must be 
dissolved in water, and its excess of alkali be saturated with ni- 
tric acid. Nitrate of barytes, added to this saturated solution, 
will detect the sulphuric salt, and nitrate of silver the muriate of 
soda. 



«HAP. HI. USE OF TESTS TO ARTISTS. 291 

XLlX.-<Sfiirit of Wine, Alcohol y and JEthers. 
The only decisive mode of ascertaining the purity of spirit of 
wine and of aethers, is by determining their specific gravity. High- 
ly rectified alcohol should have the specific gravity of 800 to 1000. 
Common spirit of wine 8Sr. Sulphuric sether 739. The sfiiritus 
atkeris sul/ihurici, P. L. or sweet spirit of vitriol, about 753, — and 
nitric sether, the sfiiritus ^stheris nilrosus, or sweet spirit of nitre, 
908. The aethers ought not to redden the colour of litmus, nor 
ought those formed from sulphuric acid to give any precipitation 
with solution of barytes. 

L. — Essential or Volatile Oils. 
As essential oils constitute only a very small proportion of the 
vegetables from which they are obtained, and bear generally a very 
high price, there is a considerable temptation to adulterate them. 
They are found sophisticated, either with cheaper volatile oils, 
with fixed oils, or with the spirit of wine. The fixed oils are dis- 
covered by distillation with a very gentle heat, which elevates the 
essential oils, and leaves the iixed ones. These last may, also, 
be detected by moistening a little writing-paper with the suspect- 
ed oil, and holding it before the fire. If the oil be entirely essen- 
tial, no stain will remain on the paper. Alcohol, also, detects the 
fixed oils, because it only dissolves the essential onesj and the 
mixture becomes milky. The presence of cheaper essential oils 
is discovered by the smell. Alcohol, a cheaper liquid than some 
of the most costly oils, is discovered by adding water, which, if 
alcohol be present, occasions a milkiness. 



CHAPTER III. 

WSE OF CHEMICAL RE-AGENTS TO CERTAIN ARTISTS AND MAN- 
UFACTURERS. 

TO point out all the beneficial applications of chemical substan- 
ces to the purposes of the arts, would require a distinct and very 
extensive treatise. In this place I have no farther view than to 
describe the mode of detecting adulterations in certain articles of 
commerce ; the strength and purity of which are essential to the 
success of chemical processes. 



292 t/SE OF TESTS TO ARTISTS. CHAP. MS- .• 

l.—Mode of detecting the Adulteration of Potashes, Pearlashesf 
and Barilla. 

Few objects of commerce are sophisticated to a greater extent 
than the alkalis, to the great loss and injury of the bleacher, the 
dyer, the glass-maker, the soap-boiler, and of all other artists who 
are in the habit of employing these substances. In the first part 
of this work (see vol. i. page 223) I have already given rules for 
discovering such adulterations : and to what has been said, I ap- 
prehend it is only necessary to add the directions of Mr. Kirwan, 
intended to effect the same end, but differing in the mode They 
are transcribed from his paper, entitled, " Experiments on the Al- 
kaline Substances used in Bleaching;" — see Transactions of the 
Irish academy for 1789.* 

" To discover whether any quantity of fixed alkali worthy of at- 
tention exists in any saline compound, dissolve one ounce of it in 
boiling water, and into this solution let fall a drop of a solution of 
sublimate corrosive ; this will be converted into a brick-colour, if 
an alkali be present, or into a brick-colour mixed with yellow, if 
the substance tried contains lime. 

" But the substances used by bleachers being always impreg- 
nated with an alkali, the above trial is in general superfluous, ex- 
cept for the purpose of detecting lime. The quantity of alkali is 
therefore what they should chiefly be solicitous to determine, and 
for this pijfl'pose, 

" 1st, Procure a quantity of alum, suppose one pound, reduce 
it to powder, wash it with cold water, and then put it into a tea- 
pot, pouring on it three or four times its weight of boiling water. 

« 2cKy, Weigh an ounce of the ash or alkaline substance to be 
tried, powder it, and put it into a Florence flask with one pound of 
pure water (common water, boiled for a quarter of an hour, and 
aftei wards filtered through paper, will answer ;) if the substance 
to be examined be of the nature of barilla or potash, or halfapound 
ofwaterifit contain but little earthy matter, as pearlash. Let 
them boil for a quarter of an hour ; when cool, let (he solution be 
filtered into another Florence flask. 

" 3dly, This being done, gradually pour the solution of alum 
hot into the alkaline solution also heated ; a precipitation will im- 
mediately appear ; shake them well together, and let the efferves- 

* Directions for the assay of potash, by the intervention of nitrate of 
strontites, may be found in the 41st volume of the Annates de Chimie, page 
113. 



chap, m- USE or TESTS to artists. 293 

cence, if any, cease before more of the aluminous solution be add- 
ed;" continue the addition of the alum until the mixed liquor, 
when clear, turns syrup of violets or paper tinged blue by radishes, 
or by litmus, red ; then pour the liquor and precipitate on a pa- 
per-filter, placed in a glass funnel. The precipitated earth will 
remain on the filter ; pour on this a pound or more of hot water, 
gradually, until it passes tasteless ; take up the filter, and let the 
earth dry on it until they separate easily. Then put the earth into 
a cup of Staffordshire ware, place it on hot sand, and dry the earth 
until it ceases to stick to glass or iron ; then pound it, and reduce 
it to powder in the cup with a glass pestle, and keep it a quarter 
of an hour in a heat of from 470° to 500°. 

« 4thly, The earth being thus dried, throw it into a Florence 
flask, and weigh it ; then put about one ounce of spirit of salt into 
another flask, and place this in the same scale as the earth, and 
counterbalance both in the opposite scale ; this being done, pour 
the spirit of salt gradually into the flask that contains the earth ; 
and, when all effervescence is over (if there be any,) blow into the 
flask, and observe what weight must be added to the scale contain- 
ing the flasks to restore the equilibrium ; subtract this weight 
from that of the earth, the remainder is a weight exactly firo/ior- 
Honed to the weight of mere alkali of that particular species which 
is contained in one ounce of the substance examined ; all beside 
is superfluous matter. 

" I have said, that alkalis of the same sfiecies may thus be direct- 
ly compared,, because alkalis of different species cannot but re- 
quire the intervention of another proportion ; and the reason is, 
because equal quantities of alkalis of different species precipitate 
unequal quantities of earth of alum : Thus 100 parts, by weight, 
of mere vegetable alkali precipitate 78 of earth of alum, but 100 
parts of mineral alkali precipitate 170.8 parts of that earth- There- 
fore the precipitation of 78. parts of earth of alum, by vegetable al- 
kali, denotes as much of this, as the precipitation of 170.8 of that 
earth by the mineral alkali, denotes of the mineral alkali. Hence 
the quantities of alkali in all the different species of potashes, pearl- 
ashes, weed or wood ashes, may be immediately compared with 
the above test, as they all contain the vegetable alkali ; and the 
different kinds of kelp or kelps manufactured in different places, 
and the different sorts of barilla, may thus be compared, because 
they all contain the mineral alkali. But kelps and potashes, as 
they contain different sorts cf alkali, can only be compared togeth- 
er by means of the proportion above indicated." 



294, STSE OF TESTS TO ARTISTS. CHAP. II 

11.-— Mode of detecting the Adulteration of Manganese. 
In the section on drugs, instructions may be found for discover- 
ing impurities in several chemical preparations, employed by the ; 
artist, as cerusse or white lead, red lead, verdegris, &c. No rules, 
however, have been given for examining manganese, which is a 
substance that varies much in quality, and is often sophisticated ; 
as the bleachers experience, to their no small disappointment and 
loss. 

The principle defect of the manganese arises from the admix- 
ture of chalk, which is not always an intentional adulteration, but 
is sometimes found united with it, as it occurs in the earth. When 
to this impure manganese mixed with muriate of soda, the sulphu- 
ric acid is added, the materials effervesce and swell considerably, 
and a large proportion passes into the receiver ; in consequence 
of which the bleaching liquor is totally spoiled. This accident 
has, to my knowledge, frequently happened, and can only be pre- 
vented by so slow and cautious an addition of the acid, as is near- 
ly inconsistent with the business of an extensive bleaching work. 
The presence of carbonate of lime may be discovered in mangan- 
ese, by pouring, on a portion of this substance, nitric acid diluted 
with 8 or 10 parts of water. If the manganese be good, no effer- 
vescence will ensue, nor will the acid dissolve any thing; but, if 
carbonate of iime be present, it will be taken up by the acid. To 
the solution add a sufficient quantity of carbonate of potash to pre- 
cipitate the lime, wash the sediment with water, and dry it. Its 
weight will show how much chalk the manganese under examina- 
tion contained. 

Another adulteration of manganese, that may, perhaps, be some- 
times practised, is the addition of some ores of iron. This impu- 
rity is less easily discovered. But if the iron be in such a state of 
oxidation as to be soluble in muriatic <acid, the following process 
may discover it. Dissolve a portion, with the assistance of heat, 
in concentrated muriatic acid, dilute the solution largely with dis- 
tilled water, and add a solution of crystallized carbonate of potash. 
The manganese will remain suspended, by the excess of carbonic 
acid, on mixing the two solutions, but the iron will be precipitated 
in the state of a coloured oxide. 

From an observation of Klaproth (Essays, vol. i. page 572,) it I 
appears that oxides of iron and manganese are separable by nit 
trous acid with the addition of sugar, which takes up the manga- 
nese on! v. 



SECT. IK- ANALYSIS OF SOILS. 301 

The chemical substances, or re-agents, required for separating 
the constituent parts of the soil, are muriatic acid (spirit of salt,) 
sulphuric acid, pure volatile alkali dissolved in water, solution of 
prussiate of potash, soap lye, solution of carbonate of ammonia, of 
muriate of ammonia, solution of neutral carbonate of potash, and 
nitrate of ammonia. An account of the nature of these bodies, 
and their effects, may be found in the chemical works already no- 
ticed ; and the re-agents are sold, together with the instruments 
mentioned above, by Mr. Knight, Foster-lane, Cheapside, arrang- 
ed in an appropriate chest. 

IV — Mode of collecting Soils for Analysis. 

In cases when the general nature of the soil of a field is to be 
ascertained, specimens of it should be taken from different places, 
two or three inches below the surface, and examined as to the 
similarity of their properties. It sometimes happens, that upon 
plains the whole of the upper stratum of the land is of the same 
kind, and in this case, one analysis will be sufficient ; but in val- 
leys, and near the beds of rivers, there are very great differences, 
and it now and then occurs that one part of a field is calcareous, 
and another part siliceous ; and in this case, and in analogous 
cases, the portions different from each other should be separately 
submitted to experiment. 

Soils when collected, if they cannot be immediately examined, 
should be preserved in phials quite filled with them, and closed 
with ground glass stoppers. 

The quantity of soil, most convenient for a perfect analysis, is 
from two to four hundred grains. It should be collected in dry 
weather, and exposed to the atmosphere till it becomes dry to the 
touch. 

The specific gravity of a soil, or the relation of its weight to 
"that of water, may be ascertained by introducing into a phial, 
which will contain a known quantity of water, equal volumes of 
water and of soil ; and this may be easily done by pouring in wa- 
ter till it is half full, and then adding the soil till the fluid rises to 
the mouth ; the difference between the weight of the soil and that 
of the water will give the result. Thus if the bottle contains four 
hundred grains of water, and gains two hundred^grains when half 
filled with water and half with soil, the specific gravity of the soil 
will be 2, that is, it will be twice as heavy as water, and if it gain- 
ed one hundred and sixty- five grains, its specific gravity would 
be 1825, water being 1000. 



302 ANALTSIS O* SOILS. CttAP. IV. 

It is of importance, that the specific gravity of a soil should be 
known, as it affords an indication of the quantity of animal and 
vegetable matter it contains ; these substances being always most 
abundant in the lighter soils. 

The other physical properties of soils should likewise be ex- 
amined before the analysis is made, as they denote, to a certain 
extent, their composition, and serve as guides in directing the ex- 
periments. Thus siliceous soils are generally rough to the touch, 
and scratch glass when rubbed upon it ; aluminous soils adhere 
strongly to the tongue, and emit a strong earthy smell when 
breathed on ; and calcareous soils arc soft, and much less adhe- 
sive than aluminous soils. 

V.— -Mode of ascertaining' the Quantity of Water of Absorption 

in Soils. 

Soils, though as dry as they can be made by continued expo- 
sure to air, in all cases still contain a considerable quantity of wa- 
ter, which adheres with great obstinacy to the earths and animal 
and vegetable matter, and can only be driven off from them by a 
considerable degree of heat. The first process of analysis is, to 
free the given weight of soil from as much of this water as possi- 
ble, without in other respects affecting its-composition ; and this 
may be done by heating it for ten or twelve minutes over an Ar- 
gand's lamp, in a bason of porcelain, to a temperature equal to 
300°* Fahrenheit ; and in case a thermometer is not used, the 
proper degree may be easily ascertained, by keeping a piece of 
wood in contact with the bottom of the dish ; as long as the col- 
our of the wood remains unaltered, the heat is not too high ; but 
when the wood begins to be charred, the process must be stopped. 
A small quantity of water will perhaps remain in the soil even af- 
ter this operation, but it always affords useful comparative re- 
sults ; and if a higher temperature were employed, the vegetable 
or animal matter would undergo decomposition, and in conse- 
quence the experiment be wholly unsatisfactory. 

The loss of weight in the process should be carefully noted ; 
and when in 400 grains of soil it reaches as high as 50, the soil 
may be considered as in the greatest degree absorbent, and reten- 
tive of water, and will generally be found to contain a large pro- 
portion of aluminous earth. When the loss is only from 20 to 10, 

* In several experiments, in which this process has been carried on by 
distillation, I have found the water that came over pure, and no sensibly 
quantity of other volatile matter was produced. 



9BCT. Ill- ANALYSIS OF SOILS. 30S 

the land may be considered as only slightly absorbent and reten- 
tive, and the siliceous earth as most abundant. 

VI. — Of the Separation of Stones, Gravel, and Vegetable Fibresy 
from Soils. 
None of the loose stones, grave), or large vegetable fibres should 
be divided from the pure soil till after the water is drawn off; for 
these bodies are themselves often highly absorbent and retentive} 
and in consequence influence the fertility of the land. The next 
process, however, after that of heating, should be their separation, 
which may be easily accomplished by the sieve, after the soil has 
been gently bruised in a mortar. The weights of the vegetable 
fibres or wood, and of the gravel and stones, should be separately 
noted down, and the nature of the last ascertained ; if calcareous, 
they will effervesce with acids ; if siliceous, they will be sufficient- 
ly hard to scratch glass; and if of the common aluminous class of 
stones, they will be soft, easily scratched with a knife, and incapa- 
ble of effervescing with acids. 

XII. — Separation of the Sand and Clay, or Loam, from each 

other. 

The great number of soils, besides gravel and stones, contain 
larger or smaller proportions of sand of different degrees of fine- 
ness ; and it is a necessary operation, the next in the process of 

i analysis, to detach them from the parts in a state of more minute 
division, such as clay, loam, marl, and vegetable and animal mat-, 
ter. This may be effected in a way sufficiently accurate, by agK 

j tation of the soil in water. In this case, the course sand will gen- 
erally separate in a minute, and the finer in two or three minutes, 
whilst the minutely divided earthy, animal, or vegetable matter, 
will remain in a state of mechanical suspension for a much longer 
time ; so that, by pouring the water from the bottom of the vessel, 
after one, two, or three minutes, the sand will be principally sepa- 
rated from the other substances, which, with the water containing 
them, must be poured into a filter, and after the water has passed 
through, collected, dried, and weighed. The sand must likewise 
be weighed, and their respective quantities noted down. The wa- 
ter of lixiviation must be preserved, as it will be found to contain 
the saline matter, and the soluble animal or vegetable matters, if 
any exist in the soil. 



3<M ANALYSIS OF SOILS. CHAP. IX. 

VIII. — Examination of the Sand. 
By the process of washing and filtration, the soil is separated 
into two portions, the most important of which is generally the 
finely divided matter. A minute analysis of the sand is seldom 
or never necessary, and its nature may be detected in the same 
manner as that of the stones or gravel. It is always either silice- 
ous sand, or calcareous sand, or a mixture of both. If it consist 
wholly of carbonate of lime, it will be rapidly soluble in muriatic 
acid, with effervescence ; but if it consist partly of this substance, 
and partly of siliceous matter, the respective qualities may be as- 
certained by weighing the residuum after the action of the acid, 
which must be applied till the mixture has acquired a sour taste, 
and has ceased to effervesce. This residuum is the siliceous 
part : it must be washed, dried, and heated strongly in a crucible ; 
the difference between the weight of it and the weight of the 
Whole, indicates the proportion of calcareous sand. 

IX, — Examination of the finely divided Matter of Soils, and Mode 
of detecting mild Lime and Magnesia. 
The finely divided matter of the soil is usually very compound 
in its nature ; it sometimes contains all the four primitive earths 
of soils, as well as animal and vegetable matter ; and to ascertain 
the proportions of these with tolerable accuracy, is the most diffi- 
cult part of the subject. 

The first process to be performed, in this part of the analysis, 
is the exposure of the fine matter of the soil to the action of the 
muriatic acid. This substance should be poured upon the earthy 
matter in an evaporating bason, in a quantity equal to twice the 
\> eight of the earthy scatter, but diluted with double its volume of 
water. The mixture should be often stirred, and suffered to re- 
main for an hour, or an hour and a half, before it is examined. 

If any carbonate of lime, or of magnesia, exist in the soil, they 
will have been dissolved in this time by the acid, which some- 
times takes up likewise a little oxide of iron, but very seldom any 
alumine. 

The fluid should be passed through a filter ; the solid matter 
collected, washed with rain water, dried at a moderate heat, and 
weighed. Its loss will denote the quantity of solid matter taken 
up. The washings must be acided to the solution, which, if not 
sour to the taste, must he made to by the addition of fresh acid, 
when a little solution of common prussiate of potash must be mix- 
ed with the whole. If a blue precipitate occurs, it denotes the 



»ECT. III. 



ANALYSIS OF SOILS. 305 



presence of oxide of iron, and the solution of the prussiate must 
3e dropped in till no farther effect is produced. To ascertain its 
quantity, it must be collected in the same manner as other solid 
, precipitates, and heated red ; the result is oxide of iron. 

Into the fluid, freed from oxide of iron, a solution of neutralized 
;orbonate of potash must be poured till all effervescence ceases 
.n it, and till its taste and smell indicate a considerable excess of 
ilkaline salt. 

The precipitate that falls down is carbonate of lime ; it must 
oe collected on the filter, and dried at a heat below that of red- 
ness. 

The remaining fluid must be boiled for a quarter of an hour, 
when the magnesia, if any exist, will be precipitated from it, com- 
ained with carbonic acid, and its quantity is to be ascertained in 
:he same manner as that of the carbonate of lime. 

If any minute proportion of alumine should, from peculiar cir- 
cumstances, be dissolved by the acid, it will be found in the pre- 
ipitate with the carbonate of lime, and it may be separated from 
it by boiling for a few minutes with soap lye, sufficient to cover 
:he solid matter. — This substance dissolves alumine, without act- 
ng upon carbonate of lime. 

Should the finely divided soil be sufficiently calcareous to ef- 
fervesce very strongly with acids, a very simple method may be 
adopted for ascertaining the quantity of carbonate of lime, and one 
sufficiently accurate in all common cases. 

Carbonate of lime, in all its states, contains a determinate pro- 
proportion of carbonic acid. i. e. about 45 per cent. ; so that when 
the quantity of this elastic fluid, given out by any soil during the 
solution of its calcareous matter in an acid, is known, either in 
weight or measure, the quantity of carbonate of lime may be easi- 
ly discovered. 

When the process by diminution of weight is employed, two 
parts of the acid, and one part of the matter of the soil must be 
weighed in two separate bottles, and very slowly mixed together 
:ill the effervescence ceases ; the difference between their weight 
before and after the experiment, denotes the quantity of carbonic 
acid lost ; for every four grains andta half of which, ten grains of 
carbonate of lime must be estimated. 

The best method of collecting the carbonic acid, so as to dis- 
cover its volume, is by the pneumatic apparatus, the construction 
and application of which is described at the end of this paper. 
vol. ii. 39 



306 ANALYSIS OF SOILS. CHAP. ft. 

The estimation is, for every ounce measure of carbonic acid, two 
grains of carbonate of lime. x 

X. — Mode of ascertaining the Quantity of insoluble finely divided 
Animal and Vegetable Matter. 

After the fine matter of the soil has been acted upon by muriat- 
ic acid, the next process is to ascertain the quantity of finely di- 
vided insoluble animal and vegetable matter that it contains. 

Tnis may be done with sufficient precision, by heating it to 
strong ignition in a crucible over a common fire till no blackness 
remains in the mass. It should be often stirred with a metallic 
wire, so as to expose new surfaces continually to the air ; the loss 
of weight that it undergoes denotes the quantity of the substance 
that it contains destructible by fire and air. 

It is not possible to ascertain whether this substance is wholly 
animal or vegetable matter, or a mixture of both. When the 
smell emitted during the incineration is similar to that of burnt 
feathers, it is a certain indication of some animal matter ; and a 
copious blue flame at the time, of ignition, almost always denotes 
a considerable proportion of vegetable matter. In cases when the 
experiment is needed to be very quickly performed, the destruc- 
tion of the decomposible substances may be assisted by the agen-: 
cy of nitrate of ammonia, which, at the time of ignition, may be 
thrown gradually upon the heated mass, in the quantity of twenty 
grains for every hundred of residual soil. It affords the principle 
necessary to the combustion of the animal and vegetable matter, 
which it causes to be converted into elastic fluids ; and is itself at 
the same time decomposed and lost. 

XL — Mode of separating Aluminous and Siliceous Matter, and 
Oxide of Iron. 

The substances remaining after the decomposition of the vege- 
table and animal matter, are generally minute particles of earthy 
matter, containing usually alumine and silex with combined ox-« 
idi of iron. 

o separate these from each other, the solid matter should bej 
boikd for two or three hoifrs with sulphuric acid, diluted with! 
four .imcs its weight of water ; the quantity of the acid should bej 
regulated by the quantity of solid resiouum to be acted on, allow-; 
ing for every hundred grains two dracums, or one hundred and' 
twenty grains of acid. 

The substance, remaining after the action of the acid, maybe 



met. in. 



ANALYSIS OP SOILS. 3*3 



XX. Advantages of Improvements made by changing the Com- 
position of Earthy Parts of Soils. 
From the great difference of the causes that influence the pro- 
ductiveness of lands, it is obvious, that, in the present state of sci- 
ence, no certain system can be devised for their improvement, in* 
j dependent of experiment; but there are few cases in which the 
jlabour of analytical trials will not be amply repaid by the certain- 
ty with which they denote the best methods of amelioration ; and 
this will particularly happen, when the defect of composition is 
.> found in the proportions of the primitive earths. 

In supplying animal or vegetable manure, a temporary food on- 
ly is provided for plants, which is in all cases exhausted by means 
,of a certain number of crops ; but when a soil is rendered of the 
best possible constitution and texture, with regard to its earthy 
parts, its fertility may be considered as permanently established. 
It becomes capable of attracting a very large portion of vegetable 
nourishment from the atmosphere, and of producing its crops with 
comparatively little labour and expense. 

Description of the Apparatus for the Analysis of Soils. 
PI. iv. fig. 44 ; a, b, c, cf, c, f The different parts of the appa? 
-ratus required for measuring the quantity of elastic fluid given out 
during the action of an acid on calcareous soils, a Represents 
{the bottle for containing the soil ; b, the bottle containing the a- 
icid, furnished with a stop-cock ; c, the tube connected with the 
flaccid bladder ; d, f, the graduated measure ; e, the bottle for 
[Containing the bladder. When this instrument is used, a given 
quantity of soil is introduced into a ; b, is filled with muriatic a- 
cid, diluted with an equal quantity of water ; and the stop-cock 
■being closed, is connected with the upper orifice of a, which is 
ground to receive it. The tube c is introduced into the lower ori- 
fice of a, and the bladder connected with it placed in its flaccid 
fState in e, which is filled with water. The graduated measure is 
ijplaced Under the tube of e. When the stop-cock of b is turned, 
the acid flows into a, and acts upon the soil ; the elastic fluid gene- 
rated passes through c into the bladder, and displaces a quantity 
sf water in e equal to it in bulk, and this water flows through the 
iitube into the graduated measure ; the water in which gives, by 
jits volume, the indication of the proportion of carbonic acid disen- 
gaged from the soil ; for every ounce measure of which two grains 
of carbonate of lime may be estimated. 
vol. ii. 40 



314 XJSE OF RE-AGENTS* CHAP. V, 

CHAPTER V. 

MISCELLANEOUS USES OF CHEMICAL RE-AGENTS. * 

I.— -Removal of Ink Stains. 
THE stains of ink on cloth, paper, or wood, may be removed' 
by almost all acids ; but those acids are to be preferred which are 
least likely to injure the texture of the stained substance. The 
muriatic acid, diluted with five or six times its weight of. water,- 
may be applied to the spot, and, after a minute or two, may be 
washed off, repeating its application as often as may be found ne- 
cessary. But the vegetable acids are attended with less risk, and 
are equally effectual. A solution of the oxalic, citric, or tartaric 
acids, in water, may be applied to the most delicate fabrics, with- 
out any danger of injuring them ; and the same solutions discharge 
from paper, written, but not printed, ink. Hence they may be 
employed in cleaning books, which have been defaced by writing 
on the margin, without impairing the text. 

II. — Iron Stains. 
These may be occasioned either by ink stains, which, on the 
application of soap, are changed into iron stains, or by the direct 
contact of rusted iron. — They may be removed by diluted muriat- 
ic acid, or by one of the vegetable acids already mentioned. 
When suffered to remain long on cloth, they become extremely 
difficult to take out, because the iron, by repeated moistening with, 
water and exposure to the air, acquires such an audition of oxy- 
gen as renders it insoluble in acids. Even these spots, however, 
may be discharged, by applying first a solution of recently pre- 
pared muriate of tin, which must be well washed from the cloth r 
and afterwards a liquid acid. The muriate of tin, in this case, ex- 
tracts part of the oxygen from the iron, and renders it soluble in 
dilute acids. 

III.-— Fruit and Wine Stains. 
These are best removed by a watery solution ofthe oxygenized 
muriatic acid (see chap. xiv. sect. 3,) or by that of oxygenized 
muriate of potash or lime, to which a little sulphuric acid has been 
added. The stained spot may be steeped in one of these solutions 
till it is discharged ; but the solution can only be applied with 
safety to white goods, because the uncombined oxygenized acid 
discharges all printed and dyed colours. A convenient mode of 



CHAT. V. USE OF RE-AGENTS. 31,5 

• 

applying the oxygenized acid, easily practicable by persons who 
have not the apparatus for saturating water with the gas, is as fol- 
lows : Put about a table-spoonful of muriatic acid (spirit of salt) 
into a tea-cup, and add to it about a tea-spoonful of powdered man- 
ganese. Then set this cup in a larger one filled with hot water. 
Moisten the stained spot with water, .and expose it to the fumes 
that arise from the tea-cup. If the exposure be continued a suffi- 
cient length of time, the stain will disappear. 

Stains on silk may be removed by a watery solution of sulphu- 
rous acid, or by the fumes of burning sulphur. 

IV.-—Sfiots of Grease 
May be removed by a diluted solution of pure potash ; but this 
must be cautiously applied, to prevent injury to the cloth. - Stains 
of white wax, which sometimes fall upon the clothes from wax 
candles, are removeable by spirit of turpentine or sulphuric ether, 
—The marks of white paint may also be discharged by the last- 
mentioned agents, 



Si4 



APPENDIX I. 

OF THE RECENT DISCOVERIES IN CHEMISTRY. 

oince this work was committed to the press, several new 
facts have been discovered, the importance of which requires that 
they should be noticed, though published too late to be inserted 
|n their proper place. Of these the principal part are contained 
in Mr. Davy's last communication to the Royal Society, a copy of 
of which he has been so obliging as to transmit to me, previously 
to its publication in the Philosophical Transactions.* These dis- 
coveries lead to some changes in the views, which have been giv- 
en in the first volume, of the nature of certain chemical agents. 
In researches, indeed, so refined and complicated, and involving so 
many sources of error, it is to be expected that frequent changes 
will be required, both in the enunciation of facts, and in the con-, 
elusions deduced from them. 

1.— On Ammonia— -Its Formation from Charcoal and Pearlash~— 
Presence of Oxijgen in it — Amalgam of Mercury and Ammo- 
mum. 

From the researches of Mr. Davy, of which an outline has been 
given at page 194 vol. i. it appeared to follow that, by the action 
of potassium on ammonia, the nitrogen which enters into the con- 
stitution of that alkali, suffers a decomposition, since a less quan- 
tity of nitrogen gas is obtained by the agency of this metal than by 
electrical analysis. At the same time the increased production of 
hydrogen gas pointed out hydrogen as a probable element of ni- 
trogen. MM. Gay Lussac and Thenard, however, have asserted 
that the fusible substance, generated by heating potassium in am- 
monia, may be made to give out the whole of the ammonia which 
has been absorbed by the process, two fifths as ammonia, one fifth 
as hydrpgen and nitrogen ; and the remaining two fifths, by the 
addition of water, in the form of volatile alkali. They agree whjk,- 
Mr. Davy as to the evolution of hydrogen ; but maintain that as 
all the ammonia is recovered, the hydrogen gas must be furnish- 
ed by the decomposition of potassium. 

These discordant results have led Mr. Davy to repeat his for- 
yncr experiments, with the observance of every possible precau- 
* Part I. for IS 10, 



v RECENT DISCOVERIES. 325 

however, it is partially decomposed by the air in the water, so that 
it is not easy to say whether the power is inherent in it, or de- 
pends on the diffusion of a small quantity of muriatic acid through it. 
In other respects, it resembles a weak acid, combining with water 
and the alkalis. It precipitates most metallic solutions. It is in- 
stantly decomposed by oxy-muriatic acid, depositing a film at first 
metallic, but which is soon converted into muriate of tellurium. 

The phenomena produced by substituting arsenic for telluri- 
um in similar experiments were considerably different. Arsenic, 
made the negative surface in water, became dark coloured and 
threw down a brown powder, but it likewise gave off a considera- 
ble quantity of hydrogen gas. Negatively electrified in contact 
wim solid potash, an alloy of potassium and arsenic was formed of 
a dark grey colour and perfectly metallic, which gave off arsenu- 
retted hydrogen by the action of water. Potassium and arsenic, 
simply heated together, combined with such violence as to exhibit 
an actual inflammation, and yielded a similar alloy. 

By heating these alloys of tellurium and arsenic with potassium 
in ammoniacal gas, an elastic fluid was generated, which consisted 
of four sixths nitrogen, instead of being pure hydrogen, as in the 
action of potassium alone. If it be said, then, that the metal and 
not the ammonia is decomposed in processes of this kind, it must 
be considered (Mr. Davy argues) in some cases as a compound of 
nitrogen, and in others as a compound of hydrogen, which are con- 
tradictory assumption's. 

V. — Nature of Sulphur, Phosphorus, and their Combinations with 
Hydrogen. 
From the experiments of Mr. Davy, of which an abstract is giv- 
en in the first volume, it appeared extremely probable that both 
sulphur and phosphorus contain hydrogen. The intense ignition, 
which these bodies exhibit during their combination with potas- 
sium, led him also to suspect that they might contain oxygen ; but 
this inference has since been rendered questionable by the fact, 
that similar phenomena attend the action of potassium on tellurium 
and arsenic. Neither is the diminution of the power of potassium 
to decompose water, after its union with sulphur and phosphorus, 
so clearly established, as to furnish proof of the presence of oxy- 
gen in these bodies. The idea, however, is still support, d by sev- 
eral analogies, and especially by their property of being non-con- 
ductors of electricity. 



$26 APPENDIX 1. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen gas, Mr. Davy states to weigh 35 grains 
for 100 cubical inches; and as the gas contains a volume of hy. 
drogen gas precisely equal to its own, it will consist of 2.27 hy- 
drogen, and 32.73 sulphur ; and hence 100 parts by weight will 
contain 

93.51 sulphur 
6.49 hydrogen 

100 

When sulphuretted hydrogen is decomposed by common elec- 
tricity, there is a slight diminution of volume, and the precipitated 
sulphur appears to contain a little hydrogen ; but when Voltaic 
sparks are transmitted through it, the sulphur is precipitated in 
its common form, and there is no change of volume. 

Arsenuretted and phosphuretted hydrogen gases are also de* 
composed by electricity without changing their bulk. But nei- 
ther arsenic nor phosphorus are separated in their ordinary states. 
The phosphorus has' a dark colour, and the arsenic is a brown I 
powder; and both substances probably contain hydrogen, ifpo-j 
tassium be brought into contact with these gases in smaller quan- I 
tity than is. necessary to decompose the whole, there is always an I 
expansion of volume. Both gases, therefore, must contain morel 
than their own volume of hydrogen, probably half as much more I 
or twice as much more. From experiments on the weight of these 
gases, Mr. Davy finds that 100 cubic inches of arsenuretted hy- 
drogen weigh about 15 grains, and lOOcubic inches of phosphuret- I 
ted hydrogen about 10 grains. Mr. Dalton, however, from recent 
experiments, is disposed to consider phosphuretted hydrogen as 
much heavier; and to rale the 100 cubical inches at 26 grains. 

VI. — Of Mr. Dalton's J\'env System of Chemical Elements. 

I have already (vol. i. page 60) stated very briefly the principle 
«n which Mr. Dalton has founded his new system of chemical el- 
ements, or what may be called the utomic system. ' Into the details 
of this theory, or the analogies on which it rests, I. have purposely, 
however, foreborn to enter ; because nothing more than a brief 
outline has hitherto been laid before the public by the author him- 
self. In the second pail of his " New System of Chemical Philos- 
ophy," which is nearly ready for publication, not only the facts* 
many of which have been obtained by his own elaborate research- 
es, but the train of reasoning to which they have led, will be fully 
developed. In the mean time 1 subjoin-, from the first pan vi 



RECENT DISCOVERIES. 



327 



dr. Dalton's work, the table of the relative weights of several 
iodies, with some corrections, resulting from his late experience, 
vhich he has been so obliging as to communicate to me. To ex- 
Wain the method in which these numbers have been deduced, it 
nay be proper to add the following remarks. 

Let us suppose that any two elementary bodies a and b form a 
•inary compound, and that they have been proved experimentally 
o unite in the proportion by weight of 5 of the former to 4 of the 
alter ; then, since according to the hypothesis, they unite parti- 
ble to panicle, these numbers will express the relative weights of 
:heir atoms. But besides combining atom to atom singly, one a- 
i.ora of a may also combine with 2 of b or with 3, 4, &c. Or, re- 
versely, 1 of b may unite with 2 of a or with 3, 4, &c. When such 
i series of compounds exists, the relative proportion of their ele- 
ments ought necessarily, on analysis, to be proved to be 5 of a to 4 
jf b ; or 5 to (4 4- 4=)8 ; or 5 to (4 + 4 4- 4 =) 12 ; &c. ; or, 
contrariwise, 4 of b to 5 of c, or 4 to (5 + 5 =) 10 ; or 4 to (5 -j- 5 
4- 5 =) 15. Between these, there ought to be no intermediate 
compounds ; and the existence of any such would be fatal to 
the hypothesis. 

To verify these numbers, it may be proper to examine the com- 
binations of a and b with some third substance, for example with 
c. Let us suppose that in the binary compound of a and c, analy- 
sis discovers 5 parts of the former and 3 of the latter. Then, if c 
. and b are also capable of forming a binary compound, their rela- 
tive proportions by weight in this compound ought to be 4 of b to 
i3 of c, since these numbers denote the relative weight of their a- 
toms. Now this is precisely the method, by which Mr. Dalton 
has deduced and verified the relative weights of oxygen, hydro- 
gen, and nitrogen ; the two first from the known composition of 
water ; and the two last froaa th« proportion of the elements of 
s ammonia. Extending the comparison to a number of other bod- 
ies, he has obtained a scale of the relative weights of their atoms. 

The hypothesis, therefore, although its leading principle be a 
gratuitous assumption, must stand or fall by the results of analy- 
sis. The instances in which it agrees with these results, are al- 
ready very numerous ; and none have hitherto been shown to be 
directly contradictory to it. If it should continue to derive support 
from the progress of discovery, its importance will be scarcely 
less felt in assisting and directing future investigations, than in de* 
termining the accuracy of our present knowledge. 



328 APPENDIX I. 

Relative weights of the ultimate atoms of several bodies. 



Hyarogen 


1 


Potassium 


43 


Nitrogen 


5 


Strontites 


46 


Carbon 


5 


Barytes 


68 


Oxygen 


7 


Iron 


50 


Phosphorus 


9 


Zinc 


56 


Sulphur 


13 


Copper 


56 


Magnesia 


17 


Lead 


95 


Lime 


24 


Silver 


100 


Soda 


28 


Platina 


100 



Sodium - 29 Gold - 140 

Potash - 42 Mercury - 167 

BINARY COMPOUNDS. 

An atom of water or steam, composed of one oxygen 
and one hydrogen, retained in physical contact by a strong 
affinity ; and supposed to be surrounded by a common at- 
mosphere of heat ------- . g 

An atom of ammonia, composed of one atom of nitrogen 
and one atom of hydrogen ------ 6 

An atom of nitrous gas composed of one atom of nitro- 
gen and one of oxygen - - - - - 12 

An atom of olefiant gas composed of one atom of car- 
bon and one of hydrogen ------ 6 

An atom of carbonic oxide composed of one atom of 
carbon and one of oxygen ------ 12 

An atom of sulphuretted hydrogen composed of one 
atom of sulphur and one of hydrogen - - - 14 

TERNARY COMPOUNDS. 

An atom of nitrous oxide two nitrogen and one oxy- 
gen - - 17 

An atom of nitric acid one nitrogen and two oxy- 
gen ----------19 

An atom of carbonic acid one caibon and two oxy- 
gen - --19 

An atom of carburetted hydrogen one carbon and 
two hydrogen --7 

QUATERNARY COMPOUNDS. 

Oxy-nitric acid. One aiom ot niaogen -f three oxy- 
gen ----26 

Sulphuric acid. One sulphur -+- three oxygen - 34 

Alcohol. Three carbon -f one hydrogen * - 16 



RECENT RECOVERIES. 329 

Nitrous acid. One nitric acid + one nitrous gas - 31 
.Acetic acid. Two carbon + two water 26 

Nitrate of ammonia. One nitric acid + one ammonia 
•f- one water ..------33 

Sugar. One alcohol + o' ie carbonic acid - - 35 

VII. Proportion of the Elements of some Combinations. 

The precise determination of the composition of neutral and 
ither salts is of the greatest importance, not only for the facts 
hemselves, but still more for their application in almost every 
pecies of analysis, and their influence on the general doctrines of 
hemistry. On this subject Berthier has lately contributed some 
tew experiments ;* and Berard has published a valuable memoir. 
The muriates of barytes and silver have been examined by the 
brmer, and found to be composed as follows. 
Muriate of barytes in crystals consists of 

Base 64 

Acid - - - - 21 
Water - - - - 15 

100 
Deprived of water, the same salt is composed of 
Base - - - 75.3 

Acid - - - 24.7 

100 
The muriate of silver consists of 

Acid - - - - 18.3 
Silver 75 

Oxygen - - - 6 7. 

100 
This determination agrees very nearly with Gay Lussac's latest 
experiment, quoted by Berard, viz. 

Acid - - - - 18.03 
Base - - - - 81.97 



100 

M. Berard's researches! were directed chiefly to the analysis of 
die alkaline carbonates and sub-carbonates; but several other salts 
were examined in the course of the inquiry. 

The saturated carbonates of potash and soda were formed by 
mingling the solutions of their sub-carbonates with one of sub- 

* Nicholson's Journal, xxiv; 384. f Annales de Chimie, lxxi. 41. 
vol. ii. 42 



Acid. 


Base. 


Water. 


42.01 


48.92 


9.07 


23.83 


56.17 


20.0 


49.95 


29.85 


20.20 


13.98 


23.33 


62.69 



330 APPENDIX. I. 

carbonate of ammonia. The sub-carbonates of the same alkalis 
were formed by fusing their carbonates, a process which always 
affords them in an uniform state as to the proportion of their ele- 
ments. The sub-carbonate of soda, it has been long known, may 
be obtained in crystals ; and Berard confirms the fact that sub- 
carbonate of potash is also capable of assuming a regular form. 
To obtain it in this state, supertartrate of potash is to be calcined, 
lixiviated, and the solution evaporated to the degree necessary for 
forming crystals, which are to be dried by blotting-paper. When 
these crystals are exposed to a sufficient degree of heat, they are 
entirely deprived of water; but retain their carbonic acid. 

The following are the proportions of the ingredients in 100 
grains of the crystallized salts. 

Carbonate of potash 

Sub-carbonate of ditto - 

Carbonate of soda 

Sub-carbonate of ditto - 

Setting apart the water of crystallization, M. Berard has given 

the following table of the composition of neutral salts, deduced. 

from his own experiments. 

Salts. 
Muriate of potash 

soda - 

Sulphate of barytes - , - 

potash 

soda - 

Nitrate of potash 
Carbonate of potash 

soda 

Sub-carbonate of potash 
soda - 

VIII On the Combustion of different Kinds of Charcoal — the 

Proportions of Oxygen and Carbon in Carbonic Acid— and the 

Combustion of Hydrogen Gas. 

M. Saussure has lately published a memoir on this subject, 
which contains very ample and. interesting details. f Its great 
length, however, will prevent me from giving more than a sum- 
mary of the results of his experiments. 

Plumbago, he found, when burned in oxygen gas, gives only 

* Erroneously printed in the original 49.19. 

| Annates de Chimie, lxxi. 254 ; Nicholson's Journal, xxvi. 161, 300. 



Base. 


Acid. 


Total 


66.66 


33.34 


100 


57.00 


43 00 


100 


67.70 


32.30 


100 


57 24 


42.76 


100 


4722 


52.78 


100 


48.64 


51.36 


100 


53 81 


46.19* 


100 


44 38 


5562 


100 


70.21 


29.79 


100 


62.53 


37.47 


100 



RECENT DISCOVERIES. 331 

carbonic acid and oxide of iron, without any mixture either of 
. water or hydrogen gas. The products of this combustion estab- 
lish that 100 grains of plumbago consist of 96 grains of carbon 
and four of iron; and that 100 grains of carbonic acid contain be- 
tween 27.04 and 27.38 grains of carbon. 

Next to plumbago, the purest kind of charcoal, which M. Saus- 
surewas able to procure, was that obtained by transmitting through 
a red-hot tube, the essential oil of rosemary. Its combustion af- 
forded no water, and only a very minute quantity of carburetted 
hydrogen, too small in amount to affect the accuracy of the re- 
sults. The composition of carbonic acid, deduced in this way, 
was 27.11 carbon and 72.89 oxygen. 

-The combustion of anthracite (glance-coal or stone-coal) and 
of charcoal of box-wood gave a product both of water and of car- 
buretted hydrogen too considerable to allow much confidence to 
be placed in the results. The same substances were formed when 
charcoal was used, which had been employed in preparing the li- 
quid sulphuretted hydrogen.* Hence it may be inferred that sul- 
phur does not deprive charcoal of its hydrogen. M. Saussure is 
disposed to admit, with Mr. Davy, that sulphur contains both 
oxygen and hydrogen ; the former of which, he supposes, unites 
with the hydrogen, while the latter combines with the carbon. 

The conclusion, that oxygen gas sustains no change of volume 
by conversion into carbonic acid, is not impeached by these ex- 
periments. But when any of those varieties of charcoal were 
used, which contain hydrogen, a small increase of volume took 
place, if the hydrogen happened to escape unburned ; and a dim- 
inution, if it was wholly consumed during the combustion. 

In the course of his inquiries, M. Saussure had occasion to make 
some observations on several eudiometrical processes. Lime- 
water and even barytes water, he finds, are not adapted for remov- 
ing small quantities of carbonic acid from oxygen gas ; because 
the water of the solution acts on oxygen gas ; of which it absorbs 
a small quantity abandoning at the same time a little nitrogen. A 
much better agent is the concentrated solution of potash, used o- 
ver mercury, and in a quantity barely sufficient to effect the ab- 
sorption. 

The eudiometer of Volta, M. Saussure has found, in common 
with other chemists, not to be perfectly accurate. If the oxygen 
gas be in excess, the nitrogen which it contains, it is well known, 
* See vol. i. page 267, 



032- APPENDIX I. 

is apt to be condensed into nitric acid.* But it even appears* 
from M. Saussure's researches, that an excess of hydrogen does 
not insure precision ; for, in this case/ he has discovered that ni- j 
trate of ammonia is generated. The slow inflammation of hydro- 
gen gas and of all tlie varieties of carburetted hydrogen in atmo- 
spheric air, is attended with a production of nitrate of ammonia. 

Lastly, M. Saussure has added the important observation that 
all the varieties of hydrogen gas, even those which hitherto have 
been deemed quite pure, whether obtained by the solution of met- 
als in dilute acids ; by the decomposition of water by Voltaic elec- 
tricity ; or by passing ammonia through a red-hot tube, contain 
charcoal and probably even oxygen also, for they all yield carbon- 
ic acid when inflamed with an excess of oxygen gas. When 
there is a deficiency of oxygen, the carbon remains unconsumed ; 
but in this case the residuary hydrogen contains a greater propor- 
tional quantity of charcoal. The purest hydrogen, that M. Saus- 
sure has been able to obtain, yielded, by combustion with a redun- 
dance of oxygen, a quantity of carbonic acid equal to three thou- 
sandths of its bulk. 

IX. — On the Tenacity of Ductile Metals. 
M. Guyton Morveau has lately made a series of experiments 
on the tenacity of metals, the results of which do not exactly ac- 
cord with those which have been heretofore obtained. With re- 
gard to copper, platina, silver, gold, and iron, his experiments a- 
gree with the statement given by Dr. Thomson in his System of 
Chemistry ; but with respect to other metals tluy differ considerably. 

A wire of 0.787 of a line Supported before it 

English in diameter of broke, 



' y ' < Y 

lb. avoird. Deeimal parted 

Iron 549 250 

Copper 302.278 

Platina ----- 274.320 
Silver - - - - - 187.137 

Gold 150.753 

Zinc .... - 109.540 

Tin - - - - - - 34.630 

Lead 27 62 If 

It has generally been stated that lead, by the process of flatting, 
contrary to other metals, sustains a diminution of specific gravity; 
* Some g-cod remarks on this subject by Berthollet, jun. may be consult- 
ed in Nicholson's Journal, xxv. 154. 

| Annates de Chimie, lxxi. 189 ; or Nicholson's Journal, xxvi. 102- 



RECENT DISCOVERIES. 333 

and M. Morveau, on repeating the experiment, found it to be cor- 
rect. But when the lead is prevented from escaping laterally, by 
stamping the metal in a very strong collar, its density was ascer- 
tained to be increased from 1 1 .358 to 1 1 388. 

M. Morveau has determined, also, that the purest distilled wa- 
ter exerts a speedy action on lead, even when the water is con- 
tained in glass vessels, so as to exclude all galvanic influence. 
This effect, he finds, is connected with the presence of air in wa- 
ter ; that it ceases as soon as the water is no longer capable of 
furnishing air ; and that it does not take place at all in water, 
which has been thoroughly purged of air by long boiling or by the 
air-pump. What is most singular, however, and would require 
farther experiment before it could be admitted, is, that the pres- 
ence of any neutral salt, as the sulphates, nitrates, muriates, &c. 
even, for instance, 0.002 of sulphate of lime, is sufficient to ob- 
struct this action both in open and covered vessels. 

X. — Properties of Nickel. 
A set of experiments on nickel have lately been made by Pro- 
fessor Tourte of Berlin,* in consequence of his having to prepare 
a needle of that metal for the Royal Mineralogical Cabinet. 

The colour of nickel, he compares to that of silver of twelve 
i deniers heated to redness. The metal takes a fine polish, and has 
I then a lustre intermediate between that of steel and platina. When 
ignited, the colour is changed to that of antique bronze. The in- 
tensity of this colour increases every time the metal is heated, 
and a stain of oxide is left which is removed by nitric acid. — 
When ignited in oxygen gas, it burns and throws out sparks. 

At 54|° Fahrenheit M. Tourte found the specific gravity of 
nickel slightly hammered 8. 402, and thoroughly hammered 8.932. 
It is ductile and tenacious, and may be drawn into the slenderest 
wire. It cannot easily be soldered, on account of a crust of oxide 
which forms on its surface. Its power of conducting heat is su- 
perior to that of either zinc or copper, with both of which it was 
compared. 

The magnetic property of nickel is very remarkable, and is re- 
tained after being alloyed with a minute quantity of arsenic. Ox- 
idation, however, diminishes it, even when the metal is oxidized 
only to such a degree as to be slightly tarnished. Healing it red- 
hot, for six times in succession, destroyed also its magnetic pow- 
er. Its polarity, M. Tourte considers as entirely acquired, and as 
never existing without the previous application of a magnet. 
* Nicholson's Journal xxvi. 99 ; or Annates de CJiimie, lxxi. 



334 



APPENDIX II. 

CONSISTING OF VARIOUS USEFUL TABLES. 

No. I. 

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND FOREIGN WEIGHTS 

AND MEASURES. 



I. — English Weights and Measures. 
Troy Weight. 



Pound. 
1 


Ounces. 
= 12 = 


Drams. Scruples. 
96 = 286 = 


Grains. 
5760 


Grammes. 
= 3/296 




1 = 


8 = 24 «: 


480 


= 31.08 






1 = 3 = 


60 


= 3.885 






1 = 


20 
1 


= 1.295 
= 0.06475 


Pound. 
1 


Ounces. 
= 16 = 


Avoirdupois Weight. 
Drams. Grains. 
^56 = 7oUO = 


Grammes. 
463.25 




1 = 


16 = 437.5 


S3 


28 328 






1 = 27.34: 


75 = 


1.7705 


Gal. 
1 


Pints. 


Measures. 
Ounces. Drains. 
128 = IU^'4 = 


Cub. Inches. Litres. 
2.3 J = 3.78515 




1 = 


16 = 128 = 


28 875 = 0.47398 






1 = 8 = 


1.8047 = 0.02957 






1 — 


0.2256 = 0.00396 



N. B. — The English ale-gallon contains 282 cubical inches. 

II. — German. 
71 lbs. or grs. English troy, = 74 lbs. or grs. German a- 

pothecaries weight. 
1 oz. Nuremberg, medic, weight, = 7 dr. 2. sc. 9 gr. English, 
1 mark Cologne, = 7 oz. 2 dwt. 4 gr. Eng- 

lish troy. 

lli.-r— Dutch. 
1 lb. Dutch, == 1 lb. 3 oz. 16 dwt. 7 gr. English troy. 
787| lbs. Dutch, = 1038 lbs. English troy. 



OLD FRENCH WEIGHTS, &C. 335 

jy_ Swedish Weights and Measures, used by Bergman and 

Scheele. 

The Swedish pound, which is divided like the English apothe- 
cary, or troy, pound, weighs 6556 grs. troy. 

The kanne of pure water, according to Bergman, weighs 42250 
Swedish grains, and occupies 100 Swedish cubical inches. Hence 
the kanne of pure water weighs 48088.719444 English troy grains, 
or is equal to 189.9413 English cubic inches; and the Swedish 
longitudinal inch is equal to 1.238435 English longitudinal inches. 

From these data the following rules are deduced : 

1. To reduce Swedish longitudinal inches to English, multiply 
by 1.2384, or divide by 0.80747. 

2. To reduce Swedish to English cubical inches, multiply by 
1.9, or divide by 0.5265. 

3. To reduce the Swedish pound, ounce, dram, scruple, or 
grain, to the corresponding English troy denomination, multiply 
by 1.1382, or divide by .8786. 

4. To reduce the Swedish kannes to English wine pints, multi- 
ply by .1520207, or divide by 6.57805. 

5. To reduce Swedish kannes to English wine gallons, multiply 
by .82225 oa' divide by 1.216. 

6. The lod, a weight sometimes used by Bergman, is the 32d 

I part of the common Swedish pound of 16 oz. and the 24th part of 
I the pound of 12 oz. Therefore to reduce it to-the English troy 
pound, multiply by .03557, or divide by 28. 1 156. 

V. — Correspondence of English Weights and Measures with those 
used in France before the Revolution. 

§ I.— AVEIGHTS. 

The Paris pound, fioids de marc of Charlemagne, contains 9216 
* Paris grains ; it is divided into 16 ounces, each ounce into 8 gros, 
and each gros into 72 grains. It is equal to 7561 English troy- 
grains. 

The English troy pound of 12 ounces contains 5760 English 
troy grains, and is equal to 7021 Paris grains. 

The English avoirdupois pound of 16 ounces contains 700d 
English troy grains, and is equal to 8532.5 Paris grains. 

To reduce Paris grains to English troy grains, di-~) 

Videby . " " • " " . ' • " I 12189 

To reduce English troy grains to Paris grains mul- \ 

tiply by ... J 

To reduce Paris ounces to English troy, divide by ) 

To reduce English troy ounces to Paris, multiply by y 5 ^ 54 



336 APPENDIX II. 

Or the conversion may be made by means of the following ta- 
bles : 

1. — To reduce French to English Troy Weight. 

The Paris pound = 7561 "^ 

The ounce = 472.5625 I ~ ,. , „ 

rv\ U„ «- n , *>Enghsh troy grains. 

The gros = 59.0703 \ ° • ° 

The grain = .8204J 

2. — To reduce English Troy to Paris Weight. 

The English troy pound of 1 2 ounces = 702 1 . 

The troy ounce = 5b5.08S3 

The dram of 60 grains - - = 73.1354 

The penny-weight or denier of 24 5 _ „ „ . ^-Paris grains. 

grains - - - 5 ~~ 

The scruple of 20 grains - = 24.3784 | 

The grain = 1.2 189 J 

3. — To reduce English Jlvoirdujiois to Paris Weight. 

The avoirdupois pound of 16 ounc-) _ .. 1 

es, or, 7000 troy grains £ L Paris grs. 

The ounce - - = 533 6250 J 



§. II. LONG AND CUBICAL MEASURES. 

To reduce Paris running feet, or inches, into Eng- 
lish, multiply by - - - - - ^.1.065977 
English running feet, or inches, into Paris, divide by 

To reduce Paris cubic feet, or inches, to English, 

' multiply by J. 1.21 1278 

English cubic feet, or inches, to Paris, divide by 

Or by means of the following tables : 



1 



4. — To reduce Paris Long Measure to English. 

The French toise = 6.3945 English feet. 

The Paris royal foot of 12 inches = 12.7977"} 

The inch - = 1.0664 I _. r , . , 

-i>u i- i ,o t u e • u «ooo 5> English inches. 

Ihe line, or 1-1 2th of an inch = .0888 \ & 

The l-12th of a line - - = .0074J 

5. — To reduce English Long Measure to French. 

The English foot - - — 11.2596"^ 

The inch - - - - = .9383 J 

The l-8th of an inch = .1 173 }>Paris inches. 

The l-10th = .0938 | 

The 1-1 2th - - — .0782 J 



®LD FRENCH WEIGHTS, &C. 337 

6. To reduce French Cube Measure to English. 

ThePari 8 cube> li3U378 l English fl 

foot - S *.*»«« L cubical < > inches. 

The cubic inch = .000700 J feet, or (_ 1.211278 J 

7. — To reduce English Cube Measure to French.* 

The English cube foot, or 1728 £ _ 1427 4g64 l 

cubical inches > ' '.French cubi- 

The cubical inch - = .8260 f cal inches. 

The cube tenth - = .0008 J 



§ III. — MEASURE OF CAPACITY. 

The Paris pint contains 58.!45t English cubial inches, and the 
English wine pint contains 28.875 cubical inches ; or, the Paris 
pint contains 2.0171082' English pints, and the English pint con- 
tains .49617 Paris pints ; hence, 

To reduce the Paris pint to the English, multi-1 

ply by [► 2.0171082 

To reduce the English pint to the Paris, divide by J 

The septier of Paris is 7736 French, or 9370 45 English, cubi- 
cal inches ; and the muid is 92832 French, or 1 12445.4 English, 
cubical inches. 



* To convert the weight of a French cubic foot, of any particular sub- 
stance given in French grains, into the corresponding weight of an English 
cubic foot in English troy grains, multiply the French grains by 0.6773181j 
and the product is the number of English troy grains contained in an Eng- 
lish cubic foot of the same substance. 

-f- It is said by Belidor, Archit. Hydrant, to contain 31 oz. 64 grs. of wa- 
ter, which makes it 58.075 English inches ; but, as there is considerable 
uncertainty in the determinations of the weight of the French cubical 
measure of water, oving to the uncertainty of the standards made use of, 
it is better to abide by Mr. Everard's measure, which was made by the Ex- 
chequer standards, and by the proportions of the English and French foot, 
as established \>y the French Academy and Royal Society. 

According to Beaume, the Paris pint contains 32 French ounces of wa- 
ter, at the temperature of 54.5° of Fahrenheit; which would make it equal 
to 59.729 English cubical inches-. 

vol. ir. 43 



APPENDIX II. 



VI.— -Table, showing the Comparison between French and Eng- 
lish Grains. (Poid de Marc.) 



French grs.=EngHsh grs. 




English grs.=French grs. 


* 1 


0.8203 


1 


1.2189 


2 


1.6407 




2 


2.4378 


3 


2.4611 




3 


3.6568 


4 


3.2815 




4 


4.8757 


5 


4.1019 




5 


6.0947 


6 


4.9223 


6 


7.3136 


7 


5.7427 




7 


8.5325 


8 


6.5631 




8 


9.7515 


9 


7.3835 




9 


10.9704 


10 


8.203 


10 


12.189 


20 


16.407 




20 


24.378 


30 


24.611 




30 


36.468 


40 


32.815 




40 


48.757 


50 


41.019 




50 


60.947 


60 


49 223 


60 


73.136 


70 


57.427 




70 


85.325 


80 


65.631 




80 


97.515 


90 


73.835 




90 


109.704 


100 


82.03 


100 


121.89 


200 


. 164.07 




200 


243.78 


300 


246.11 




300 


365.68 


400 


328.15 




400 


487.57 


500 


410.19 




500 


609.4ft 


600 


492.23 


600 


731.36 


700 f 


574.27 




700 


853.25 


800 


656.31 




800 


975.15 


900 


738.35 




900 


1097.04 


1000 


820.3 


1000 


1218.9 


2000 


1640.7 




2000 


2437.8 


3000 


2461.1 




3000 


3656-8 


4000 


3281.5 




4000 


4875.7 


5000 


4101.9 




500( 


6r-94 7 


6000 


4*22.3 


60t >0 


75U.6 


7000 


57427 




7000 


8532.5 


8000 


6563.1 




8000 


9751.5 


9000 


7383.5 




9000 


10970.-1 


* 10,000 


8203.0 


, 1 


10,000 


12189.0 



* Per Farey (Nicholson's Journal, xxii. 338,) 1 grain French 
English j 10,000 ditto == 8204 ditto. 



0.8204 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH CUBIC INCHES. 



339 



VII.— Table, showing the Comfiarison between French and Eng- 
lish Cubical Inches. 



Cubic Inches. 




Cubic Incites- 


French = English. 


English ss French. 


1 


1.2136 


1 


08239 


2 


2.4272 




2 


1.6479 


3 


3.6408 




3 


24719 


4 


4.8544 




4 


3-2958 


5 


6.0681 




5 


4 1198 


6 


7.2817 


6 


4.94j8 


7 


8.4953 




7 


5.7677 


8 


9.7089 




8 


65917 


9 


10.9225 




9 


7.4157 


10 


12.136 


10 


8.239 


20 


24272 




20 


16.479 


30 


36408 




30 24719 


40 


48.544 




40 


32.958 


50 


60,681 




50 


41.198 


60 


72817 


60 


49,438 


70 


84.953 




70 


57.677 


80 


97 089 




80 


65.917 


90 


109.225 




90 


74.157 


100 


121.36 


100 82.39 


200 


24272 




200 


164.79 


300 


364.08 




300 


247.19 


400 


485.44 




400 


329.58 


500 


60681 




500 


411.98 


600 


728.17 


600 


494.38 


700 


849.53 




700 


576.77 


800 


970.89 


- 


800 


659.17 


900 


1092.25 




900 741.57 


1000 


1213.6 


1000 


823.9 


2000 


2427.2 




2000 


1647.9 


3000 


3640.8 




3000 


2471.9 


4000 


4854.4 




4000 


3295.8 


5000 


6068.1 




5000 


41 19.8 


600W 


7281.7 


6000 


4943.8 


7000 


8495.3 




7000 


57677 


8000 


9708.9 




8000 


6591.7 


9000 


10922.5 




9000 


74157 


10,000 


121360 




10,000 


8239.0 

■ i , . ■ . 



340 



APPENDIX II. 



VIII.-AV W French Weights and Measures (calculated by 2>| 
JDuncan, jun.J 



1 — Measures of Length : the Metre being at 32°, and the 
Foot at 62°. 



Millimetre 

Centimetre 

Decimetre 

Metre '■ 

Decametre = 

Hecatometre = 

Kilometre = 39371.00000 = 



English Inches.. 
.03937 

.39371 

3.93710 

39.37100 



Mil. Fur. Yds. Feet. In. 
393.71000 =00 10 2 9.7 
3937.10000 =00 



109 1 1 
4 213 1 10.2 
Myriometre = 393710.00000 = 6 1 156 6 



2.— Measures of Capacity. 





Cubic laches. 








Millilitre = 


.06103 








Centilitre = 


.61028 






English. 


Decilitre = 


6.10280 




Tons. 


Hogs. Wine G. Pints, 


Litre = 


61.02800 


=r 





0. 2.1133 


Decalitre = 


610.28000 


'ss 





2. 5.1352 


Hecatolitre = 


6102.80000 


= 





26.419 


Kilolitre = 


61028.00000 


= 


1 


12.19 


Myriolitre = 


610280.00000 


= 


10 


1 58.9 



3. — Measures of Weight. 

English Grains 

Milligramme = • .0154 

Centigramme = .1544 

Decigramme = 1.5444 Avoirdufiois. 

Gramme = 15.4440 x, « 

iu.ii-hu Poan. Oun. Dram. 

Decagramme = 154.4402 =00 5.65 

Hecatogramme = 1544.4023 = 3 8.5 

Kilogramme = 15444.0234 =235 

Myriogramme = 154440.2344 =22 1 2 



REDUCTION OF OUNCE MEASURES, &C. 341 



IX.— Reduction of the Ounce Measures used by Dr. Priestley to 
Cubical Inches. 



Ounce 


French Cubical 


English Cubical 


Measures.. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


1 


1.567 


1.898 


2 


3.134 


3.796 


3 


4.701 


5.694 


4 


6.268 


7.592 


5 


7.835 


9.490 


6 


9.402 


11.388 


7 


10.969 


13.286 


8 


12.536 


15.184 


9 


14.103 


17.082 


,10 


15.670 


18.980 


20 


31.340 


37.960 


30 


47.010 . 


56.940 


40 


62.680 


75.920 


50 


78.350 


94.900 


60 


94.020 


113.880 


70 


109.690 


132860 


80 


125.360 


151.840 


90 


141.030 


170.820 


100 


156.700 


189.800 


1000 


1567.000 


1898.000 



342 



APPENDIX II 



X. — Table, showing the absolute Weights and Sficcific Gravities 
of Gases, and the Quantity of tach absorbed by Water. 





(Temperature 60° Fahrenheit, Barometer 30°.) 




- 


o 
o * 


Specific Gravity 




KIND OF GAS. 




Standard. 






Water. 


Air. 






Water 




1000 











Atmospheric air 


31. 


1.2279 


1000 


S.K. 






f Oxygen gas 


34. 


1.35 


1103 


K. 


37. 


H. 


£ $ Ditto ditto 
g x^ Azouc gas 


34.74 


1.39 


1127 


D. 






30.535 


1.21 


985 


K. 


1.53 


H. 


iK 6 j Ditto ditto 

^Hydrogen gas 


30.45 


1.20 


980 


D. 






2.613 


0.1031 


84 


K. 


1.61 


H. 


A 


r Ammonia 


18.16 


0.715 


585 


K. 








Ditto 


18. 


0.713 


580 


D. 


47500. 


D. 




Ffydro-carburetfrom stag- ~) 
nant water 5 


20.66 




666 


Dal. 


1.40 


H. 


CO 


Ditto from water over ig- ? 
nited charcoal 5 


14-5 




468 


Cr. 






.Q 


Ditto from alcohol 


16. 




516 


Cr. 






1* 


Ditto from ether 


20. 




645 


Cr. 








U 


Ditto from coal 


20.2 




650 


Dal. 






■x) 


Phosphuretted hydrogen 


26. 




839 


Dal. 


2.14 


H. 


3 


Sulphuretted ditto 


34.286 


1.36 


1142 


K. 


108. 


H. 


o 


Ditto ditto 


38.17 




1231 


Th. 






f 


Olefiant gas 


28.18 




905 


Dei. 


12.5 


Dal. 


W 


Vapour of alcohol 


65.* 




2100 


Dal. 








-Ditto of ether 


70.f 




2250 


Dal. 






CO 


"Carbonic oxide 


30. 


1.185 


967 


Cr. 


2.01 


H. 


-sj 


Nitrous oxide 


50.1 


1.985 


1615 




86. 


H. 


«1 


Nitric oxide 


37. 


1.465 


1193 


K. 


5. 


H. 


o 


^Ditto ditto 


34.3 


1.36 


1105 


D. 




■ 


DO 


''Carbonic acid 


46.5 


1.84 


1500 


K. 


108. 


H. 


03 


Ditto ditto 


45.5 


1.802 


1470 


D. 






3< 


Muriatic acid 


44.7? 


1.765 


1430 


B. 


51500. 


T. 


r-^ 


Ditto ditto 


59.8 




1929 


K. 






'o 


Nitric acid 


76. 


3. 


2425 


D. 






< 




^Sulphurous 


70.215 


2.75 


2240 


K. 


3300. 


T. 



B. Brison ; Cr. Cruickshank ; D. Davy ; Dal. Dalton ; Dei, 
Deiman ; H. Henry ; K. Kirwan ; S. Shuckburgh ; T. Thomp* 
son ; Th. Thenard. 

* Of temperature 190° Fahrenheit, and force = 30 inches of mercury. 
j Of temperature 100° Fahrenheit, and force == 30 inches of mercury. 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES OF GASES. 



34S 



JLl.—Table of the Sfiecific Gravities of various Simfile and Com- 
pound Gases. 



(Gay Lussac, Memoires d' Arcveil, vol. ii. p. 252.) 



GASES, 



Densities determined by Ex- 
periment. 



Densities, calculat- 
ed from the Pro- 
porti&n of the Ek' 
ments, and their 
Contraction of Vol 
ume. 



Atmospheric air 
Oxygen gas 
Nitrogen gas 
Hydrogen gas 
Carbonic acid 
Ammonia 

Muriatic acid 

Nitrous Oxide 

Nitrous gas 
Sulphurous acid 
Carbonic oxide 
Steam of water 
Oxymuriatic acid 



1.00000 

1.10359 

0.96913 v 

0.07321 )>Biot and Arago. 

1.5196 J 
0.59669J 

1 278 5 *^ 0t anc * *** 
\ Lussac. 

\ 1.61414 Davy. 

1 1.36293 Berthollet. 

1.0388 Berard. 

2.2650 Kirwan. 

0.9569 Cruickshank. 

0.6896 Trales. 

2.470 Thenard. 



0.59438 (1) 



1.52092 (2) 
1.03636 (3) 

0.96782 (4) 
0.625 (5) 
2.468 (6) 



(1) Supposing the contraction of the elements to be one half their total" 
volume. 

(2) The contraction of the elements being supposed equal to the whole 
•xygen gas. 

(3) The contraction being supposed equal to half the whole volume. 

(4) Supposing that 100 carbonic acid produce 100 carbonic oxide ; and 
lose, at the same time, 50 oxygen. 

(5) Supposing the contraction equal to the volume of the oxygen gas, 

(6) Supposing the condensation to be half the total volume, 



344 



APPENDIX II* 



XII. — Table of. the Proportions of several Compounds, whose Ele* 

ments are Gaseous. 

(Gay Lussac, Mem. d' Arcueii, vol. ii. p. 253. 



SUBSTANCES. 



Mur. of ammonia 
Neutral carbon, of ~ ( 
ammonia * 

Sub-carbon, of do. 
Fluobor. of do. 
Sub-fluob. of do. 
Water 

Nitrous oxide 
Nitrous gas 
Nitric acid 
Ditto ditto 
Nitrous acid gas 
Ammonia 
Sulphuric acid 
Sulphurous acid 
Oxymur. acid gas 
100 cai'bon. acid 
100 ditto ditto 
100 carbonic oxide 



Propoi'tions in volume. 
A 



100 amnion, gas 

100 ditto 

100 ditto 

100 ditto 

100 ditto 

100 hyd. gas 

100 nitrogen gas 

100 ditto 

100 ditto 

200 nitrous gas 

300 ditto 

100 nitrogen gas 

100sulphs.ac.gas 

300 m. ac. gas 
100 oarb. ox. gas 

50 ox. gas 



100 mftr. gas 

100 car. ac. gas 

50 ditto 
100 fluob. gas 
50 ditto 
50 oxygen gas 
50 ditto 
100 ditto 
209 ditto 
100 ditto 
100 ditto 
300 hyd. gas 
50 oxygen gas 

100 ditto 
50 ditto 
100 ditto 



Proportions in weight. 

. A "_ 



base 38.35 
do. 28.19 
do. 43.98 



ox. 86.733 
nit. 63.72 
do. 46.757 
do. 30.512 
do. do. 
do. 34.507 
do. 81.525 
sulr.-42.016 
do. 52.083 
m. ac. 77.65 
carb.27.376 
do. do. 
carb.42.99 



acid 61.65 
do. 71.81 
do. 56.02 



hyd. 13.267 
ox. 36.28 
do. 53.243 
do. 69.488 
do. do. 
do. 65.493 
do. 18.4?5 
do. 57.984 
do. 47.917 
do. 22.35 
do. 72.624 
do. do. 
do. 57.01 



XIII. — Rules for reducing' the Volume of Gases to a mean height 
of the Barometer, and mean Temperature. 

1. From the space occupied by any quantity of gas under an ob- 
served degree of pressure, to infer what its volume would be under 
the mean height of the barometer, taking this at 30 inches, as is now 
most usual. . 

This is done by the rule of proportion ; for, as the mean height 
is to the observed height, so is the observed volume to the volume 
required. For example, if we wish to know what space would be 
filled, under a pressure of 30 inches of mercury, by a quantity of 
gas. which fills 100 inches, when the barometer is at 29 inches, 
30 : 29 : : 100 : 96.66. 

The 100 inches would, therefore, be reduced to 96.66. 

2. To estimate what would be the volume of a portion of gas, if 
brought to the temperature of 60° Fahrenheit. 

Divide the whole quantity of gas by 430; the quotient will show 
the amount of its expansion or contraction by each degree of Fah- 
renheit's thermometer. Multiply this by the number of degrees 
which the gas exceeds, or falls below, 60°. If the temperature of 
the gas he above 60°, subtract, or if below 60°, add, the product to 
the absolute quantity of gas ; and the remainder in the first case, 
or sum in the second, will be the answer. Thus, to find what 
?pace 100 cubic inches of gas at 5«° would occupy if raised to 60°, I 
divide 100 by 480 ; the quotient 0.208 multiplied by 10 gives 2.08, 



CORRECTION OF THE VOLUME OF OASES. 345 

which added to 100, gives 102.08 the answer required. If the 
temperature had been 70°, and we had wished to know the vol- 
ume, which the gas would have occupied at 60°, the same num- 
ber 2.08 must have been subtracted from 100, and 97.92 would 
have been the answer. 

f 3. In some cases, it is necessary to make a double correction, 
or to bring the gas to a mean both of the barometer and thermome' 
ter. We must then first correct the temperature, and afterwards 
the pressure. Thus to know what space 100 inches of gas at 70° 
Fahrenheit, and 29 inches barometer, would fill at 60° Fahrenheit 
i and 30 inches barometer, we first reduce the 100 inches, by the 
second process, to 97.92. Then by the first 

30 : 29 : : 97.92 : 94.63. 

Or 100 inches, thus corrected, would be only 94.63. 

4. To ascertain what would be the absolute weight of a given 
•volume of gas at a mean temperature, from the known weight of 
an equal volume at any other temperature ; first, find by the sec- 
ond process what would be its bulk at a mean temperature ; and 
then say, as the corrected bulk is to the actual weight, so is the 
observed bulk to the number required. Thus if we have 100 cu- 
bic inches of gas weighing 50 grains at 50° Fahrenheit, if the tem- 
perature were raised to 60° they would expand to 102.08." And 

102.08 : 50 : : 100 : 49. 

Therefore 100 inches of the same gas at 60° would weigh 49 
grains. 

5. To learn the absolute weight of a given volume of gas under 
a mean pressure, from its known weight under an observed pres- 
sure, say, as the observed pressure is to the mean pressure, so is 
the observed weight to the corrected weight. For example, hav» 
ing 100 inches of gas which weigh 50 grains under a pressure of 
29 inches, to know what 100 inches of the same gas would weigh, 
the barometer being 30 inches, 

29 , : 30 : : 50 : 51.72. 

Then 100 inches of the same gas, under 30 inches pressure, would 
weigh 51.72 grains. 

6. In some cases it is necessary to combine the two last calcu- 
lations. Thus, if 100 inches of gas at 50° Fahrenheit, and under 
29 inches pressure, weigh 50 grains, to find what would be the 
weight of 100 inches at 60° Fahrenheit, and under 30 inches of 
the barometer, first correct the temperature, which reduces the 
weight to 49 grains. Then, 

29 : 30 : ; 49 : 50.7. 

One hundred inches, therefore, would weigh 50.7 grains. 
vol. j*. 44 



546 



APPENDIX II. 



XIV. — Specific Gravities of Solid and Liquid Substances.* 





Specific 






Specific 




Grav. 




Grav. 


GEMS. 





ST0ITEB, &C. 


— _._ 


l3iamond, white, oriental 


3.5212 


Jasper, brown 


2.6911 


Topaz, oriental 


4.0106 


Granite, Egyptian 


2.6541* 


Sapphire, oriental 


3.9941 


Rock crystal 


2.6530 


Garnet, Bohemian 


4.1888 


Chalcedony, bright 


2.6640 


Beryl, oriental 


3.5489 


Carrara marble 


2.7168 


Hyacinth, common 


3.6873 


Alabaster, oriental 


2.7302 


Emerald, from Peru 


2.7755 


Carnelian 


2.6137 


Crysolithe, from Brazil 


2.6923 


Slate, common for roofs 


2.8535 


Amethyst, oriental 


2.651 


Flint 


2.5941 


Ruby, oriental 


4.2833 


Agate, oriental 


2.5901 






Portland-stone 


2.533 


STONES, 8cc. 




Serpentine, green, Italian 


2.4295 


Ponderous spar 


4.4300 


Opal, noble 


2.144 


X'orphyry 


2.7651 


Pumice-stone 


0.9145 




SALTS. 






Hassen- 




Muschen- 






fratz. 


Kirwan. 


brock. 


Newton.- 


Potash 


1.7085 


4.6215 






Lime 


1.5233 


2.3908 


2.3700 




Magnesia 


0.3460 


2.3298 






Alumine 


0.8200 


2.0000 






Barytes • 


23740 


4.0000 






Sulphate of potash 


2.4073 


2.636 


2-398 




— ■ alumine 


1.7109 




1.7260 


1.714 




1.9120 
1.8399 
2.1943 




1.9 
1.88 


1.712 


. 






2.23 










Isfitrate of potash 


1.9369 


1.933 


1.901 


1.90* 


Muriate of soda 


2.2001 




2.0835 


2.143 


Acetate of lead 


2.345G 




2.3953 




Super-tartrate of potash 


1.9153 




1.8745 . 




Sub-borate of soda 


1.723C 




1.7170 


L714 


Carbonate of potash 


2.012C 




2.749 




soda 


1.3591 


1.421 






r „- „ ~ „ ; „ 


0.966C 
Specific 


1.8245 


1.5026 




— ammonia 


Specifif 




Grav. 


INFLAMMABLES. 

Roll-sulphur 


Graw 


'CLASSES ANT) \ 1XRIFIC ATIO^i o. 

Green bottle glass 2. 7325 


1.9907 


French crystal glass 


2.8922 


Phosphorus 


1.714 


French mirror-glass, from 


St. 


Pit-coal 


1.3292 


Gobin 


2.4882 


Amber 


1.0789 


English flint-glass 


3.3203 


Heaviest charcoal 


0.441 


China porcelain 


- 2.3847 


Mineral naphtha 


0.708 






Camphor 


0.9887 






Liquid amn 


onia 


0.8970 



* For the specific gravities of the metals, see Table of the Qualities of 
Metals, near the close of this Appendix. 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



547 



Table of Specific Gravities of Solid and Liquid Substances, — con-. 

tinued. 





Specific 




Specific. 


WATERS. 

Distilled water 


Grav. 




Grav. 


1.0000 


Common gum 


1.4817 


Sea-water 


1.0263 


Gum Arabic 


1.4523 


Water from the Asphaltic Sea 1.2403 


Gum tragacanth 


1.3161 


ACIDS. 




GUM-RESINS. 




Sulphuric acid of commerce 


1.8500 


Asafcetida 


1.3275 


Sulphuric acid, real 


2.1250 


Scammonium, from Smyrna 


1.2743 


Nunc acid 


1.5800 


Galbanum 


1.2120 


Muriatic acid 


1.1940 






Concentrated acetic acid 


1.0626 


RESINS. 








Guaiacum 


1.2289 


SPIRITUOUS LI4UIDS. 




Jalap 


1.2185 


Madeira wine 


1.0.382 


Ammoniacum 


1.2071 


Cyder 


1.0181 


Benzoe 


.1.0924. 


Brown beer 


1.0338 


Sandarac 


1.0920 


Burgundy wine 


0.9915 


White resin 


1.0819 


Champaigne wine 


0.962 


Colophony 


1.0441 


Brandy 


0.8371 


Mastich 


1,0742 


Alcohol* 


0.8293 


Copal, transparent 


1.0452 


Nitric ether 


0.9088 


Elastic resin 


0.9335 


Acetic ether 


0.8664 






Sulphuric etherj- 


0.7396 


INSPISSATED JUICES. 




Muriatic ether 


0.7296 


Aloe succotrina 


1.3795 






Opium 


1.3366 


ETHEREAL OILS. 








Oil of cinnamon 


1.0439 


WOODS. 




Oil of cloves 


1.0363 


Lignum guaiacum 


1.3330 


Oil of lavender 


0.8938 


Box wood, Dutch 


1.3280 


Spirit of turpentine 


0.8697 


French box wood 


0.912 






Ebony 


1.2090 


FAT OILS. 




Heart of old oak 


1.1700 


Linseed oil 


0.9403* 


Mahogany 


1.063 


Poppy oil 


0.9283 


Olive tree 


0.9270 


Oil of sweet almonds 


0.9170 


Mulberry tree, Spanish 


0.8970 


Olive oil 


0.9153 


Beech tree 


0.8520 






Yew tree, Spanish 


0.8070 


ANIMAL FLUIDS. 




Apple tree 


0.7930 


Asses' milk 


1.0355 


Plum tree 


0.7850 


Cows' milk 


1.0324 


Maple tree 


0.7550 


Human milk 


1.0203 


Cherry tree 


0.7150 


Human urine 


1.0106 


Quince tree 


0.7050 






Orange tree 


0.7050 


ANIMAL FATS, 




Walnut tree 


0.6710 


Spermaceti 


0.9433 


Pear tree 


0.6610 


Butter 


0.9423 


Cypress, Spanish 


0.6440 


Tallow 


0.9419 


Pine tree 


0.5500 


Mutton suet 


0.9235 


White Spanish poplar tree 


0.5294 


Train oil 


0.9235 


Cork 


0.2400 


Hogs' lard 


0.9568 






Ivory 


1.825 






Bees' wax 


0.9648 







* Per Chaussier 0.7980. 



f Per Lovitz 0.6320. 



348 APPENDIX II* 

XV. — >Bulesfor calculating- the Absolute from the Sfiecific GravU 
ties of Bodies. 

In 1696, Mr. Everard, balance maker to the Exchequer, weigh- 
ed before the commissioners of the House of Commons 2145.6 
cubical inches, by the Exchequer standard foot, of distilled wa- 
ter, at the temperature of 55° of Fahrenheit, and found it to weigh 
1131 oz. 14 dts. troy, of the Exchequer standard. The beam 
turned with 6 grs. when loaded with 30 pounds in each scale. 
Hence, supposing the pound avoirdupois to weigh 700O grs. troy, 
a cubic foot of water weighs 62i pounds avoirdupois or 1G0O 
ounces avoirdupois, wanting 106 grains troy. And hence, if the 
specific gravity of water be called 1000, the proportional specific 
gravities of all other bodies will nearly express the number of a- 
voirdupois ounces in a cubic foot. Or, more accurately,' suppos- 
ing the specific gravity of water expressed by 1, and of all other 
bodies in proportional numbers, as the cubic foot of water weighs, 
at the above temperature, exactly 437489.4 grains troy, and the 
cubic inch of water 253.175 grains, the absolute weight of a cu- 
bical foot or inch of 'any body in troy grains may be found by mul- 
tiplying their specific gravity by either of the above numbers re- 
spectively. 

By Everard's experiment, and the proportions of the English 
and French foot, as established by the Royal Society and French 
Academy of Sciences, the following numbers are ascertained : 

Paris grains in a Paris cube foot of water = 64551 1 

English grains in a Paris cube foot of water = 529922 

Paris grains in an English cube foot of water = 533247 

English grains in an English cube foot of water =437489.4 

English grains in an English cube inch of water = 253.175 

By an experiment of Picard with the measure and 
weight of the Chatelet, the Paris cube foot of wa- 
ter contains of Paris grains = 641326 
By one of Du Hamel, made with great care = 641376 
By Homhcrg = 641666 
These show some uncertainty in measure or in weights ; but 
the above computation from Everard's experiment may be relied 
on, because the comparison of the foot of England with that of 
France was made by the joint labour of the Royal Society of Lon- 
don and the French Academy of Sciences : it agrees likewise ve- 
ry nearly with the weight assigned by M. Lavoisier, 70 Paris 
pounds to thtf cubical foot of water. 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF ALCOHOL AND WATER. 



349 



XVI.— Table for reducing the Degrees of Baume's Hydrometer 

to the Common Standard. 

Baume's Hydrometer for Liquids lighter than Water. 
Temperature 55° Fahrenheit, or 10° Reaumur. 



Deg. 

10 

H 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 



Sp. Gr. 

1.000 
.990 
.985 
.977 
.970 
.963 
.955 
.949 



Deg. 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 



Sp. Gr. 
.942 
.935 
.928 
.922 
.915 
.909 
.903 
.897 



Deg. 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 



Sp. Gr. 

.892 
.886 
.880 
.874 
.867 
.871 
.856 
.852 



Deg. 


Sp. Gr. 


34 


.847 


35 


.842 


36 


.837 


37 


.832 


38 


.827 


39 


.822 


40 


.817 



Baume's Hydrometer for Liquids heavier than Water. 

Temperature 55° Fahrenheit, or 10° Reaumur. 



Deg. 

O 

3 

6 

9 
12 
15 
18 



Sp. Gr. 
1.000 
1.020 
1.040 
1.064 
L089 
1.114 
1.140 



Deg. 

21 

24 

27 

30 

33 

36 

39 



Sp. Gr. 
1.170 
1.200 
1.230 
1.261 
1.295 
1.333 
1.373 



Deg. 

42 

45 

48 

51 

54 

57 

60 



Sp. Gr. 
1.414 
1.455 
1.500 
1.547 
1.594 
1.659 
1.717 



Deg. 
63 


Sp. Gr. 
1.779 


66 


1.848 


69 


1.920 


72 


2.000 



XVII. — Table, showing the Specific Gravity of Mixtures of Alco- 
hol and Water.* 

SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



Centesimal parts of 
the Mixture. 


According to 
, Chaussier. 


According- to 
Gilpin 


Alcohol . 100 


0.7980 


(last table.) 
0.825 


95 


0.8165 


0.83887 


90 


0.8340 


0.85244 


85 


0.8485 


0.86414 


80 


0.8620 


0.87606 


75 


0.87525 


0.88762 


70 


0.8880 


0.89883 


65 


0.9005 


0.90941 


60 


0.9120 


0.91981 


55 


0.9230 


0.92961 


50 


0.9334 


0.93882 


45 


0.94265 


0.94726 


40 


0.9514 


0.95493 


35 


0.95865 


0.96158 


30 


0.96535 


0.96736 


25 


0.97035 


0.97239 


20 


0.97605 


0.97723 


15 


0.9815 


0.98213 


10 


0.9866 


0.98737 


5 


0.99335 


0.99327 





0.99835 


1.00000 


baussier's alcohol had the 


specific gravity of 0.798 ; and Gilpin's 


that of 0.825. The tables 



of Gilpin are (o be found in the Philosophical Transactions for 1794. 



350 



APB3HBUE U- 



XVIII. — Table, showing the Quantity of real Acid in Sulphuric 
Acid cf different Densities.* 



Real Acid/»er 
cent, by Weight. 
100 
81 
80 
79 
78 
77 
76 
75 
74 

/ O 

72 
71 
70 
69 



Specific 
Gravities! 

unknown 
1.850 
1.849 
1.848 
1.847 
1.845 
1.842 
1.838 
1833 
1.827 
1.819 
1.810 
1.801 
1.7JI 



Real Acid^er 

era. by Weight., 

68 


Speeifie 
Gravities. 
1.780 


67 


1.769 


66 


1.757 


65 


1.744 


64 


1.730 


63 


1.715 


62 


1.699 


61 


1.684 


60 


1.670 


50 


1.520 


40 


1.408 


30 


1.300 


20 


1.200 


10 


1.100 



XIX. — 7 able, showing the Quantity of pure Ammonia condensed 
in Solutions of different Specific Gravities. 



Specific Gravity 

(Water 1000.) 

850 




Grains of Ammonia 

in 100 Grs. of Solution. 

35.3 






Volume of Gas 
condensed. 
494 


860 


- 


- 


32.6 


- 


- 


- 


456 


870 


- 


- 


29.9 


- 


- 


- 


419 


880 


- 


- 


27.3 


- 


- 


- 


382 


890 




- 


247 


- 


- 


- 


346 


900 


- 


- 


22.2 


- 


- 


- 


311 


910 


- 


- 


19 8 


- 


- 


- 


277 


920 


- 


- 


174 


- 


- 


- 


244 


930 


- 


- 


15.1 


- 


- 


- 


211 


940 


- 


- 


12.8 


- 


- 


- 


180 


950 


- 


- 


10.5 




- 


- 


147 


960 


- 


-r 


8.3 


- 


- 


- 


116 


970 




- 


6.2 




- 




87 


980 


- 


- 


4.1 


- 


- 


- 


57 


990 


- 


- 


2. 


- 


- 


' . 


28 



* For this and the nineteenth table, I am indebted to the obliging' com- 
munication of Mr. Dalton. The table of the quantity of real acid in sul- 
phuric acid of different densitie?, which has been copied from Mr. Kirwan 
into almost every elementary book, he finds to be deficient in accuracy. 
Even Mr. Davy's table of the quantity of ammonia in various solutions of 
that alkali, Mr. Dalton has found not to correspond exactly with his owtjl 
experiments, the results of which are expressed in table X^IX. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF THERMOMETERS. 351 



NO. II. 

ADMEASUREMENT AND EFFECTS OF HEAT. 

I.— Correspondence between different Thermometers. 

Fahrenheit's thermometer is universally used in this kingdom. 
In this instrument the range between the freezing and boiling 
points of water is divided into 1 80° ; and as the greatest possible 
degree of cold was supposed to be that produced by mixing snow 
and muriate of soda, it was made the zero. Hence the freezing 
point became 32°, and the boiling point 212°. 

The Centigrade thermometer places the zero at the freezing 
point, and divides the range between it and the boiling point into 
100°. This has long been used in Sweden under the title of Cel- 
sius's thermometer. 

Reaumur's thermometer, which was formerly used in France, 
divides the space between the freezing and boiling of water into 
80°, and places the zero at the freezing point. 

Wedgwood's pyrometer is only intended to measure very high 
temperatures. Its zero corresponds with 1077° of Fahrenheit's, 
and each degree of Wedgwood is equal to 130° of Fahrenheit. 

De Lisle's thermometer is used in Russia. The graduation be- 
gins at the boiling point, and increases towards the freezing point. 
The boiling point is marked 0, and the freezing point 150. 

Therefore 180° F. s* 100° C. = 80° R. = 150° D. = —W. 

13 

1. To reduce centigrade degrees to those of Fahrenheit, multi" 
tiply bv 9 and divide by 5, and to the quotient add 32, that is. 

£lii£-f32=F. 
5 

2. To reduce Fahrenheit's degrees to centigrade, ' " 



9 
~C. 

3. To reduce Reaumur's to Fahrenheit's we have the following 

formula, R X 9 +32=F. 

4 

4. To convert Fahrenheit to Reaumur, °. =R. 

9 

5. To reduce De Lisle's degrees under the boiling point, we 



S52 APPENDIX II. 



have F. = 212 — — To reduce those above the boiling 

point,F. = 312x2l2Lf. 

5 

6. And, inversely, to reduce Fahrenheit's degrees to De Lisle's, 

unier the boiling point ~ — I— D. ; above the boiling point 

6 

F. X 5— 106Q _ D 

6 

7. To reduce Wedgwood's degrees to those of Fahrenheit, we 

have Wxl30+1077=F. 

F" 1 077 

8. Inversely, to reduce Fahrenheit to Wedgwood,, ' .=W. 

ISO 



CORRESPONBENCE OF THERMOMEVTBRS. 353 

Table, showing the Correspondence between the Degrees of Fah~ 

renheWs Thermometer and the new Scale of Mr. Dalton (see 

vol. i. page 89.) 

Fahrenheit's Falirenheit's Scale, True equal In- 

Scale. corrected for the tervals of Tem- 

Expansion of Glass. perature. 

— 40. — 175 

— 21.12 --- --- — 68 

— 17.06 --- — 58 

— 12.96 --- - - — 48 

— 8-52 - — 38 

— 3.76 ... — 28 
-f 1.34 --- — 18 

6.78 - — .8 

' 12.63 - + ' 2 

18.74 ... ... 12 

25.21 ... ... 22 



32. fe2. ... 32 

39.1 - - - 39.3 ... 42 
46.6 - - - 47. 52 
54.44 ... 55. ... 62 
62.55 - - - 63.3 ... 72 
71.04 - 72. ... 82 
79.84 - 81. ... 92 

89.02 - - - 90.4 ... 102 
98.49 - - - 101.1 - - - 112 

108.3 ... 110. i . - 122 
118.5 - - - 120.1 - - - 132 
129. - - - 130.4 --- 142 
139.9 - - - 141.1 ... 152 
151. - - -~ 152. - - - 162. 

162.4 - - - 163.3 ... 172 

177.4 - - - 175. --- 182 

186.5 - - - 186.9 ... 192 
199. - - - 199.2 ... 202 
212. - 212. - - - 212 

359.1 ... ... 312 

539.8 .-- ... 412 

754.7 - - , - „ - 512 

1000. ... ... 612 

1285. - - 713 
Vql. ii-. 4'5 



254 



ATPENDIX II. 



II — Table of the Effects of Heat. 
1.— -Freezing Points t>f Liquids. 



Fahrenheit. 




—55 


Strongest nitric acid freezes (Cavendish) 


45 


Ether and liquid ammonia 


59 


Mercury 


36 


Sulphuric acid (Thomson) 


22 


Acetous acid 


11 


2 Alcohol, 1 water 


7 


Brandy 


+ 1 


Strongest sulphuric'acid (Cavendish) 


16 


Oil of turpentine (Macquer) 


20 


Strong wines 


23 


Fluoric acid 




Oils bergamot and cinnamon 


25 


Human blood 


28 


Vinegar 


SO 


Milk 


32 


Oxymuriatic acid 




Water 


36 


Olive oil 


46 


Sulphuric acid, specific gravity 1.78 (Keir* 


64 


Oil of anniseeds, 50 (Thomson) 




2.— Melting Points of Solids* 


40 


Equal parts sulphur and phosphorus 


82 


Adipocire of muscle 


97 


Lard (Nicholson) 


99 


Phosphorus (Pelletier) 


104 


Resin of bile 


109 


Myrtle wax (Cadet) 


112 


Spermaceti (Bostock) 


127 


Tallow (Nicholson) 92 (Thomson) 


149 


Bees* wax 


145 


Ambergris (La Grange) 


155 


Bleached wax (Nicholson) 


212 


Bismuth 5 parts, tin 3, lead 2 


234 


Sulphur (Hope) 212 (Fourc) 185 (Kirw.) 


235 


Adipocire of biliary calculi (Fourcroy) 


283 


Tin and bismuth, equal parts 


303 


Camphor 


334 


Tin 3, lead 2, or tin 2, bismuth 1 


442 


Tin (Chrichton) 413 (Irvine) 


460 


Tin 1, lead 4 


476 


Bismuth (Irvine) 


612 


Lead (Chrichton) 594 (Irv.) 540 (Newton> 


700 


Zinc 


809 


Antimony 



MISCELLANEOUS EFFEOTS OF HEAT. 



35*5 



Wedg. 

21 

27 

28 

32 

130 

150 

-154 

158 

160 

•f 170 



Brass 
Copper 
Silver 
Gold 
Cobalt 
Nickel 
Soft nails 
Iron 

Manganese 

Platina, tungsten, molybdena, uranium, titani- 
um, he. 

3. Solids and Liquids Volatilized. 

Ether boils 
Liquid ammonia boils 
Camphor sublimes (Venturi) 
Sulphur evaporates (Kirwan) 
Alcohol boils, 174 (Black) ' 
Water and essential oils boil 
Phosphorus distils (Pelletier) 
Muriate of lime boils (Dalton) 
Nitrous acid boils 
Nitric acid boils 
White arsenic sublimes 
Metallic arsenic sublimes 
Phosphorus boils 

Oil of turpentine boils, about 2 1 2° (Dal.) 
Sulphur boils 

Sulphuric acid boils (Dalton) 546 (Black) 
Linseed oil boils, sulphur sublimes (Davy) 
Mercury boils (Dalton) 644 (Secondat) 600 
(Black) 672 (Irvine) 

4. Miscellaneous Effects of. Heal. 

Greatest cold produced by Mr. Walker 
Natural cold observed at Hudson's Bay 
Observed on the surface of the snow at Glas- 
gow, 1780 
At Glasgow, 1780 
Equal parts, snow and salt 
Phosphorus burns slowly 
Vinous fermentation begins 
to 135, Animal putrefaction 
to 80, Summer heat in this Climate 
Vinous fermentation rapid, acetous begins 
Phosphorus burns in oxygen, 104 (Gottling) 
Acetification ceases 
to 100, Animal temperature 



356 



Appendix ij. 



Fabren. 
107 


Wedg. 


122 




165 




303 




635 




800 




802 




1050 




1207 


1 


1337 


+2 


1857 


6 


2897 


14 


6277 


40 


8487 


57 


10177 


70 


12257 


86 


13297 


94 


14337 


102 


14727 


105 


15637 


112 


15897 


114 


16007 


121 


16807 


124 


i7327 


125 


20577 


150 


25127 


185 



Feverish heat 

Phosphorus burns vividly (Fourcroy) 148 (Tlionir 

son) 
Albumen coagulates, 156 (Black) 
Sulphur burns slowly 
Lowest heat of ignition of iron in the dark 
Hydrogen burns, 1000 (Thomson) 
Charcoal burns (Thomson) 
Iron red in twilight 
Iron red in daylight 
Azotic gas burns 
Enamel colours burned 
Diamond burns (M'Kenzie) 30 W = 5000 F. 

(Morveau) 
Delft ware fired 
Working heat of plate glass 
Flint glass furnace 
Cream-coloured ware fired 
Worcester china vitrified 
Stone ware fired 
Chelsea china fired 
Derby china fired 
Flint glass furnace greatest heat 
Bow china vitrified 
Plate glass greatest heat 
Smith's forge 
Hessian crucible fused 
Greatest heat observed 

III Table of 'the Force of Steam at difftrent Temperatures oJS 

Fahrenheit's Scale from actual Experiment. 
(Betancourt in Prony's Architecture Hydraulique.) 

Tempera- 
ture. 

32 

42 

52 

62 

72 

82 

92 
102 
112 
122 
132 
142 
152 

In the 5th volume of " Memoirs of the Manchester Society," 

the following valuable table cf the force of vapour, for each de- 

I gree of Fahrenheit, is given by Mr. Dalton ; the numbers below 

212° from experiment, and the higher numbers from calculation. 

Mr. Betancourt, however, professes to have obtained all the a= 

bove results from actual experiment. 



i 



Force in English 
Inches of Mercury. 



Tempera- 
ture. 
162 


Force in English 

Inches of Mercury 

9.07 


.08 


172 


11.0 


.21 


182 


14.9 


.38 


192 


18.7 


.58 


202 


23.7 


•87 


212 


29.8 


1.26 


222 


37.4 


1.74 


232 


46.5 


2.37 


242 


57.3 


3.16 


252 


69.7 


4.16 


262 


83.6 


5.43 


272 


97.1 


7.00 


282 


108. 



OJ* THE FORCE OF VAPOUR FROM WATER. 



557 



Table of the Force of Vapour from Water in every Temperature 
from that of the Congelation of Mercury, or 40° below zero of 
Fahrenheit, to 325°. 





Force of Va- 




Force of Va- 




Force of Va- 


rempera- 
ture. 


pour in 
Inches of 


Tempera- 
ture. 


pour in 
Inches of 


Tempera- 
ture. 


pour in 
Inches of 


— 49 


Mercury. 
.013 


37 


Mercury. 
.237 


80 


Mercury. 
1.00 


— 30 


.020 


38 


.245 


81 


1.04 


— 20 


.030 


39 


.254 


82 


1.07 i 


— 10 


.043 


40 


.263 


83 


1.10 






41 

42 


.273 
.283 


84 


1.14 





.064 


85 


1.14 

1.17 


1 


.066 


43 


.294 


86 


1.21 


2 


.068 


44 


.305 


87 


1.24 


3 


.071 


45 


.316 


88 


1.28 


4 


.074 


46 


.328 


89 


1.32 


5 


.076 


47 


.339 


90 


1.36 


6 


.079 


48 


.351 


91 


1.40 


7 


.082 


49 


.363 


92 


i.44 


8 


.085 


50 


.375 


93 


1.48 


9 


.087 


51 


.388 


94 


1.53 


10 


.090 


52 


.401 


95 


1.58 


11 


' .093 


53 


.415 


96 


1.63 


12 


.096 


54 


.429 


97 


1.68 


13 


.100 


55 


.443 


98 


1.74 


14 


.104 


56 


.458 


99 


1.80 


15 


.108 


57 


.474 


100 


1.86 


16 


.112 


58 


.490 


101 


1.92 


17 


.116 


59 


.507 


102 


1.98 


18 


.120 


60 


.524 


103 


2.04 


19 


.124 


61 


.542 


104 


2.11 


20 


.129 


62 


.560 


105 


2.18 


21 


.134 


63 


.578 


106 


2.25 


22 


.139 


64 


.597 


107 


2.22, 


23 


.144 


65 


.616 


108 


2.39 


24 


,150 


66 


.635 


109 


2.46 


25 


.156 


67 


.655 


110 


2.53 


26 


.162' 


68 


.676 


111 


2.60 


27 


.168 


69 


.698 


"112 


2.68 


28 


.174 


70 


.721 


113 


2.76 


29 


.180 


71 


.745 


114 


2.84 


30 


.186 


72 


.770 


115 


2.92 


31 


.193 


73 


.796 


116 


3.00 






74 
75 


.823 
.851 


117 
118 


3.08 
3.16 


32 


.200 


33 


.207 


76 


.880 


119 


3.25 


34 


.214 


77 


.91-0 


120 


3.33 


35 


.221 


78 


.940 


121 


3.42 


.36 


229 


79 


.971 


122 


3.5'P 



35*8 



APPENBIX II. 



Table of the Force of Fa/iour, If c— continued. 





Force of Va- 




Force of Va- 




Force of Va« 


Tempera- 


pour in 


Tempera. 


pour in 


Tempers 


l- pour in 


ttire. 


Inches of 


ture. 


Inches of 


ture. 


Inches of 




Mercury. 




Mercury 




Mercury. 


123 


3.59 


168 


11.54 


— — — 




124 


3.69 


169 


11.83 


213 


80.60 


125 


3.79 


170 


12 13 


214 


31.21 


126 


3.89 


171 


1243 


215 


31.83 


♦ 127 


4.00 


172 


12.73 


216 


3246 


128 


4.11 


173 


13.02 


217 


33.09 


129 


4.22 


174 


13 32 


218 


33.72 


rb 


4.34 


175 


13.62 


219 


34.35 


131 


4.47 


176 


13.92 


220 


34.99 


132 


4 60 


177 


14.22 


221 


3563 


133 


4.73 


178 


1452 


222 


3625 


134 


4.86 


179 


14.^3 


223 


36 88 


135 


5.00 


180 


15.15 


224 


37.53 


136 


5.14 


181 


15 50 


225 


38.20 


137 


5.29 


182 


15.85 


226. 


38 89 


138 


5-44 


183 


16 23 


227 


39.59 


139 


5.59 


184 


1661 


228 


40.30 


140 


5.74 


185 


17.00 


229 


41 02 


141 


5.90 


186 


17 40 


230 


41.75 


142 


6.05 


187 


17 80 


231 


42.49 


143 


6.21 


188 


IS. 20 


232 


43.24 


144 


6.37 


189 


18.60 


233 


44.00 


145 


653 


190 


1900 


234 


44.78 


146 


670 


191 


19 42 


235 


4558 


147 


687 


192 


19.86 


236 


46.39 


148 


7.05 


193 


20.32 


237 


47.20 


149 


7.23 


194 " 


20.77 


238 


48.02 


150 


7.42 


195 


21 22 


239 


48 84 


151 


7.61 


196 


21.68 


240 


49.67 


152 


7.81 


197 


22.(3 


241 


50.50 


153 


8.01 


198 


22.69 


242 


51.34 


154 


8 20 


199 


23 16 


243 


52.18 


155 


8.40 


200 


23.64 


244 


53.03 


156 


8.60 


201 


24.12 


245 


53.88 


157 


8.81 


2' 2 


24.61 


246 


54.68 


158 


9.02 


203 


25.10 


247 


55.54 


159 


9.24 


2;.'4 


25.61 


248 


56.42 


160 


9.46 


§05 


26.13 


249 


57.31 


161 


9.68 


206 


26.66 


250 


58.21 


162 


9.91 


207 


*27.20 


251 


59.12 


163 


10.15 


208 


27.74 


252 


60.05 


164 


10.41 


209 


28.29 


253 


61.00 


165 


10.68 


210 


28.84 


254 


61.92 


166 


10.96 


211 


29.41 


255 


62.85 


J 67 


11.25 


2 12 


30.00 


.256 


63.76 



ON THE EXPANSION OF AIR BY HEAT. 



rs* 





Table of the Force of Vafiour, &C- 


— continued. 




Force of Va- 


Jb 


orce of Va- 




Force or Va j 


I'empefa 


pour in 


Tempera- 


pour in 


Tempera- pour in 


ture. 


Inches of 


ture. 


[nches of 


ture 


Inches of 




Mercury. 


Mercury. 




Mercury. 


257 


64.82 


280 


8875 


303 


115.32 


258 


65.78 


281 


89.87 


304 


116.50 


259 


66.75 


282 


90.99 


305 


117.68 


260 


67.73 


283 


92.11 


306 


118.86 


261 


68.72 


284 


93.23 


307 


120.03 


262 


69.72 


285 


94.35 


308 


121.20 


263 


70.73 


286 


95.48 


309 


122.37 


264 


71.74 


287 


95.64 


310 


123.53 


265 


72.76 


288 


97.80 


311 


124.69 


266 


73.77 


289 


98.96 


312 


125.85 


267 


74 79 


290 


100.12 


313 


127.00 


268 


75 80 


291 


101.28 


314 


128.15 


269 


76.82 


292 


102 45 


315 


129.29 


270 


77.85 


293 


103 63 


316 


130.43 


271 


78.89 


294 


104 80 


317 


131.57 


272 


79.94 


295 


105.97 


318 


132.72 


273 


80.9-8 


296 


107.14 


319 


133.86 


274 


82.01 


297 


10831 


32C 


135.00 


275 


83.13 


298 


109 48 


321 


136.14 


276 


84.35 


299 


110.64 


322 


137.28 


277 


85.47 


300 


111.81 


323 


138.42 


278 


86.50 


301 


112 98 


324 


139.56 


279 


87.63 


302 


114.15 


325 


140.7ft 




IV Table 


of the Expansion of j 


iir by 


Heat. 




(Con 


imuincated by Mr, Da 


lton.) 




Fataen. 




Fahrei 


'• 1 


Fabren. 




Fahren. 


32 


1000 


53 


1050 


74 1 


097 


95 1142 


33 


1002 


54 


1052 


75 1 


099 


96 1144 


34 


1004 


55 


1055 


76 1 


101 


97 1146 


35 


1007 


56 


1057 


77 I 


104 


98 1148 


36 


1009 


57 


1059 


78 1 


106 


99 1150 


3T 


1012 


58 


1062 


79 1 


108 


10O 1152 


38 


1015 


59 


1064 


80 1 


110 


110 1173 


39 


1018 


60 


1066 


81 1 


112 


120 1194 


40 


1021 


61 


1069 


82 1 


114 


130 1215 


41 


1023 


62 


1071 


83 1 


116 


140 1235 


42 


1025 


63 


1073 


84 1 


118 


150 1255 


43 


1027 


64 


1075 


85 1 


121 


160 1275 


44 


103Q 


65 


1077 


86 1 


123 


170 1295 


45 


1032 


66 


1080 


87 1 


125 


180 1315 


46 


1034 


67 


1082 


88 1 


128 


190 1334 


47 


1036 


68 


1084 


89 1 


130 


200 1354 


48 


1038 


69 


1087 


90 1 


132 


210 1372 


49 


1040 


70 


1089 


91 1 


134 


212 1376 


50 


1043 


71 


1091 


92 1 


136 




51 


1045 


72 


1093 


93 1 


138 




52 


1047 


73 


1095 


94 1 


140 





T60 



APPENDIX II. 





V. — Table of the Expansion of Liquids by Heat 








Sulphuric 






Oil of 




Temp. 


Mercury. 


Linseed Oil 


Acid. 


Nitric Acid. 


Water. 


Turpentine 


Alcohol. 


32° 


100000 


100000 










100000 


40 


100081 




99752 


99514 






100539 


50 


100183 




100000 


100000 


100023 


100000 


101105 


60 


100304 




100279 


100486 


100091 


100460 


101688 


70 


100406 




100558 


100990 


100197 


100993 


102281 


80 


100508 




100806 


101530 


100332 


101471 


102890 


90 


100610 




101054 


102088 


100694 


101931 


103517 


100 


100712 


102760 


101317 


102620 


100908 


102446 


104162 


110 


100813 




101540 


103196 




102943 




120 


100915 




101834 


103776 


101404 


103421 




130 


101017 




102097 


104352 




103954 




140 


101119 




102320 


105132 




104573 




150 


101220 




102614 




102017 






160 


101322 




102893 










170 


101434 




103116 










180 


101526 




103339 










190 


101628 




103587 




103617 






200 


101730 




103911 










,212 | 


101835 


107250 






104577 




r 



VI — Table of the Expansion of Water by Heat. 
(From Mr. Dalton's New System of Chemical Philosophy.) 



Temperature. 


Expansion. 


Temperature. 


Expansion. 


12° Faliren. 


10U236 


122° Fahren. 


101116 


22 


100090 


132 


101367 


32 


100022 


142 


101638 


42 


100000 


152 


101934 


52 


100021 


162 


102245 


62 


100083 


172 


102575 


72 


100180 


182 


102916 


82 


100312 


192 


103265 


92 


100477 


202 


103634 


102 


100672 


212 


104012 


112 


100880 







TABLES OF EXPANSION BY HEAT. 



361 



VII. — Table of the Expansion of Solids by Heat. 



Temp. 


Platina.1 


Antimon. 


Steel. 


i 
Iron. jCast Iron. 


Bismuth. 


32° 
212 

White ? 
heat* 5 


120000 
120104 


120000 
120130 


120000 
120147 

123428 


120000 
120151 

121500 


120000 
122571 


120000 
120167 






Copper. 


Cast 
Brass. 


Brass 

Wire. 


Tin. 


Lead. 


Zinc. 


32° 
212 


120000 
120204 


120000 
120225 


120000 
120232 


120000 
120298 


120000 
120344 


120000 
120355 






Haram'd 
Zinc. 


Zinc 8 
Tin 1 


Lead 2 
Tin 1 


Brass 2 

Zinc 1 


Pewter. 


Copper 3 
Tint 1 


32° 
212 

S- — — '■■ 


120000 
120373 


120000 
120323 


120000 
120301 


120000 
120247 


120000 
120274 


120000 
1202] 8 



Expansion of Glass. 



Temp. 


BuHsyMt Temp. 


Bulk. 


Temp. 


Bulk, 


32° 

60 

70 


100000 
100006 
100014 


100° 

120 

150 


100023 
100033 
100044 


167° 

190 

212 


100056 
100069 
100083 



* Rinman. 

•f Borda. 

$ The metal, whose expansion is here given, was an alloy composed of 
three parts of copper, and one of tin. The figures in some of the preced- 
ing columns are to be understood in the same manner. Thus, in the lajst 
column but two, the metal consisted of two parts of brass, alloyed with 
one of zinc. 



VOL. II. 



46 



362 



APPENDIX U. 



VIII. — Tables, exhibiting a collective View of all the FHgorific 
Mixtures, contained in Mr. Walker's Publication, 1808. 
(Communicated by Mr. Walker.) 
1 — Table, consisting of Frigorific Mixtures, having the Power of 
generating or creating Cold, without the Aid of Ice, sufficient 
for all useful and /ihilosofihical Purposes, in any Part of the 
World, at any Season. 

Frigorific Mixtures, without Ice. 



MIXTURES. 


Thermometer sinks. 


Deg. of cold 
produced. 


Muriate of ammonia 5 parts 
Nitrate of potash 5 
Water 16 


From + 50° to + 10° 


40 


Muriate of ammonia 5 parts 
Nitrate of potash 5 
Sulphate of soda 8 
Water 16 


From + 50° to + 4° 


46 


Nitrate of ammonia 1 part 
Water 1 


From + 50° to + 4° 


46 


Nitrate of ammonia 1 part 
Carbonate of soda 1 
Water 1 


From + 50° to — 7* 


57 


Sulphate of soda 3 parts 
Diluted nitric acid 2 


From + 50° to — 3° 


53 


Sulphate of soda 6 parts 
Muriate of ammonia 4 
Nitrate of potash 2 
Diluted nitric acid 4 


From + 50° to — 10° 


60 


Sulphate of soda 6 parts 
Nitrate of ammonia 5 
Diluted nitric acid 4 


From + 50WR — 14° 


64 


Phosphate of soda 9 parts 
Diluted nitric acid 4 


From + 50° to — 12° 


62 


Phosphate of soda 9 parts 
Nitrate of ammonia 6 
Diluted nitric acid 4 


From-f- 50° to —21° 


71 


Sulphate of soda 8 parts 
Muriatic acid 5 


From + 50° to 0° 


50 


Sulphate of soda 5 parts 
jDiluted sulphuric acid 4 


From + 50° to + 3° 


47 



N. B. — If the materials are mixed at a warmer temperature than that ex- 
pressed in the table, the effect will be proportionably greater ; thus, if the 
most powerful of these mixtures be made, when the air is -f- 85° it will 
sink the thermometer to + 2°. 



yEIOORIFIC MIXTURES. 



363 



S.—Tbi/e, constating of Frigorific Mixtures, composed of Ice, 
with chemical Salts and Acids. 

Frigorific mixtures with Ice. 



MIXTURES. 


Thermometer sinks. 


Deg. of cold 
produced. 


Snow, or pounded ice 
Muriate of soda 


2 parts 
1 


6 
3 

+-> 

a, 

I 

S 

•o 
u 


" to — 5° 


* 


Snow, or pounded ice 
Muriate of soda 
Muriate of ammonia 


5 parts 
2 

1 


to — 12° 


* 


Snow, or pounded ice 
Muriate of soda 
Muriate of ammonia 
Nitrate of potash 


24 parts 
10 

5 

5 


to — 18° 


* 


Snow, or pounded ice 
Muriate of soda 
Nitrate of ammonia 


12 parts 
5 
5 


to — 25° 
I 


* 


Snow 

Diluted sulphuric acid 


3 parts 
2 


From + 32° to — 23° 


55 


Snow 
Muriatic acid 


8 parts 
5 


From + 32° to — 27° 


59 


Snow 

Diluted nitric acid 


7 parts 
4 


From + 32° to — 30° 


62 


Snow 

Muriate of lime 


4 parts 
5 


From + 32° to — 40° 


72 


Snow - 

Chryst. muriate of lime 


2 parts 
3 


From + 32° to— 50° 


82 


Snow 
Potash 


3 parts 
4 


From + 32° to — 51° 


83 



N. B. — The reason for the omissions in the last column of this table is, 
the thermometer sinking in these mixtures to the degree mentioned in the 
preceding column, and never lower, whatever may be the temperature of 
the materials at mixins; 



364 



APPENDIX II.- 



3. — Table y consisting of Frigorific Mixtures selected from the 
foregoing Tables, and combined so as to increase or extend Cold 
to the extremest Degrees. 

Combinations of Frigorific Mixtures. 



MIXTURES. 


Thermometer sinks. 


i 
Deg\ of cold 
produced. 


Phosphate of soda 
Nitrate of ammonia 
Diluted nitric acid 


5 parte 
o 

4 


From 0° to — 34° 


34 


Phosphate of soda 
Nitrate of ammonia 
Diluted mixed acids 


3 parts 

2 

4 


From — 34° to — 50° 


16 


Snow 

Diluted nitric acid 


3 parts 
2 


From 0° to— 46° 


46 


Snow 

Diluted sulphuric acid 

Diluted nitric acid 


8 parts 

Si 


From — 10° to — 56° 


46 


Snow 

Diluted sulphuric acid 


1 part 
1 


From — 20° to — 60° 


40 


Snow 

Muriate of lime 


3 parts 
4 


From + 20° to — 48° 


68 


Snow 

Muriate of lime 


3 parts 

4 


From+ 10° to— 54° 


64 


Snow 

Muriate of lime 


2 parts 
3 


From— 15° to— 68° 


53 


, Snow 
Chryst. muriate of lime 


1 part 
o 


From 0° to — 66° 


66 


Snow 

Chryst. muriate of lime 


1 pari 
3 


From— 40° to — 73° 


33 


Snow 

Diluted sulphuric acid 


8 parts 
10 ' 


From — 68° to — 91° 


23 



N. B. — The materials in the first column are to be cooled, previously to 
mixings to the temperature required, by mixtures taken from either of the 
preceding tables. 



TABLE OF SPECIFIC CALORIC. 



365 



IX.— Table of the Sfiecific Heats or Capacities of Bodies, altered 
from Dr. Thomson's System of Chemistry, 3d Edition. 
N. B. — The bodies compared are taken in equal weights, and the specific 



heat of water is 


assumed to be 1. 




1.— 
Hydrogen 
Oxygen 
Common air 
Carbonic acid 
Azote 


GASES. 

21.4000 (c 
4.7490 (c 
1.7900 (c 
1.0459 (c 
0.7036 (c 


■) 
•) 

•) 




2.— 
Ice 

Water 
Steam 


WATER. 

0.9000 (k 
1 .0000 
1.5500 (c 


•) 




3. — SALINE SOLUTIONS. 

Carbonate of «..,„,,, 

moma \ 

Sulphuret of do. 

(0.818) 
Sulphate of mag-") 

nesia I 1 0.844 (c.) 

Waver 2 J 

Muriate of soda 



V 



994(c) 



ia .^ 0.832(c) 



Water 

Nitrate of pot- 
ash 1 

Water 8 

Ditto 

Nitrate of pot- 
ash 1 

Water 3 

Muriate cf am- 
monia 1 

Water 1.5 

Super-tartrate of 
potash 1 

Water 273.3 

Sulphate of iron 1 > ^ „ n , , . 

Water 25 ^ 0.734 (k.) 

Sulphate of soda 1 ~) „ .«, , _ 
Water 2 .9 5°' 728 ( K ) 

Alum l ) „ x 

Water 2.9 5 °' 649 ( K 

Nitric acid 9\ } 
Lime l 7 \ 0.6189 (l.) 

Solution of brown? .„„„•., v 
£ 1.086 (k.) 

(I.) Irvine, jun. 



} 

} 
} 



0.8 167 (l.) 
0.914 (i.) 
0.646 (k.) 

0.798 (k.) 

0.765 (k.) 



sugar 

(C.) Crawford 



4. ACIDS AND 

("pale 
N ac r id>-S9) {I 



ALKALIS. 
0.844 (k.) 
6613(l.) 
62 (le.) 



[_( 1.355) 0.570 (k.) 

^id ali ° f('.'^) 0.680 (K.) 

f(1.885) 0.758 (k.) 

Sulphu- J (1.872) 0.429 (k.) 

ric acid. ] do. 0.34 (le.) 

10-87) 0.3345 (l.) 

Do. 4, Water 5 0.6631 

Do. 4, do. 3 0.6031 

Potash (1.346) 0.759 

Ammonia (0.997) 0.708 



(L.) 
(L.) 
(K.) 
(K.) 



5 INFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS. 



Alcohol 



r 
i 

i 



0.6666 (c.) 
0.64 (le.) 

0.6024 (c) 
1.086 (k.) 
0.716 (k.) 
0.500 (le.) 
0.528 (k.) 

0.5000 
472 
0.399 



Oil of olives 

Linseed oil 
Spermaceti 
Oil of turpentine 
Spermaceti 

6 ANIMAL FLUIDS. 

Arterial blood 1.0300 

Venous blood 0.8928 

Cow's milk 0.9999 

7. ANIMAL SOLIDS. 

Ox-hide, with hair 0.7870 
Lungs of a sheep 7690 
Lean of ox-beef 0.7400 



(c) 

(K.) 
(K.) 



(C.) 

(C.) 

(c) 



(c) 
(c) 



8. VEGETABLE 

Pinus sylvestris 
Pin us abies 
Tilea Europaea 
Pinus picea 
Pyrus malus 
Bctula ainus 



SOLIDS. 

0.65 (m.) 

0.60 

0.62 

0.58 

057 

0.53 



(K.) Kh'wan 



(M.) 

(M.) 
(M.) 
(M.) 
(M.) 

(L.) Lavoisier and 



La Place; (LE.) Leslie; (M.) Meyer; (R.) Rumford; (W.) WUcke.: 



.566 



AfFENJBIX II.. 



Quercus robur scs^ 

silis 
Fraxinus excelsior 
Pyrus communis 
Rice 

Horse beans 
Dust of the pine 

tree 
Peas 

Fagus sylvatica 
Carpinus betulus 
Betula alba 
Wheat 
Elm 
Quercus robur pe 

dunculata 
Prunus domestica 
Diaspyrus ebenum 
Barley 
Pit coal 
Charcoal 
Oats 
Cinders 



0.51 (m.) 

0.51 (m.) 

0.50 (m.) 

0.5050 (c.) 

0.5020 (c.) 

0.5000 (c.) 

0.4920 (c) 
0.49 (m.) 
0.48 (m) 
0.48 (m.) 

0.4770 (m.) 
0.47 (m.) 

I 0.45 (m.) 

0.44 (m.) 
0.43 (m ) 
0.4210 (c.) 
0.2777 (c) 
0.2631 (c.) 
0.4160 (c.) 
0.1923 (c) 



9. EAUTIIY BODIES, STONE 

WARE, AND GLASS. 

0.2564 (c.) 

0.2229 (c.) 

0.2168 (l.) 

0.1855 (c.) 

0.1402 (c) 

0.195 (w.) 

0.195 (k.) 

0.1929 (l.) 

0.187 (w.) 

0.174 (k.) 



Chalk 

Quicklime 

Ashes of pit coal 

elm 

Agate 
Stone ware 
Crystal 
Swedish glass 
Flint glass 



10. — SULPHUR 



o.is; 



1 1 METALS 



Iron 



Brass 



pi 



125 (k.) 
1269 (c.) 
.126 (w.) 
1 123 (c.) 

1 1 6 (w.) 



Copper 

Sheet iron 
Gun metal 

Zinc 

Silver 

Tin 



Antimony 

Gold 

Lead 

Bismuth 

Mercurv 



12 METALLIC 

Oxide of iron 

Rust of iron 

Do. nearly freed } 

from air $ 

White oxide of 

antimony 

washed 
Do. nearly freed } 

from air \ 

Oxide of copper) 

do. 5 

Oxide of lead and > 

tin $ 

Oxide of zinc 
Oxide of tin, near 

ly freed 

from air 
Yellow oxide of 

lead 



3 

} 



} 



0.111 1 (e.) 

114 (w.) 

0.1099 (l.) 

0.1 100 (n.) 

0.0943 (c.) 

0.102 (w.) 

0.082 (w.) 

0.068 (K.) 

0.0704 (L.j 

0.060 (w.) 

0.086 (k.) 

0.0645 (c.} 

0.063 (w. 

0.050 (w. 

0.050 (k._ 

0.0352 (e.) 

0.042 (w.) 

0.043 (w.) 

0.033 (k.) 

0.0357 (c) 

0.0290 (l.) 

OXIDES. 

0.320 (k.) 
0.2500 (c) 

0.1666 (c.) 

0.220 (k) 
0.2272 (c.) 

0.1666 

0.2272 (c.) 

0.102 (k) 

0.1369 (c.) 

0.0990 (c.) 
0.096 (k.) 

0.0680 (cj 
0.068 (k.) 



TABLE OF SPECIFIC HEATS. 



267 



X. — Table of Specific Heats, from Mr. Dalton's New 'System of 
Chemical Philosophy, Part 1.* 



GASES. 


Equal 1 
Weights. 1 


Equal 
Bulks. 


SOLIDS. . 


Eq. 
"Wts. 


Eq. 

Biks. 


Hydrogen 


21.4D 


.Oll2 


Ice 


.90? 


.83 


Oxygen 


4.75 


.006 


Dried woods, and 






Common air 


1.79 


.002 


other vegetable 




■ 


Carbonic acid 


1.05 


.0(2 


substances, from 






Azotic 


.79 


.001 


.45 to 


.65 




Aqueous vapour 


1.55 


.001 


Quicklime 


.30 










Pit-coal (1.27) 


.28 


.36 








Charcoal 


.26 




LIQUIDS. 






Chalk 
Hydrat. lime 


.27 
.25 


■67 


"Water 


1.00 


1.00 


Flint glass (2.87) 


.19 


.55 


Arterial blood 


1.03 




Muriate of soda 


.23 




Milk (1.026) 


.98 


1.00 


Sulphur 


.19 




Carbonate of amnion. (1.035) 


.95 


.98 


Iron 


.13 


1.00 


Carbonate of potash (1.30) 


.75 


.98 


Brass 


.11 


.97 


Solution of ammonia (.948) 


1.03 


.98 


Copper 


.11 


.98 


Common vinegar (1.02) 


.92 


.94 


Nickel 


.10 


.78 


Venous blood 


.89 




Zinc 


.10 


.69 


Solut. of common salt (1.197) 


.78 


.93 


Silver 


.08 


.84 


Solut. of sugar (1.17) 


.77 


.90 


Tin 


.07 


.51 


Nitric acid (1.20) 


.76 


.96 


Antimony 


.06 


.40 


Nitric acid (1.30) 


.68 


.88 


Gold 


.05 


.97' 


Nitric acid (1.36) 


.63 


.85 


Lead 


.04 


.45 


Nitrate of lime (1-40) 


.62 


.87 


Bismuth 


.04 


.40 


Sulph. acid and water, equal b 


.52 


.80 








Muriatic acid (1.153) 


.60 


.70 


Oxides of the 






Acetic acid (1.036) 


.66 


.70 


metals surpass the 






Sulphuric acid (1.844) 


.35 


.65 


metals themselves, 






Alcohol (.85) 


•76 


.65 


according to Craw- 






Alcohol (.817) 


•70 


.57 


ford. 






Sulphuric ether (76) 


.66 


.50 








Spermaceti oil (.87) 


•52 


.45 








Mercury 


.04 


.55 









* I hava added this table, though in some degree a repetition of the pre- 
ceding one ; because the bodies compared are taken in equal bulks, as well 
as in equal weights. 



o68 



APPENDIX I. 



No. III. 

I. — Tabic of the Solubility of Salts in Water. 



" 


Solubility in 100 Parts 


NAMES OF SALTS. 


Water. 




At 60° 


At 212° 




ACIDS. 






Arsenic - 


150. 




Benzoic - 


0.208 


4.17 


Boracic - . - 




2. 


Camphoric - 


1.04 


8.3 


Citric .... 


133. 


200. 


Gallic .... 


8.3 


66. 


Mucic - 


0.84 


1.25 


Molybdenic - 




0.1 


Oxalic .... 


50. 


100. 


Suberic - - 


0.69 


50. 


Succinic - 


4. 


50. 


Tartaric - 


Very soluble 




SALIFIABLE BASES. 






Barytes . . . - 


5. 


50. 


crystallized 


5f. 


Unlimited 


Lime - 


0.2 




Potash .... 


Very soluble 




Soda - 


do. 




Strontites . _ - - 


0.6 




crystallized - - • 


1.9 


50. 



SALTS. 

Acetate of ammonia 
barytes 
lime I- 
magnesia 
Acetate of potash 

soda 

strontites 
Carbonate of ammonia 
barytes 
lime 

magnesia 
potash 
-soda 
strontites 



Very soluble 

do. 

do. 

do. 
100. 
Very soluble 





40. 


+ 30. 


100. 


Insoluble 




do. 




2. 




25. 


83. 


50. 


+ 100 


Insoluble ' 





TABLE OF THE SOLUBILITY OF SALTS. 369 

Table of the Solubility of Salts in Water— -Continued. 







Solubility in 100 Parts 


NAMES OF SALTS. 




Water. 






At 60° 


At 212° 






SALTS. 






Camphorate of ammonia 


- 


1. 


33. 


barytes 


- 


0.16 




lime 


- 


0.5 




potash 


- 


33. 


+ 33. 


Citrate of soda 


- 


60. 




lime 


. 


Insoluble 




Hyper-oxymuriate of barytes 


- 


25. 


+ 25. 


mercury - 


25. 




potash 


- 


6. 


40. 


soda 


- 


35. 


+ 35. 


Muriate of ammonia 


- 


33. 


100. 


barytes ? 


- 


20. 


+ 20. 


lead 


- 


4.5 




lime 


- 


200. 




magnesia 


- 


100. 




mercury 


- 


5. 


50. 


potash 


- 


33. 




silver 


- 


o*V 




soda 


, 


35.42 


36.1* 


strontites 


- 


150. 


Unlirr ited 


Nitrate of ammonia 


- 


50. 


200. 


barytes 


- 


8. 


25. 


lime 


- 


400. 




magnesia 


- 


100. 


-f 100. 


potash 


- 


14.25 


100. 


soda 


- 


33. 


-f lao. 


strontites 


- 


100. 


200. 


Oxalate of strontites 


- 


°tV 




Phosphate of ammonia 


- 


25. 


+ 25. 


barytes 


- 


0. 


0. 


lime 


- 


0. 


0. 


magnesia 


> 


6.6 




potash 


- 


Very soluble 




soda 


- 


25. 


50. 


strontites 


. 


0. 


0. 


Phosphate of ammonia 


- 


50. 


+ 50. 


barytes 


- 


o.| 




potash 


- 


33. 


+ 33. 


Sulphate of ammonia 


- 


50. 


100. 


barytes 


- 


0.002 




copper p 


- 


25. 


50. 


iron 


- 


50. 


+ 100. 


lead 


- 


OtV 




lime 


- 


0.2 


0.22 


magnesia 


- 


100. 


133. 


vol. i*. 47 









370 



APPENDIX II. 



Table of the Solubility of Salts in Water—Continued. 



NAMES OF SALTS. 



SALTS. 

Sulphate of potash 
soda 

strontites 
Sulphite of ammonia 

lime * 

magnesia 
potash , - 
soda 
Saccholactate of potash 

soda 
Sub-borate of soda (borax) 
Super-sulphate of alumine and 
potash (alum) 

potash 
Super-oxalate of potash 
tartrate of potash 
Tartrate of potash 

and soda 
antimony and potash 



, Solubility in 100 Parts j 
, Water. 


At 60° 


At 212° 


6.25 


20. 


37. 


125. 


0. 


0.02 


100. 




0125 




5. 




100. 




25. 


100. 




12. 




20. 


8.4 


16.8 


5. 


133. 


50. 


-J- 100. 




10. 


1| 


1 l 


25. 




20. 




6.6 


33. 



SOLUBILITY OF SALTS IK ALCOHOL. 



37) 



II.— Table of Substances soluble in Alcohol. 



1 


Tempera- 


lt/J Puns Alco- 


NAMES OF SUBSTANCES. 


ture. 


hol dissolve 




176° 


7.5 


Aceuie ot copper 


soda - 


176° 


46. 


Arsenate of potash 


do. 


3.75 


soda - 


do. 


1.7 


Boracic acid - 


do. 


20. 


Camphor - 


do. 


75. 


Muriate of ammonia 


do. 


f. 


alumine 


54£° 


100. 


copper 


176° 


100. 


iron - 


176° 


100. 


lime - 


do. 


100. 


magnesia 


do. 


547. 


mercury 




88.3 


zinc - 


54|° 


100. 


Nitrate of ammonia 


176° 


89.2 


alumine 


54|° 


100. 


cobalt - 


54|° 


100. 


lime - 




125. 


potash 


176° 


2.9 


silver - 


do. 


41.7 


Succinic acid 


do. 


74. 


Sugar, refined - 


do. 


24|. 


Super-oxaiate of potash 




3. 


Tartrate of potash 




0.04 



Other substances soluble in alcohol. — All the acids, ex- 
cept the sulphuric, nitric, and oxymuriatic, which decompose it, 
and the phosphoric and metallic acids — Potash, soda, and ammo- 
nia, very soluble. Soaps ; extract ; tan ; volatile oils ; adipocire ; 
resins ; urea. 

Substances insoluble, or very sparingly soluble, in al- 
cohol. — Earths ; phosphoric and metallic acids ; almost all sul- 
phates and carbonates ; the nitrates of lead and mercury ; the mu- 
riates of lead, silver, and soda (the last, per Chenevix, sparingly 
soluble ;) the sub-borate of soda ; the tartrate of soda and potash, 
and super-tartrate of potash; fixed oils; wax; starch; gum; 
caoutchouc ; woody fibre ; gelatine ; albumen, and gluten. 



872 



APPENDIX U. 



CO 
ft 



•& 

s 



to 



£ 





^ . . 




« r ° r S 




re <u <u 




d +J *i 




- S:eo 




■T3 ■•"! " rt 




•- -S^ 




o J 3 




ed 'wo 




*s «c«g 


w 






•ti ^° ^ Jtf T3 S 


tr. 


«> -P " „•> J> O £ W « O 




N -d *d , M S^- S3 N K 










1 >SdddlH >>« d s^^-^1 >>«! a 






1 




o> 




V 




•B 




M 




•<# 


a 


a 


w 


Ch 


H 


iH 


! ■«! 


+ 


£ 


in 




+> 




OJ 




fc 




U 




Cm 




CO »C W> ° 




t-< , CO CO tO 




«5 <D -"j* »rj r-j CO i-i C-» -* v> CO t-5 




T-t <0 <M CN »0 CO CM tH V5 V5 


p 


N»fl OJtOCO C^-^VSCN^OIO 




, -* p cn*o .<oco , .COCO CO CO to CN 




coo^oCTo^c5^^co<OTJcocN«dc5*co^c^coNl«j 


-*C0>-l-<j'CNC0-^'»OC0-*CM»C»OCO->* , -<i , >O»O*'5CN«OiHc0 

1 




*J 


as 


.1 




co to co >* <o corn co .°f >o 


«! 


« 


. *°. °°. . **? . "* . ^ °. ^ °°. . . ^ . *~- 




^OTHChCOC^^^^^c6^^to'cOCN»iicOrHKtOCNCO 




■*? <0 CN»Ob»tO , '3€ < )Ti<*Oi-(-<e<r-4<£> > OCOCOCO'^ ( r-(CO»-lvp 




' 1 








'-3 


<1 


potash 

soda 

ditto 

barytes 

strontian 

lime 

magnesia 

common 

potash 

soda 

ditto 

ammonia 

barytes 

strontian 

lime 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

magnesia 

ditto 




, ««-i t*-i 




' o o **< 




a v ° 




t*J3tl S 




rbon 
arias 
rbon 

lpha 

um 

tto 








o o- o en <Q 



TABLE OF COMPOSITION OF SALTS. 



272 



& 



I 5 



£ 



PS 


o o 




a 


p*&, 






a s 




* 


O O 




OO 






^ C4H 






O O 






T-l 


MiO 




C^ c* 


i~- in 




•^to 


OHNON 
(N H CI H (M 



O O 


ct! rt 


ttTJ 

"2 °2 



3 3 !S 3 1* * 3 g 3 "3 3 "S -g -£■ 








c4 




o "3" 



s 



,3$ £ 



i "j S ri 



4) fan as «« 






O o B • - 






374 



APPENDIX II. 



IV — TaHle of Incompatible Salts.* 



SALTS. INCOMPATIBLE WITH 

1. Fixed alkaline sulphates \ N»rates-oflime and magnesia, 
I Muriates ot lime and magnesia. 
("Alkalis, 

< Carbonate of magnesia, 
(^ Muriate of barytes. 
fAlkalis, 
J Muriate of barytes, 
| Nitrate, muriate, carbonate of lime, 
^Carbonate of magnesia. 

Alkalis, 

Muriate of barytes, 

Nitrate and muriate of lime. 

Alkalis, 

Muriate of barytes* 

Earthy carbonates? 
f Sulphates, 
k Alkaline carbonates, . 
(^ Earthy carbonates. 

{Sulphates, except of lime, 
Alkaline carbonates, 
Carbonate of magnesia. 
Alkaline carbonates, 
Alkaline sulphates, 
f Alkaline carbonates, 
■< Carbonates of magnesia and alumine, 
(_ Sulphates, except of lime. 

V. — Quantity of Real Acid taken up by mere Alkalis and Earths 

C Kirivan. ) 



2. Sulphate of lime 



3. Alum 



4. Sulphate of magnesia 



5. Sulphate of iron 



6. Muriate of barytes 



7. Muriate of lime 



8. Muriate of magnesia j 



9. Nitrate of lime 



100 Parts. 


Sulphuric. 


Nitric. 


Muriatic. 


Carbonic acid. 


Potash 


82.4.S 


64.96 


56.3 


105, almost 


Soda 


127.68 


135.71 


73.41 


66.8 


Ammonia 


383.8 


247.82 


171. 


Variable 


Baryt. 


50. 


56. 


31.8 


282. 


Strontia 


72.41 


85.56 


46. 


43.2 


Lime 


143. 


179.5 


84.488 


81.81 
. 200.Tourcrov 


Magnesia 


172.64 


210. 


111.35 


Alumine 


150.9 






335, nearly, Bergman 



VI. — Quantity of Alkalis and Earths taken up. by 100 Parts of 
real Sutphuric y JVitric, Muriatic, and Carbonic Acids, Saturated 
( Kirivan. ) 



100 Parts. 
Sulphuric 


Potash. 


So>ta. 
~78.Z2 


i no -.v.- 


B a-yt. 


Su-onua. 


Lime. 


Mag - . 


121.48 


25.0a 


2i)0. 


138. 


70. 


57.92 


Nitrous 


117.7 


73.3 


40.35 


178.12 


116.86 


55.7 


47.64 


Muriatic 


177.6 


136.2 


58.48 


314.46 


216.21 


118.3 


898. 


Carbonic 


95.1 


149.6 




354-5 


231. + 


•122. 


50. 



* That is, salts which cannot exist toge' her in solution, withe it mutunl 
decomposition. 



QUALITIES OP METALS AND OXIDES. 



S75 



yil.— .Table, by Richter, of the Quantity of each Base required 
for the Saturation of the different Acids. 

(From Berthollet's Statique Chimique, Ire Partie, p. 136. 

The experiments, from which the following table was deduced, 
we are assured by Berthollet, were the principal occupation of 
Hichter from the year 1791 to 1800 ; and, from the attention with 
which they were performed, appear to be deserving of considerable 
confidence. An example will best explain the method of using 
the table. Take the article potash in the first column, opposite to 
which is placed the number 1605. The numbers in the other col- 
umn show how much of each acid is required to saturate 1605 parts 
of potash, -viz. 427 parts of fluoric acid, 577 of carbonic acid, Sec. 
In a similar manner, take any acid in the second column, the ox* 
alic for instance ; the first column shows how much of each base 
effects the saturation of 755 parts of oxalic acid, viz. 525 of alu- 
mine, 615 of magnesia, Sec. 



Aluinine 

Magnesia 

Ammonia 

Lime 

Soda 

Strontites 

Potash 

Barytes 



525 


Fluoric 


427 


615 


Carbonic 


577 


672 


Sebacic 


706 


793 


Muriatic 


712 


859 


Oxalic 


755 


1329 


Phosphoric 


979 


1605 


Formic 


988 


3222 


Sulphuric 


1000 




Succinic 


1209 




Nitric 


1405 




Acetic 


1480 




Citric 


1563 




Tartaric 


1691 



J?6 



APPENDIX ilv 



No. IV. 

J.— Table, showing 1 some of the Qualities of Metals ; the Profi(nfi= 
tion of Oxygen with which they combine ; and the Colours ot 
their Oxides. 
(Compiled from two of the Tables in Thomson's Chemistry.) 





! Metals. 


Colour. 


Specific 
Grav. 


Fusing 
Point. 


No. of 
Oxides 


Colours of 
Oxides. 


Prop, of 
Oxygf, 




JGold 


Yellow 


19.361 


32 W. 


1 
2 


Purple 
Yellow 


10. 




Platina 


White 


23.O0G 


+ 170W 


1 

2 


Green 
Brown 


0.15 




Palladium 


White 


1 1 87 I 


+ 160W 


I 
• 2 


Blue 
Yellow ? 







Rhodium 


White 


+ H 


+ 1 60 W. 


1 
2 


Yellow 




Iridium 


White 




+ 1 60 W. 


1 

2 


Blue ? 
Red? 


' 




Osmium 


Blue 






1 


Transparent 






Silver 


White 


10.510 


22 W. 


1 

2 


Olive 


12.8 


, 


Mercury 


White 


13.568 


— 39 F. 


1 

2 
3 


Black 
Red 


5. 

11. 


1 

i 

1 

1 

1 

i 


Copper 


Red 


8.895 


27 W. 


1 

2 


Red 
Black 


13. 
25. 

29. 
31.6 

45. 


Iron 

1 


Blucish- 
grey 


7.788 


158 W. 


1 

2 
3 


White 
Black 
Red 


I 

| 

i 


Tin 


White 


7.299 


442 F. 


1 

2 


Grey 
White 


25. 
J8.8 




Lead 


Blueish- 
white 


1 1 352 


612F. 


1 

2 
3 

4 

1 ( 

2 1 


Fellow 

Red 

rJrown 


10.6 
136 
15. 




SJickel 


* 

White ! 8.666J 

[ ! 


+ 1 60 W 


ireen - 

Black 


la. 



QUALITIES OF METALS ANSI OXIDES. 37? 

Table, showing some of the Qualities of Metals, Isfc.-— continued. 



i | Metals. 


Colour. 


Specific 
Grav. 


Fusing 
Point. 


No. of i Colours of 
Oxides 1 Oxides. 


Prop, of 
Oxyg. 


Zinc 


White 


6.861 


680 F. 


1 

2 


Ylow 
White 


i3.6 

25. 


Bismuth 


White 


9.822 


476 F. 


1 
2 


Yellow 


12. 


Antimony- 


Grey- 


6.712 


809 F. 


I 
2 


White 
Ditto 


22.7 
30. 


Arsenic [White 


8,310 


+400 F.? 


1 

2 


White 
White (acid) 


33. 
53. 


Cobalt 


White 


7.700 


130 W. 


I 

2 
3 

1 

, 2 
3 


Bue 
' Treen 
Alack 


i 


Manganese 


White 


6.850 


+ 160W. 


W bite 

Jied 

Black 


25. 
35. 
66.6 


Molybdena 


Grey 


8.600 


+ 170W. 


1 
2 
3 

4 


Light brown 
Violet 
Blue 
White 


• 

34. 
50. | 


Tellurium 


White 


6.115 


+612 F. 

I 


1 

2 


White 


25 - 

5.17 
28. 


Tungsten 


Greyish- 
white 


17.6 


+ 170W. 


1 

2 


Black 
Yellow 


Uranium 


Grey 


9.000 


+ 170W. 


1 
2 


Black 
Yellow 


Titanium 


Red 




+ 170W. 


1 
2 
3 


Blue 
Red 

White 




Chromium 


White 




+ 170W. 


1 

2 
3 


Green 
Brown 
Red 


200. j 


Columbiun; 










White 




Tantaliunr 










White 




Cerium 


White 






1 

2 


White 

Red 





N. B. — The numbers, in the last column of the foregoing table, denote 
the quantity of oxygen with which 100 parts of each metal combine. Thus, 
to form the black oxide of iron, 100 parts of the metal absorb 31.6 oxygen, 
and afford 131.6 of ar> oxide, which, in 100 parts, contains 24 of oxygen. — 
In the column showing the fusing point, W. added to the numerals denotes 
the degrees of Wedgwood's pyrometer, and F. those of Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer. 

VOL. II. 48 



• 



378 



APPENDIX II. 



II. — Colour of the Precipitates thrown down from Metallic Solu- 
tions, by various He-agents. 



Metals. 


Prussiated 
Alkalis. 


Tincture of 
Galls. 


Water im- 
pregnated 
with Sul- 
phuretted 
Hydrogen. 


Hydro-Sul- 

phurets. 


[ ■ 


Gold 


Yellowish- 
white 


Solutiontur- 
ned green. 
Precipitate 
brown of re- 
duced gold 


Yellow- 


Yellow 




Platina 


No precip. ; 
but an o- 
"range col- 
oured one 
by pruss. 
of mercur. 


Dark green 

becoming 

paler 


Precipi- 
tated in 
a metal- 
lic state 


■ 




Silver" 


White 


Yellowish 
brown 


Black 


Black 




Mercury 


White, 
changing to 
yellow 


Orange yel- 
low 


Black 


Brownish 
black 




Palladium 


Olive,* 
Deep o- 
range.f 




Dark 
brown 


Dark 
brown 




Rhodium 


No precip. 






No precip. 




Iridium 

1 


No precipi- 
tate. Colour 
discharged. 


No precipi- 
tate. Col- 
our of so- 
lutions dis- 
charged 






Osmium 




Purple, 
changing to 
deep vivid 
blue 








Copper 

T fi. Green salts 
Iron • 

\J2. Red salts 


Bright red- 
ish brown 


Brownish 


Black 


Black 




White, 
changing 
to blue 

Deep blue 


No precipi- 
tate. Blacli 


Not pre- 
cipitated 


Black 




Nickel 


Green 


Greyish 
white 


Not pre- 
cipitated 


Black 




Tin 


iWhite 


No. precip 


iBrown 


Black 


■ 



Chenevix, 



f Wollaston. 



PRECIPITATES FROM METALLIC SOLUTIONS. 



379 



Colour of Precipitates from Metallic Solutions, Isfc. — continued. 



Metals. 


Prussiated 
Alkalis. 


Tincture of 
Galls. 


Water im- 
pregnated 
with Sul- 
phuretted 
Hydrogen. 


Hydro-Sul- ! 
phurets. 1 


Lead 


White 


White 


Black 


Black 


Zinc 


White 


No. precip. 


Yellow 


White 


Bismuth 


White 


Orange 


Black 


Black 


Antimony 


White 


A white ox- 
ide merely 
from dilu- 
tion. 


Orange 


Orange 


Tellurium 


No prqcip. 


Yellow 


# 


Blackish 


Arsenic 


White 


Little 
change 


Yellow 

Not precip- 
itated 


Yellow 


Cobalt 


Brownish 
yellow 


Yellowish 
white 


Black 


Manganese 


Yellowish 
white 


No precip. 


Not precip- 
itated 


White 


Chrome 


Green 


Brown 




Green 


v Molybdena 


Brown 


Deep brown 


Brown 




Uranium 


Brownish 
red 


Chocolate 




Brownish 
yellow 


Tungsten 










Titanium 


Grass green 
with a tinge 
of brown 


Redish 
brown 


Not precip- 
itated 


Grass green 


Columbium 


Olive 


Orange 




Chocolate 


Tantalium | 








Cerium 




Yellowish 




Brown, be- 
coming 
deep green 



APPENDIX IX. 



111,-7(2^/^1 showing' the Maximum Quantity of Oxygen takc% 
lift by different Substances. 



SIMPLE COMBUSTIBLES. 



100 Hydrogen unite with 


597.7 Oxygen 


100 Carbon 


... 


257. 


100 Azote 


- 


236. 


100 Muriatic acid 


• •* m . 


194. 


100 Phosphorus 


- 


154r. 


100 Sulphur - 


METALS. 


71.3 


100 Chrome combine with 


200. Oxygen 


100 Manganese 


- 


66. 


100 Arsenic 


. 


53. 


100 Iron 


- 


45. 


100 Tin - 


. 


38.8 


100 Antimony 


- 


30. 


100 Zinc 








100 Copper 


> 


T • - 


25. 


100 Lead 








100 Tungsten _ 








100 Mercury 


- 


17.6 


100 Platina 


. 


15. 


100 Silver 


- 


12.8 


100 Bismuth 


- 


12. 


100 Gold 


- 


* 


10. 



TABLE OF AFFINITY. 



381 



No. V. 

Table of Simple Affinity.* 





Iron 


Sulphur 


Sulphurous J 


OXYGEN. 


Tin 


Carbon 


Acetic 




Uranium 


Phosphorus 


Mucic 


Carbon 


Molybdena 


Nitrogen 


Boracic 


Charcoal 


Tungsten 




Nitrous 


Manganese 


Cobalt 


_ i _ 


Carbonic 




Zinc 


Antimony 




Prussic 


Iron 


Nickel 


SULPHUR. 


Oil 


Tin 


Arsenic 


PHOSPHORUS ? 


Water 


Antimony 


Chrome 




Sulphur 


Hydrogen 
Phosphorus 


Bismuth 

Lead 


Potash 
Soda 






Sulphur 


Copper 


Iron 




Arsenic 


Tellurium 


Copper 


BARYTES. 


Nitrogen 


Platina 


Tin 




Nickel 


Mercury 


Lead 


Acids Sulphuric 


Cobalt 


Silver 


Silver 


Oxalic 


Copper 


Gold 


Bismuth 


Succinic 


Bismuth 




Antimony 


Fluoric 


Caloric ? 




Mercury 


Phosphoric 




Mercury 




Arsenic 


Mucic 


Silver 


CARBON. 


Molybdena 


Nitric 


Arsenous acid 




i 


Muriatic 


Nitric oxide 


Oxygen 




Suberic 




Gold 


Iron 




Citric 


Platina 


Hydrogen 


POTASH, SODA, 


Tartaric 


Carbonic oxide 
Muriatic acid 




AND AMMONIA. 


Arsenic 
Lactic 






White oxide of 




^c/cfs.Sulphuric 


Benzoic 


manganese 


NITROGEN. 


Nitric 


Acetic 


White oxide of 


Oxygen 
Sulphur ? 


Muriatic 


Boracic 


lead 


Phosphoric 
Fluoric 


Sulphurous 
Nitrous 




Phosphorus 


Oxalic 
Tartaric 


Carbonic 
Prussic 


1 


Hydrogen 


OXYGEN.f 




Arsenic 
Succinic 


Sulphur 
Phosphorus 




Titanium 


HYDROGEN. 


Citric 


Water 


Manganese 




Lactic 


Fixed Oils 


Zinc 


Oxygen 


Benzoic 





* This table, it may be necessary to observe, does not express accurate- 
ly the comparative affinities of bodies, but denotes merely the actual order 
ff decomposition, which, as Berthollet has shown, may often be contrary to 
that of affinity, owing to the influence of various extraneous forces. 

\ Vauquelin's table of the affinity of the metals for oxygen, according' 
Jo ^he difficulty with which their oxides are decomposed by heat. 



iSS 



APPENDIX II. 



Table of Sim/tie Affinity — Continued. 







Carbonic 


Tartaric 


STRONTITES. 


MAGNESIA. 


Prussic 


Citric 
Lactic 


Acids. Sulphuric 
Phosphoric 


Acids. Oxalic 




Succinic 
Acetic 


Phosphoric 




Oxalic 


Sulphuric 


SILEX. 


Prussic 


Tartaric 


Fluoric 




Carbonic 


Fluoric 


Arsenic 


Fluoric acid 


Ammonia 


Nitric 


Mucic 


Potash 




Muriatic 


Succinic 

Nitric 






Succinic 






Acetic 


Muriatic 




OXIDE OF MER- 


Arsenic 


Tartaric 


OX. OF FLATINA. 


CURY. 


Boracic 


Citric 


■ GOLD.* 




Carbonic 


Malic ? 




Gallic acid 


Water 


Lactic 


Gallic acid 


Muriatic 




Benzoic 


Muriatic 


Oxalic 




Acetic 
Boracic 


Nitric 
Sulphuric 


Succinic 
Arsenic 




LIME. 


Sulphurous 


Arsenic 


Phosphoric 




Nitrous 


Fluoric 


Sulphuric 


Acids. Oxalic 


Carbonic 


Tartaric 


Mucic 


Sulphuric 


Prussic 


Phosphoric 


Tartaric 


Tartaric 


Sulphur 


Oxalic 


Citric 


Succinic 




Citric 


Malic 


Phosphoric 




Acetic 


Sulphurous 




Mucic 




Succinic 


Nitric 


Nitric 


ALtfMINE. 


Prussic 


Fluoric 


Muriatic 




Carbonic 


Acetic 


Suberic 


Acids. Sulphuric 


Anvmonia 


Benzoic 


Fluoric 


Nitric 




Boracic 


\ v^pm c 


Muriatic 
Oxalic 




Prussic 
Carbonic 


^11 JL- I HO 

Lactic 




Citric 
j Maiic 
Benzoic 


Arsenic 
Fluoric 
Tartaric 


OXIDE OF SIL- 
VER. 






j Acetic 


Succinic 


Gallic acid 


OXIDE OF LEAD.' 


Boracic 


Mucic 


Muriatic 




Sulphurous 


Citric 


Oxalic 


Gallic 


Nitrous 


Phosphoric 


Sulphuric 


Sulphuric 


Carbonic 


Lactic 


Mucic 


Mucic 


| Prussic 


Benzoic 


Phosphoric 


Oxalic 


[Sulphur 


Acetic 


Sulphurous 


Arsenic 


Phosphorus 


Boracic 


Nitric 


Tartaric 


} Water . 
IFixed oil 


Sulphurous 


Arsenic 


Phosphoric 


Nitrous 


Fluoric 


Muriatic j 



* Omitting the oxalic, citric, succinic, and carbonic, and adding sulpl u- 
retted hydrogen after ammonia. 



TABLE OP AFFINITT. 



Table of Simple Jlffi,nity~—Continxcd. 



583 





Sulphurous 


Muriatic 


Arsenic 


Fartaric 


1 


Suberic 


Oxalic 


Phosphoric 


Vlucic 




Nitric 


Sulphuric 


Nitric 


Phosphoric 




Fluoric 


Nitric 


Succinic 


Citric 




Citric 


Tartaric 


Fluoric 


Succinic 




Malic 


Phosphoric 


Mucic 


Fluoric 1 




Succinic 


Fluoric 


Citric 


Arsenic 




Lactic 


Succinic 


Lactic 


Lactic 




Acetic 


Citric 


Acetic 


Acetic 




Benzoic 


Acetic 


Boracic 


Boracic 




Boracic 


Prussic 


Prussic 


Prussic 




Prussic 


Fixed alkalis 


Ammonia 


Fixed alkalis 




Carbonic 
Fixed oils 
Ammonia 


Ammonia 
Fixed oils 
Water 




Ammonia 




OXIDE OF ZINC 












Gallic 
Oxalic 


SULPHURIC 
ACID. 










OXIDE OF COP- 


OXIDE OF IRON. 


Sulphuric 


PUUSSIC.f 




PER. 


Gallic 


Muriatic 


Barytes 




Gallic 


Oxalic 


Mucic 


Strontites 




Oxalic 


Tartaric 


Nitric 


Potash 




Tartaric 


Camphoric 


Tartaric 


Soda 




Muriatic 


Sulphuric 


Phosphoric 


Lime 




Sulphuric 


Mucic 


Citric 


Magnesia 




Mucic 


Muriatic 


Succinic 


Ammonia 




Nitric 


Nitric 


Fluoric 


Glucine 




Arsenic 


Phosphoric 


Arsenic 


Yttria 




Phosphoric 


Arsenic 


Lactic 


Alumine 




Succinic 


Fluoric 


Acetic 


Zircon 




Fluoric 


Succinic 


Boracic 


Metallic oxides 




Citric 
Lactic 


Citric 
Lactic 


Prussic 
Carbonic 










Acetic 


Acetic 


Fixed alkalis 


SULPHUROUS 




Boracic 


Boracic 


Ammonia 


ACID. 




Prussic 
Carbonic 


Prussic 
Carbonic 




SUCCINIC^ 










Fixed, alkalis 
Ammonia 




OXIDE OF ANTI- 
MONY. 


Barytes 
Lime 








Fixed oils 


OXIDE OF TIN.* 




Potash 








Gallic 

Muriatic 

Benzoic 


Soda 
Strontites 

Magnesia 




OXIDE OF AR 


vjtailic 
Muriatic 




SENIC. 


Sulphuric 
Oxalic 


Oxalic 
Sulphuric 


Ammonia 
Glucine 




Gallic 


Tartaric 


Nitric 


Alumine 



* Bergman places the tartaric before the muriatic. 
f With the omission of all after ammonia. 
_ % Ammonia should come before magnesia ; and strontites, 
zircon, should be omitted. 



jlucinc, and 



3S4 



APPENDIX H. 

Table of Simfile Affinity — Continued. 



Zircon 
Metallic oxides 



PHOSPHORIC 

ACID. 
CARBONIC* 

Barytes 

Strontites 

Lime 

Potash 

Soda 

Ammonia 

Magnesia 

Glucine 

Alumine 

Zircon 

Metallic oxides 

Silex 



PHOSPHOROUS 
ACID. 

Lime 

Barytes 

Strontites 

Potash 

Soda 

Ammonia 

■Glucine 

Alumine 

Zircon 

Metallic oxides 



\, 



| NITRIC ACID. 
[MURIATIC .j 



[Barytes 



Potash 

Soda 

Strontites 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Ammonia 

Giucine 

Alumine 

Zircon 

Metallic oxides 



FLUORIC ACID. 

BORACIC \ 

ARSENIC 1| 

TUNGSTIC 



Lime 

Barytes 

Strontites 

Magnesia 

Potash 

Soda 

Ammonia 

Glucine 

Alumine 

Zircon 

Silex 



ACETIC 
LACTIC - 
SUBERIC 



Barytes 

Potash 

Soda 

Strontites 

Lime 

Ammonia 



Magnesia 
Metallic oxides 
Glucine 
Alumine 
Zircon 



OXALIC ACID. 

TARTARIC 

CITRIC — — — .1 

Lime 

Barytes 

Strontites 

Magnesia 

Potash 

Soda 

Ammonia 

Alumine 

Metallic oxides 

Water 

Alcohol 



BENZOIC ACID. 

White oxide of 

arsenic 
Potash 
Soda 

Ammonia 
Barytes 
Lime 
Magnesia 
Alumine 



CAMPHOBIC ACID. 



Lime 
Potash 



Soda 

Barytes 

Ammonia 

Alumine 

Magnesia 



FIXED OIL. 

Lime 

Barytes 

Potash 

Soda 

Magnesia 

Oxide of mer 

cury 
Other metallic 

oxides 
Alumine 



ALCOHOL. 

Water 
Ether 

Volatile oil 
Alkaline sul- 
phurets 



SULPHURETTED 
HYDROGEN. 

Barytes 

Potash 

Soda 

Lime 

Ammonia 

Magnesia 

Zircon 



* Magnesia should stand above ammonia, and alumina and silicia should 
be omitted. 

f Ammonia should stand above magnesia. 

± Silex should be omitted, and, instead of it, water and alcohol be insert- 
ed. 

| Except silex 

§ With the omission of strontites. metallic oxides, glucine, and zircon. 

^ Zircon after alumine. 



POSTSCRIPT. 

1 he printing of this work having been often delayed by 
my professional engagements, I am enabled to include in it a brief 
account of Mr. Davy's most recent discoveries. They are con- 
tained in a paper,* of which he has been so obliging as to send me 
i a copy, and which will be published in the second part of the Phi- 
losophical Transactions for 1810. 

According to the view, which had been commonly taken of the 
nature of muriatic and oxy-muriatic acids, the former is a simple 
body, and the latter a compound of that body with oxygen. Mr. 
Davy, from his earlier experiments, was led to modify in some 
degree this conclusion ; and to consider the muriatic acid as a 
compound of a certain base with water, and the oxy-muriatic acid 
as a compound of the same base with oxygen. More lately, how- 
ever, he has been induced by the experiments of Gay Lussac and 
Thenard, as well as by some of his own, made expressly for the 
purpose, to take a very different view of the subject. Oxy-muri- 
atic acid he now regards as a simple or undecompounded basis ; 
and muriatic acid as a compound of that basis with hydrogen. 
The facts, which are the ground work of this inference, fall chiefly 
under two classes : Istly, Muriatic acid, it is alleged, can in no 
instance be procured from oxy-muriatic acid, without the pres- 
ence either of hydrogen, or of some body capable of affording hy- 
drogen. 2dly, When oxy-muriatic acid combines with metals or 
other oxidizable substances, it is contended, we have no proof, 
from an examination of the results, that any oxygen has been fur- 
nished to the combustible body. 

Of the first class of facts the most singular is that charcoal, ig- 
nited to whiteness in oxy-muriatic acid, effects no change in it, 
This might be explained on either of two suppositions; -viz. that 
oxy-muriatic contains no oxygen ; or that the oxygen, which en- 
ters into its composition, is held by a stronger affinity than that 
with which charcoal attracts it. Now there are several facts which 
show that, under certain circumstances, the affinity of charcoal for 

* Entitled " Researches on the Oxy-muriatic Acid, its Nature and Com- 
binations ; and on the Elements of Muriatic Acid, with some Experiments 
fen Sulphur and Phosphorus." 

VOL. II. 49 



S86 POSTSCRIPT. 

oxygen is surpassed even by that of hydrogen. The experiment, 
therefore, does not decisively prove, that no oxygen is present in 
oxy-muriatic acid. In a subsequent part of the paper, Mr. Davy 
states that no decomposition of oxy-muriatic acid can be effected 
by electricity, a fact certainly confirming the notion of its being a 
simple substance. 

On investigating the nature of the compounds, formed by the 
oxy-muriatic acid and metals, Mr. Davy was led to examine, with 
particular attention, that which results from the action of ox;--mu- 
riatic acid on tin. When these bodies are brought into contact, 
the whole of the gas is absorbed by the metal. On the common- 
ly received theory, therefore, that the oxidation of a metal invaria- 
bly precedes its solution, an oxide of tin might be looked for in 
the new compound ; but, by the most careful experiments, Mr. 
Davy was not able to discover any. 

Again, when oxy-muriatic acid is made to act on phosphorus, 
phosphorous or phosphoric acid ought to be generated ; and as the 
latter acid is fixed in a strong heat, it might be expected to re» 
main after igniting the product. Mr. Davy, however, found that 
the new compound, when saturated with ammonia, and afterwards 
made red-hot out of the contact of air, yielded no gaseous product 
whatsoever (a very singular circumstance when we consider the 
volatility of its ingredients.) He observed, also, that the residue 
manifested no traces of phosphoric acid, unless it had been pre-* 
viously heated in the atmosphere, and had undergone a sort of 
combustion. 

If oxygen enter into the constitution of oxy-muriatic acid, it fol- 
lows that water should be formed by its action on ammonia ; and 
this indeed has been commonly stated to be the fact. But Mr. 
Davy, on repeating the process with the view of deciding this 
point, was not able to discover that any water was generated. 

In an experiment originally made by Mr. Cruickshank, oxy- 
muriatic acid and hydrogen gases were found to unite after some 
time by simple admixture : and a condensible matter remained, 
which was nothing more than muriatic acid. This fact is equally 
well explained in two different ways ; for we may either suppose 
that the hydrogen unites with oxygen furnished by the oxy-muriat- 
ic acid, and sets at liberty muriatic acid pre-existing in that com- 
pound ; or else that the hydrogen unites with the oxy-muriatic a- 
cid, which in this view is a simple body, and that the two united 
form common muriatic acid. The latter explanation is the one 
which Mr. Davy prefers, chiefly because the presence of oxygen 



POSTSCRIPT. 387 

in oxy-muriatic acid has not -been demonstrated by other experi- 
ments. 

When potassium is ignited in muriatic acid gas, hydrogen is 
evolved, and muriate of potash remains. But even this salt Mr. 
Davy is disposed to regard not as a compound of oxide of potassium 
(potash) with muriatic acid, but as a compound of metallic potas- 
sium with oxy-muriatic acid. In all cases, indeed, where muriat- 
ic acid gas is acted on by metals, he supposes that the oxy-muriat- 
ic acid is attracted from hydrogen by the metal, and a real oxy-mu- 
xiate generated* 

The vivid combustion of inflammable bodies in oxy-muriatie 
acid gas Mr. Davy does not admit to be a valid objection to his 
theory. The evolution of heat and light he deems to be no proof 
of oxygenation, but to arise merely from that intensity of action, 
Which attends various combinations where the fixation of oxygen 
has never been suspected. 

The compounds termed kyfier-oxymuriates, which have been 
considered, chiefly on the suggestion of Mr. Chenevix, as contain- 
ing oxy-muriatic acid united with an additional dose of oxygen, 
are rather, according to Mr. Davy's theory, compounds of oxy- 
muriatic acid with metallic oxides. Hyper-oxymuriate of 
potash, for example, is oxide of potassium saturated with oxy- 
muriatic acid, or a triple compound of oxy-muriatic acid, potas- 
sium, and oxygen ; while muriate of potash is metallic potassium 
saturated with oxy-muriatic acid. 

In this view of the subject, oxy-muriatic acid performs the same 
functions as oxygen. With respect to its electrical habitudes, it 
may be arranged in the same class with that basis ; and in all anal- 
yses of its compounds by galvanic electricity, oxy-muriatic acid is 
evolved at the positive and hydrogen at the negative surface. In 
strictness, it can scarcely be deemed an acid, but rather a sort of 
acidifying principle. 

If these striking and ingenious speculations (for such they must 
at present be regarded) should be confirmed by future experi- 
mental researches, material changes will be required in the exist- 
ing nomenclature of chemistry ; and important modifications must 
be made in several parts of the received theory of the science. 

Another subject, to which Mr. Davy has recently directed his 
attention, is the action of potassium on sulphur and sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and on phosphorus and phosphuretted hydrogen. If 
potassium and sulphur be made to act on each other in glass re- 
torts, part of the potassium, he finds, is lost by its operation on the 



383 POSTSCRIPT. 

glass. This furnishes one reason why less sulphuretted hydrogen 
gas was evolved in Mr. Davy's former experiments, from a giv- 
en weight of potassium combined with sulphur, than might have 
been expected from the quantity of hydrogen evolved by the re- 
cent metal. On repeating the experiment, no proof was gained 
that the potassium had acquired oxygen from the sulphur. All 
that can be demonstrated is a combination of potassium with sul- 
phur, in the proportion of three of the former to one of the latter, 
which burns into neutral sulphate of potash. Neither did it ap- 
pear that by the action of potassium on phosphorus, any effect was 
produced beyond the formation of a phosphuret of potassium, con- 
sisting of about three parts of phosphorus to eight of the metal. 

It is remarkable that the weights of the ultimate atoms of seve- 
ral compounds, deduced by Mr. Davy from his own experiments, 
do not differ very materially from those which had been inferred 
by Mr. Dalton from other data. This will appear from a com-? 
parison of the following numbers with those already stated at page 
328 of this volume. 
The weight of an ultimate atom of potash 



potash - 


48. 


potassium - - 


40.5 


oxy-muriatic acid 


32.9 


muriatic acid 


33.9 


phosphorus 


16.5 


sulphur 


13.5 



<iC! 

NOTES, 

BY PROFESSOR SILLIMAN, OF YALE COLLEGE. 



Note 32, page & Natural History of Metals. 

The metals are not presented immediately to the hand of man, like the 
objects of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, but, they are, for the most 
part, buried in darkness, in the bowels of the earth, where they are so much 
disguised, by combination and mixture with other substances, that they 
often appear entirely unlike themselves. Hence they are acquired only by 
slow and painful toil, and by noxious processes, and dangerous operations ; 
their properties and uses have been but slowly developed, and it is to be 
regretted, that they are the most usual instruments of human destruction, 
and, because they are more or less the representatives of all other kinds of 
property, they have been made the immediate motives, means and objects, 
of the most sordid passions and the most flagitious crimes. 

The metals are occasionally found, in nature, in the metallic state, but, 
more generally, they are combined with other substances, and, in this state, 
they are called ores. A metal, in this condition, is said to be mineralized, 
and the substance with which it is combined, is called the mineralizer. 
The principal mineralizers are oxygen, sulphur, arsenic, the carbonic, sul- 
phuric, muriatic, arsenic and phosphoric acids, and carbon. As far as our 
knowledge at present extends, all ores may be included under one or 
another of the following descriptions : 

1. Native metals, and alloys of one metal with another. 

2. Native metallic oxides ; or, compounds of the metals with oxygen. 

3. Native metallic salts ; or, compounds of the metallic oxides with 
acids. 

4. Native sulphurets and carburets ; or, compounds of the metals with 
sulphur or carbon. 

Gold, silver, platina, mercury, copper, bismuth, antimony and arsenic 
are frequently found native ; — iron more rarely, and a few other metals have 
been reported to be found occasionally native. The native alloys exist 
principally bteween gold and silver, gold and copper, and mercury and 
silver. Arsenic, however, is a very common mineralizer, and exists, more 
•r less, in a great proportion of the ores. Platina is always found in the 
metallic state ; — gold, most generally, and silver frequently. 

The metallic oxides and sulphurets constitute by far the most extensive 
and important classes of ores. In the state of oxide the metals are brittle, 
" have an earthy appearance and exhibit different colours, but have no lus- 
tre. Iron, cobalt, copper, arsenic, bismuth, antimony, zinc, manganese, 
tin, lead and mercury exist in this condition." (Schmeisser ii. 14.) 

Metals, combined with sulphur, are also brittle, but they frequently have 
the metallic lustre. The compounds of iron and sulphur are called pyrites ; 



390 NOTES. 

the same name is applied to compounds of sulphur and iron, containing 
copper, or arsenic, and the first description is called ferruginous — the se~-, 
ond cupreous, and the third arsenical pyrites.- 

Heat produces in the sulphurets a sulphureous odour, and in those which 
contain arsenic, as many of the pyritical ores do, an odour of garlic is pro- 
duced by friction, percussion and heat. Silver, iron, lead, copper, mescury 
and antimony are often found combined with sulphur. (Ibid.) 

The only metal whose combination with carbon is well understood is 
. iron, in the substance called plumbago. 

The compounds of acids with metallic oxides are more rare than most 
of the preceding states ; they appear differently, and some of them look 
much more like earthy substances than ores. 

1. Iron is found combined with the sulphuric, phosphoric and carbonic 
acids, &c. 

2. Copper with the sulphuric, carbonic, arsenic and muriatic acids, &c. 

3. Lead with the sulphuric, carbonic, arsenic, chromic, molybdic and 
muriatic acids, &c. 

4. Zinc with the sulphuric. 

5. Antimony with the muriatic. 

6. Silver with the sulphuric, murirtic and arsenic acids. 
T, Mercury with the sulphuric and muriatic acids. 

8. Cobalt with the arsenic and sulphuric acids. 

9. Manganese with the carbonic and phosphoric acids. 

The ores constitute but a very small portion of this globe, at least of those 
parts of it which have been explored. They are never found in large ex- 
tended masses, like those of granite, trap and limestone, but, usually, in 
cavities and veins, principally in the hardest rocks. These are often divid- 
ed by fissures, running through them in various directions, the two sides 
of which frequently tally to each other as if they had been divided by some 
convulsion of the globe.. It is in such fissures that the veins of metal are 
commonly found. They usually cross the strata at right angles, and, in 
most instances, are perpendicular or inclined to the horizon ; rarely are they 
horizontal. The veins do not consist entirely of ore; the greater portion 
of them is, for the most part, filled with some kind of stony substance dif- 
ferent from the rock ; it is commonly denominated spar, because it has often 
acrystalline or plated structure. Carbonate of lime, or calcareous spar, fluor 
spar or fluate of lime, quartz, amorphous and crystallized, and sulphate of 
barytes, or, ponderous spar, are the most frequent, and the latter more so 
than perhaps any other. The miners call these thing's the matrix or gangue 
of the particular metal ; sometimes the metal is dispersed among the gangue 
only in specks ; at other times it prevails so as to occupy a considerable 
part, or nearly the whole of the vein. Although ores are sometimes found 
in horizontal beds, in plain countries, they are most abundant in mountain- 
ous and rugged regions. Granite and the other primitive rocks rarely con- 
tain ores, but gneiss and the schistose rocks contain them in abundance ; 
limestone, quartz and barytic spars are well stored with them ; they are not 
abundant in whin, and serpentine very seldom affords them. 

There are perhaps few subjects on which mankind are more credulous than 



NOTES. 391 

«n that of the discovery of ores. Hence the numerous impositions practised 
on the ignorant and avaricious by artful and impudent knavery. It is now 
scarcely credible that implicit faith was once reposed in the virgula divini- 
toria, or divining rod as it was called, nor should we have expected that 
the British Encyclopedia would have more than countenanced a folly which 
the good sense of mankind has long since discarded. Mr. Price, an Eng- 
lish writer on the Cornish mines, has very, gravely informed us that; "ha- 
zle rods cut in the winter do best," and that " apple tree suckers, rods from 
peach trees, currants, or the oak, will answer tolerably well." — The use of 
these rods was, that, when poised in a particular manner in the hand, they 
would be attracted toward the spot of earth containing an ore. Mr. Price 
says that if a person with a divining rod in his hand stand with one foot 
advanced and a guinea beneath it, and a half-penny beneath the other foot, 
the rod will be drawn towards the guinea, and that if the guinea be put 
into the place of the half-penny, the attractions will be reversed. This art 
once formed a distinct profession, and the same impostors pretended to be 
affected with convulsions, swoonings, lethargy, &c. when reposing on ground 
beneath which metals lay concealed. It would hardly be proper to mention 
such ridiculous follies, were there not still some people in this country who 
have a strong leaning toward them. Much more confidence is reposed in 
certain indications almost equally fallacious, such as the dreary aspect of 
a mountain — the sterility and nakedness of a country — the blighted state of 
vegetation, imaginary exhalations from the ground, and many other similar 
things. But, when metallic grains and fragments are found dispersed among 
the sand of a plain, or in the bed of a river, it is reasonably concluded that 
they have been detached by rains from the hills, and washed down by the 
water ; when the springs of a country are contaminated with a metalline 
impregnation, there can be no doubt that ores are below. Above all, when 
a vein of metal appears at the surface, which not unfrequently happens on 
the steep side of a hill, a promontory, or the bank of a river, decisive evi- 
dence is obtained. 

The fortunes of men ought not to be hazarded in mining speculations 
without all the certainty that the nature of the case will admit of, and this 
can frequently be afforded by boring, a simple and not very expensive oper- 
ation, which is worth more than all the divinations and enchantments that 
have ever been practised. 

MINE AND MINING. 

After the existence of ore is ascertained to the satisfaction of the adven- 
turers, if the country be level, or nearly so, a pit similar to a well is sunk; 
it is called a shaft, and if the earth be not sufficiently compact, the sides of 
the shaft are supported by planks and timbers ; timbers are placed horizon- 
tally also, at convenient distances, and, upon these, ladders are firmly fixed 
in a perpendicular position, and a plank or two laid at the foot of each for 
a landing place ; as the shaft goes down deeper and deeper, other ladders 
are added, in a connected series, till the miners arrive at the ore. Having 
found it, they of course follow the vein ; this produces another excavation, 
at right angles with the shaft ; it is called an adit, level, or gallery. If 'the 



392 "NOTES. 

mine be worked through a rock, there are, of course, natural Walls, and a 
roof sufficiently firm ; sometimes the walls of the vein are of rock, while 
the roof is crumbly, and it must then be supported firmly by planks and 
timber. As the only inducement to excavate "the gallery arises from the 
width of the vein, the gallery varies extremely in diameter ; — at one place, 
whei - e the vein has failed, or become very small, it is merely a narrow pas- 
sage, where the miners can do nothing more than crawl through ; — at anoth- 
er, a man can walk erect with ease, and, at another, it becomes a wide and 
lofty chamber. Sometimes the gallery is intersected by another vein running 
off' at an angle ; here a new gallery may be formed, and thus the work may 
be indefinitely extended. A shaft is often sunk from the gallery already 
formed, to meet a new one below, and thus these subterranean passages are 
made to communicate freely with one another, and with the surface of the 
ground. When the mine is situated in a hilly country, it becomes easy to 
discharge the water, merely by continuing the galleries out, to the side of a 
hill ; but, in a level country, the water must be raised to the surface. For 
this purpose, as well as for raising the ore, letting down people and imple- 
ments, and for other similar objects, all the powers of mechanism are occa- 
sionally employed. 

The strength of men and of animals ; mills, worked by wind or water, 
and, above all, the steam engine, which is in general use in England, are 
employed to accomplish the desired object. In the Dolgoath mine in Corn- 
wall, a steam engine is employed to raise the water. The machine there 
employed works a rod composed of pieces of timber ; it descends more than 
1000 feet into the ground, and raises the water to a superior adit, where it 
runs off" through the side of the hill. There is another evil to which the 
miner is peculiarly exposed. Deadly gases, consisting chiefly of the car- 
bonic acid gas, and some varieties of the hydrogen gases, occasionally suf- 
focate him ; and, when the}- are inflammable, which often happens in coal 
mines, they become mixed with the atmospherical oxygen ; when the min- 
er; descend with lamps and candles to their work, the mixture sometimes 
explodes and blows the adventurers and their works into the air, or hurries 
them with fatal velocity along the narrow chambers of the mine. To pre- 
v< tit these evils, recourse is had to ventilation. When the mine is situated 
in the side of a hill, and the galleries are continued out to the side, a ven- 
tilation is, of course, established, because the mouth of the shaft and the 
tmtlet of the gallery are at different elevations ; the air within the shaft is 
in winter warmer, and, in summer, colder than that above ground ; thus, 
the two columns of air, thn one of which presses at the mouth of the gal- 
lery, and the other at the bottom of the shaft, are rarely in equilibrio, and 
therefore a current is established one way or the other. It is observed, that 
about the equinoxes, these columns sometimes are so nearly in equipoise, 
(because the air without and within the earth is then very nearly of the 
same temperature) that the miners perceive a stagnation, and it becomes 
Hecessaiiy to kindle, a fire in order to destroy the equilibrium. When cir- 
cumstances do not admit of a natural ventilation, as where shafts have been 
sunk in a level country, it is accomplished by maintaining at the mouth of 
0»e of ihc- shafts a constant fire, which discharges its heated air through a 



NOTES. 393 

long chimney, and thus the equilibrium of the otherwise equiponderant 
columns of the atmosphere is destroyed, and a double current of foul air up, 
and of good air down is maintained. No work can be done in the mines 
without artificial light, which enables the miner to see v/here the vein is 
richest in ore, and there he applies his hammers, crows, levers, pick axes, 
wedges, and other mechanical instruments to detach it from the rock. If, 
however, this be very hard, it is necessary to employ the force of gun pow- 
der ; indeed this is more generally necessary, and the explosions (from their 
happening prematurely, or from their driving fragments of the rock to a 
distance, and thus hitting those who imagined themselves out of danger) 
are not unfrequently fatal to the workmen. The great copper mine of Dol- 
goath, at Redruth, in Cornwall, is a fair example to illustrate most of the 
particulars mentioned in this sketch. 

Much labour and expense are saved when the ore is so situated that di- 
rect access can be had to it by a lateral excavation in the side of a hill or 
mountain. Then it is necessary only to penetrate into the ground inahori- 
aontal direction till the ore is found, and thus the same passage, which 
serves as an entrance, affords also a drain for the water, a gallery for the 
people to go in and out, and a road for the conveyance of the ore, which is 
transported to day light on small hand sleds or waggons, drawn along the 
bottom of the adit ; frequently, the miners are harnessed to these simple 
machines, as they find, from experience, that they work with more ease in 
this way. It is not possible, however, to penetrate far into a mountain with- 
out ventilation. In pursuing the narrow passage of the gallery, the air be- 
comes so much vitiated by the respiration of the workmen, and by the burn- 
ing of their candles, that, ultimately, their lights begin to burn dimly, their 
breathing becomes laborious, and every thing announces imminent danger. 
To obviate this, either a shaft is sunk from a higher part of the hill to meet 
the adit, or another gallery is made at a different elevation, and the two are 
connected in the interior of the mountain by a shaft, and thus a ventilation 
is produced upon the principles already explained. In this description of 
mines, all the expensive and troublesome machinery calculated to raise the 
ore and the water, and to let down people, implements, &c. may be dis- 
pensed with, and the business is wonderfully simplified. 

Of this kind of mines, the ancient and celebrated ore at Castleton, in. Der- 
byshire, called the Owdin mine, is a fine example. 

Metallurgy. 

As a preliminary to the great and expensive processes for extracting met- 
als from their ores in the large way, it is necessary to perform the same thing 
on a small scale, for the purpose of forming a judgement as to the profit 
which may be expected from the mine, and, indeed, this step ought always 
to be taken previously to the expenditure of any great sums in the mechan- 
ical operations of mining, otherwise, great loss may be sustained. These 
operations are called docimasy or the docimastic art ; they constitute the as- 
say, by which the quality and richness of the ore is judged of. The habit 
of examining minerals will soon enable a person, from the external appear- 
ance of an ore, to form a tolerably •orrect judgement of its nature and value- 

VOL. II. 50 



394 NOTES. 

The blow-pipe will proveran important aid to his judgement, for, by means 
of this, assisted by proper fluxes, a judgement can usually be forraed, in a 
few minutes, as to the kind of ore, although not always as to the proportion 
of metal. A piece of charcoal or a spoon of platina is commonly used for 
a support to the bit of ore under examination, and various additions of bo- 
rax—sub carbonate of soda— black or white flux, microcosmic salt, &c. are 
made accordiug to the object in view. The blow-pipe is admirably adapted 
to the almost instantaneous production of a high and very manageable heat. 
As examples of its use, it may be mentioned that if a minute portion of the 
ore of cobalt be fused with borax, a fine blue button will be formed ; if the 
proportion of salt has been too small, the button will appear almost black, 
but will become blue, on being diluted with more borax and fused over again. 
If borax be fused with oxide of manganese, a purple button will be formed ; 
if this button be completely surrounded by the flame of the blow-pipe, and 
urged with a heat continued, for a few minutes, the globule will emit bub- 
bles of gas and will become colourless ; this is owing to the escape of oxygen 
gas which brings the manganese to the stats of white oxide when it loses its 
colour. If this colourless globule be heated again with the exterior flame 
of the blow-pipe, while the air has free contact with the globule, the purple 
colour will return ; then by alternately repeating' the first and second ex- 
periment upon it, the colour may be discharged and renewed at pleasure, 
Should these circumstances occur, the operator would, with good reason, 
conclude, that the first substance was cobalt and the second manganese. 
For minute instructions as to the use of the blow-pipe, reference may be 
had to Bergman's chemistry. 

For practical purposes, the examination of ores is, however, commonly 
made in the assay fumace. Good, middling and poor specimens of the ore 
are selected, that the result may be neither too flattering nor too discour- 
aging. The pieces selected should be as free from the matrix as possible, 
and the stony matter may be still farther separated by breaking it with a 
hammer. 

The ore is then pounded and the stony matters farther picked out ; and 
advantage is taken of the difference in specific gravity between the ore and 
the matrix ; they are agitated in water, or a stream is suffered to pass over 
them, when the metallic parts will sink and the stony fragments are washed 
away. A convenient quantity is then taken, varying from 100 grains to 100 
pounds, according to the nature and value of the ore, and the degree of pre- 
cision required ; this is roasted, as it is called, that is, it is exposed, for a 
considerable time, to a low red heat, applied in shallow vessels. The object 
of this operation is to expel any sulphur or arsenic, which the mineral may 
contain ; and which it is, may be inferred from the smell, which is sulphur 
reous in the one case, and alliaceous in the other. During this operation the 
metal is alrrays converted into an oxide, and the object of the next process. 
is to bring it to the state of a metal, by mixing it with substances which 
will at once promote its fusion, and abstract its oxygen. These substances 
are called fluxes ; they are numerous and various, and different fluxes are 
employed in reducing different ores, but they usually contain carbon, as one 
ingredient, and some saline or alkaline substance ; the former to abstract 



NOTES. 395 

oxygen and the latter to promote fusion. The most common is the black 
flux, farmed from two parts of tartar and 1 of nitre, mixed in a red hot cru- 
cible ; this is well adapted to the ores of lead, copper and antimony. A- 
nother flux, well adapted to iron ores, is composed of 20 parts of calcined 
borax, 10 of nitre and 2 of slacked lime, and these proportions correspond 
to 10 grains of the ore. Pounded glass 16 parts, boraX 2, and powder of 
charcoal 1, answer the same purpose. Arsenic and nitre, in equal parts, 
form also a very active flux. With some of these, or other fluxes, a certain 
quantity of the roasted ore is lieated in a crucible, and, at the end of the 
operation, the metal is found reduced, at the bottom of the crucible, form- 
ing- a metallic button, whose weight, compared with that of the ore, gives 
the proportion of metal with sufficient accuracy to enable those concerned 
to decide on the expediency of prosecuting the adventure. This is however 
but a coarse analysis, if the object be to ascertain with correctness, the true 
chemical composition of the ore. But, in an economical point of view, it is, 
perhaps, even preferable to the more accurate methods, because it is of im- 
portance that the assay should, as much possible, resemble the metallurgies 
processes in the large way, which must, necessarily, be performed with 
cheap materials and in a coarse manner, because the expense would absorb 
the profits were the costly re-agents of scientific chemistry Introduced into 
the smelting and refining furnaces. 

This method of examination is via sicca, in the dry way, as it used to be 
ealled. But, if we would ascertain the true composition of the ore, so as to 
give the specimen its correct place in a system of scientific mineralogy, we 
must have recourse to the analysis, via humida, or, in the moist way, that 
is, not by fire, but by acids, alkalis and other re-agents. This method is 
now universally preferred by expert chemists, where science and not profit, 
is the object. Its processes however are tedious and require the utmost 
skill and patience in the analyst, and absolute purity in his re-agents. An 
account of them involves details which would be misplaced among these 
general remarks, and more properly belong to the history of the particular 
metals. 

After what has been said as to the manner of assaying ores, it will not be 
necessary to be very minute upon the operations of metallurgy in the large 
way, since the principles are almost identica!, and the valuations in the pro- 
cesses are produced chiefly by a reference to economy and facility of opera- 
tion. The more general operations to which the ore is subjected, are sort- 
ing, stamping; -washing, reducing and refining. 

The sorting is merely the picking over of the ore, to free it from the ma- 
trix and other foreign bodies. In common cases it is entrusted to women 
and children, but if there be several ores intermixed, which it is necessary 
to separate, especially if any of them be very valuable, as gold or silver, the 
sorting is then performed by skilful men, superintended by a master miner, 
or captain of the mines. 

The object of the stamping is to reduce the ore to moderately small frag- 
ments, in order to facilitate the farther separation of the matrix. For this 
purpose, it is pounded in stamping mills. They consist of perpendicular' 
cylindrical pieces of wood, shod at the foot with iron, and worked by wind 



396 . ^ WOTES. 

or water, or some other adequate moving power, which causes these great 
pestles to play up and down in huge stone troughs or mortars, containing- 
the ore, while, in many instances, a stream of water, passing through the 
trough, washes away the lighter stony parts. The ore is always washed or 
dressed for the purpose of separating the stony fragments, and there are 
many ingenious means of doing this, as in the bed of a rivulet, on an arti- 
ficial inclined plain, over which water is made to pass ; in tubs, boxes, &cv 
When there are grains, or minute fragments of very valuable metal, as for 
instance gold, dispersed among sand, the washing is performed on inclined 
plains, covered with cloth, which catches the angular and small pieces, that 
would otherwise be washed away. When the stony matrix is very hard, it 
is sometimes rendered friable by heating it and throwing it, while very hot, 
into water, which causes it to crack. 

The next object is the roasting. This is commonly performed in the opera 
air, the ore being mixed with heaps of wood and exposed to a gentle red 
heat, a good while continued. Sometimes this operation is performed among 
charcoal, in furnaces of a particular form, contrived to save the arsenic or 
the sulphur as the case may be ; they rise, in sublimation, and are condens- 
ed in some proper receptacle. Nitre is sometimes used to burn out the 
sulphur, but is too expensive for common use. Some ores require several 
repetitions of the process of roasting before they are cleared of their sulphur 
and arsenic. 

Reduction is the next and most important operation of the whole, t» 
which the others may be regarded as merely preparatory. This is done in 
furnaces which vai-y exceedingly in size and form, according to the par- 
ticular nature of the metal and the practice of different countries. 

The great object is now to separate the oxygen, that the metal may appear 
in its proper character. For this purpose the ore is mixed with large quan- 
tities of fuel, commonly charcoal or oak, and a strong heat is raised ; the 
remaining sulphur and arsenic are expelled, and the oxygen, combining with 
the red hot carbon, flies away in the form of carbonic acid gas and gaseous 
oxide of carbon. Appropriate fluxes are also added to fuse any earthy mat- 
ters which may remain, and sometimes lime and alkali, and even some of 
the less valuable metals are added to absorb the sulphur more completely. 
At length the metal, freed from most of its impurities, subsides to the bot- 
tom of the furnace, and the earthy and sulphurated mass floats as a scum or 
slag. This is sometimes drawn off at a convenient tap hole, or by rakes, 
or blown aside by the blast of bellows. The melted metal itself is drawn 
off by a tap hole at the bottom of the furnace, or, when the quantity is small, 
it is dipped out with ladles. The slag or scum is not always rejected. 
Sometimes it is rich in some other metal, which, during the operation, has 
been oxidized and scorified, while that which was the principal object of 
the process, on account of its different nature, has not suffered the same 
change. The slag is therefore occasionally, and, in some particular cases, 
usually worked over by itself, and frequently yields no contemptible product. 
Sometimes it is is very valuable of itself, as in the extraction of silver from 
lead ores, where the oxidized lead forms a slag, which is the foundation of 
the manufacturers of litharge and red lead. 



NOTES. 39.7 

"When volatile metals are to be obtained from their ores, it becomes ne- 
cessary to employ « distilling 1 apparatus, as retorts of earth or iron ; mer- 
cury and zinc are metals of this description. 

The metals which have been obtained by the processes of reduction, al- 
though usually sufficiently pure for commercial purposes, are rarely so in a 
chemical sense ; they are occasionally contaminated with some of the earthy 
matters with which the ore has been treated, and they are often alloyed 
with other metals, some of which may be more valuable than the whole 
mass, or which impair the proper qualities of the metal. 

Last of all then comes the process of Refining, the object of which is to 
obtain the metal absolutely pure, or at least sufficiently so to answer all the 
purposes for which it is wanted. As, however, the processes for refining 
differ exceedingly, in the cases of the different metals, it is scarcely possi- 
ble to give any general account of the subject. Such details belong more 
properly to the history of the particular metals. 

The number of the metals is now nearly thirty. Most of them are of 
modern discovery. The ancients were acquainted with only seven, viz. 
gold, sdver, mercury, iron, lead, tin and copper. 

JVote 33, page 35. Silver. 
The remark in the text, that silver, when dissolved in nitric acid exhibits 
a green colour if impure, is strictly applicable to the alloy of silver with 
copper, such as exists in coin and in trinkets, which, when dissolved in ni- 
tric acid, tinge the solution green, but silver might be impure from a com- 
bination with various other substances, without giving, on that account, a 
green solution. It often happens also during the action of nitric acid on 
metals, that a temporary green solution is obtained, owing to the generation 
of nitrous gas, and its transient combination with the solution ; if the green 
colour is owing to this cause, it will disappear if the solution be heated. 

JVote 34, page 39. Fulminating Silver. 
Pulverize 100 grains of the common lunar caustic of the shops (nitrate 
•f silver ;) add to it one ounce of alcohol and one ounce of nitric acid. If 
these agents are good, there will be a violent action. But this will not 
happen with these fluids as they are commonly found, and generally it will 
be necessary to apply a very moderate heat, which must be removed as soon 
as the action comes on. Very soon a thick white precipitate will appear ; 
distilled water may then be thrown on to check the action if becoming too 
violent ; the precipitate must be washed in distilled water, after having 
been separated by the filter, or by decantation, and will fulminate power- 
fully by heat or friction. A convenient way of exploding it is to place a 
grain or two of it on the blade of a knife, and to hold it over a candle. 
This process I believe was substantially suggested by Descotils, and the 
fulminating silver produced in this manner is, compared with that of Ber- 
thollet, a harmless preparation. Still, it is sufficiently critical and violent 
to render great care necessary in its preparation. Having been, for several 
years, accustomed to prepare it, and having never met with any accident, I 
had probably come, by degrees, to undervalue the dang-er, and, in conse- 



39S NOTES. 

quencc incurred a serious injury, which had well nigh deprived me of my 
eyes ; the mention of the manner in which it occurred, may perhaps save 
some person from a similar accident. The usual mixture of lunar caustic, 
alcohol and nitric acid, being 1 made in a porcelain dish, I ventured to take it 
up and stir it with a glass rod, to accelerate the action, which was rather 
languid, and as no mischief happened from this step, which I had never ven- 
tured on before, I stirred it again, and, as some part of the nitrate adhered 
to the dish, a little pressure was used to detach it, when the whole explod- 
ed into my eyes with great violence, and threw me into immediate blind- 
ness, both from the mechanical force of the explosion, and from the corro- 
sive action of the chemical agents. After some weeks of suffering and 
darkness, my sight was gradually restored, although the strength of the 
organs has never been fully regained. I have prepared the fulminating sil- 
ver repeatedly since, without any accident. (For a more particular ac- 
count, see Bruce's Journal, Vol. I. page 163.) 

JVbie 35, page 61. Sulphuret of Iron. 
There can be no doubt that the author perfectly understood that the phe- 
nomenon of the extrication of latent caloric, attended by light, during the 
combination of sulphur and iron, is not, as he has termed it, a combustion. 
Were it a real combustion, the iron would be found oxidized, and the sul- 
phur acidified. But neither of these facts is so. It is well known that the 
compound decomposes water by the aid of an acid, and sulphur rises dis- 
solved in the hydrogen, both of which facts are inconsistent with a previous 
combustion. Whatever uncertainty there may be (and it is acknowledged 
there is much) in the use of the word combustion, it must, no doubt, in 
every case, include a combination of oxygen with the body burned, and an 
increase of weight in the sum of the products, neither of which facts exists 
in this case. 

JVote 36, page Go. 

HETJEOniC STOKES. 

The falling of stones from the atmosphere, is now universally admitted, 
not only by philosophical men, but, such a mass of evidence has been ac- 
cumulated on the subject, that both the knowledge and belief of these 
events have become general. 

The phenomenon is usually connected with the appearance of luminous 
meteors, or fire balls. Their apparent diameter is sometimes as large as 
the moon ;* " from the main body, frequently extends a flame or train. 
Streams and sparkles of fire seem to shoot out on every side. Just before 
their disappearance, there is a violent explosion, by which pieces -often ap- 
pear to be detached, and thrown to the ground." 

'*' When the stones have fallen in the day time, the meteor has not al- 
ways been observed ; probably, because its light was not sufficiently strong 
to draw the attention 6"f persons abroad, to that part of the heavens, in 
which it was moving. But, even in this case, the same kind of report has 

* See Professor Day's view of theories on this subject. (Memoirs of Connecticut Academy^ 
''ol, I'. Part I. page 104.) 



NOTES. 399 

been heard, as that which usually follows the explosion of a meteor. In 
many instances, the luminous body has been seen* to come forward to the 
zenith, and apparently to burst; and, immediately after, the stones have 
fallen, with a whizzing- noise, to the ground." 

Meteors of this kind are seen, in some parts of the world, almost every 
year, and the same meteor is often seen over a great extent of country ; in 
some instances, a hundred miles in breadth, and five hundred in length. 
(Day's view.) 

Their perpendicular altitude during" the time in which ihey are visible 
is calculated to be from 20 to 100 miles ; and their diameter is, in some 
cases, estimated to be at least half a mile. 

Their velocity cannot be- less than 300 miles in a minute. 

It has not been ascertained that these meteors do, in every instance, pro- 
ject stones to the ground ; but stones have been observed to descend in so 
many instances immediately after the explosion of meteors, as sufficiently 
to establish the point that the stones do proceed from the meteor, and it 
may be presumed that, in numerous instances, they have fallen into the 
water, or other inaccessible places, or been effectually concealed, by being- 
buried in the ground, in consequence of the violence of their descent. 

The number of well authenticated instances in which stones have fallen 
from the atmosphere is now so great, that instead of attempting- to enume- 
Tate them all, we shall make a selection of the most important only. 

There have been traditionary and historical accoimts of the falling- of 
bodies from the heavens, from very remote antiquity. Sometimes they 
were reg-arded as objects of idolatrous worship ; such was the to Stomrovz 
(or that which fell down from Jupiter) of the Ephesians. 

Livy mentions a shower of stones at Rome, under Tullus Hostilius, and 
a similar event is recorded to have happened there under the Consuls C. 
Martius and M. Torquatus. Pliny mentions a shower of iron in Lucania, 
the year before the defeat of Crassus, and that a very large stone fell in 
Thrace, in the 78th Olympiad, and three large stones are asserted to have 
fallen in the same country, about 452 years before Christ.* These and 
other similar assertions in ancient history were uniformly regarded, by the 
moderns, as instances of falsehood, or of excessive credulity and supersti- 
tion ; but they are now treated with more respect, and little doubt remains 
in the minds of men of science, that stones have fallen in every age of the 
world. 

On the 7th of June, 1492, a large stone, weighing 260 pounds, fell at 
Ensisheim, in Upper Alsace, in France ; it was preserved, till within a few 
years past, in a church, and was regarded as a sacred object. It fell in a 
storm, when tjie heavens appeared to be on fire, and after a loud report 
like a clap of thunder. 

About 120 stones, among which was one of 120 and another of 60 
pounds weight, fell near Padua, in the year 1510. 

In 1627, the great astronomer Gassendi saw a burning stone of 59 
pounds fall on Mount Vaiser, near the city of Nice, in France. 

» Many of the facts stated in this abstract are taken from a table drawn up by Mr. Izarn, and 
which may be found in the Phil. Mag. XV. 182, and Thomson's Chemistry, second edition, Vol* 
III. page 419. 



400 NOTES. 

In 1706, a stone of 72 pounds fell, near Sarissa, in Macedonia. 

In 1750, a stony mass iill at Niort, in Normandy. 

In July, 1753, there was a shower of stones at Plann, near Tabor, in Bo- 
hemia ; and, in September, two stones, weighing 20 pounds, fell at Sipo- 
nas, in Bresse ; and still another instance occurred in the same year, in the 
Bichstadt country, in Germany. A labourer at a brick kiln, when the 
ground was covered with snow, saw a body fall immediately after a violent 
report like thunder. He ran to the spot, but the stone still retained so 
much heat, that it could not be handled. It was about six inches in diam- 
eter. 

In 1762, two stones, of 200 and 300 pounds, fell near Verona. 

" On the 13th of September, 1768, a tempestuous cloud was seen near 
the castle of Suc6, in Main. From this was heard an explosion like thun- 
der ; but, without the appearance of lightning, and, directly after, a remarka- 
ble whizzing noise in the air. A number of travellers, looking up, saw an 
•pake body descend in a curve line, and fall at a distance from them. They 
all ran to the place, and found a kind of stone half buried in the ground, 
and too hot to be touched." (Professor Day's Discourse.) 

In the same year a stone fell at Aire, in Artois, and another at Le Co- 
tentin. 

A shower of stones fell at Barboutan, near Roquefort, in July 1789. 

July 24, 1790, there was an extensive shower of stones in the environs 
of Agen.* 

June 16, 1794, about 7 o'clock, P. M. at Sienna, in Italy, a tremendous 
cloud came from the north, sending forth sparks like a rocket, burning, 
and smoking like a furnace, producing violent explosions, and casting 
down stones to the ground. The cloud was very high. The stones, which 
were about twelve in number, fell at the feet of several persons. 

December 13, 1795, near the Wold Cottage, in Yorkshire, England, un- 
usual noises* like distant reports of pistols or guns, and also a -whizzing, 
were heard in the air ; there was no thunder or lightning. A labourer 
saw a body descend and strike the ground ; several persons went imme- 
diately to the spot, and found an extraordinary stone, weighing 56 pounds, 
buried 21 inches in the earth. It was warm, smoked, and smelt strongly 
of sulphur. 

February 19, 1796, a stone of 10 pounds fell in Portugal. 

March 12, 1798, one of 20 pounds fell at Sales, near Ville Franche, and, 
®n the 17th of the same month and year, another, of the same weight, at 
Sale, Department of the Rhone. 

December 19, (same year,) about 8 o'clock, in a clear serene evening, a 
large fire ball was seen at Benares, in Bengal ; it was attenaed by a loud 
noise like thunder, or a discharge of musquetry, and a shower of stones 
fell in a neighbouring field, and buried themselves about 6 inches deep. 

April 26, 1802, about 1 o'clock, P. M. near L'Aigle, in Normandy, a 
very brilliant fiery globe was seen to move very rapidly through the at- 
mosphere. Immediately after, a violent explosion, which lasted five or six 

* A stone is preserved in the museum of Bordeaux, which, in 1789 or 1790, fell through the 
r-oof of a cottage, and killed a herdsman and some catties. 



NOTES. 401 

minutes, was heard at the distance of 30 leagues, in every direction from 
L'Aigle. The sky was serene and calm, and there were only a few light 
clouds. A shower of stones fell in various parts of a district 7 miles in 
length, and 2 or 3 in breadth ; the largest stone weighed 17 pounds, and 
the whole number was thought to be two or three thousand. One of them 
{presented by Col. Gibbs,) is preserved in the cabinet of Yale College. 

One of the most remarkable occurrences of the kind on record happened 
at Weston, in Connecticut, on the 14th of December, 1807. Just after the 
dawn, a luminous meteor, or fire ball, apparently one half or two thirds as 
large as the moon, rose from the horizon in the north, and proceeded with 
great velocity, and a waving motion, nearly to the zenith ; it was distinctly 
visible, through the clouds which partly covered the sky, appearing like 
the sun in a mist, and, when it passed the spots of clear sky, it flashed, 
with a vivid light, on the beholders, sparkled like a fire brand carried rap- 
idly against the wind, discovered a waving conical train or tail of paler 
light ; and, at length, with three loud and distinct explosions, like those 
of cannon, with as many leaps, and a rapid succession of fainter reports, 
like those of musketry, and a decay of light somewhat gradual, disappear- 
ed. This meteor was seen from Vermont to the city of New -York, and o- 
ver an extent of two or three hundred miles from New -Jersey, to Salem in 
Massachusetts. Masses of stone were projected from it, at each of the 
three principal explosions ; they were scattered over an extent of ten miles 
in length, and three or four in breadth. One mass fell within a few yards 
of a man who was standing at his door ; it was dashed to pieces on a rock ; 
a piece as large as a goose egg remained unbroken, and was warm half an 
hour after the fall. A stone of 35 pounds fell in a door yard within a few 
feet of the house ; it buried itself completely in the ground, at the depth 
of two feet. Two other stones, one of about 8 or 10 pounds, and the oth- 
er of 13 pounds, fell in the fields near the same house. Two miles south, 
two other stones fell, one at the foot of Tashowa hill, and the other upon 
it ; the former weighed about 20 pounds, and the latter 36 1-2 pounds ; 
they made deep holes in the ground. At the last explosion, a mass of 
stone was projected, which must have weighed at least 200 pounds ; it 
descended with a roaring noise, and a visible eurve of light ; struck a rock 
with a great concussion, dashed it, and was itself dashed in pieces, tearing 
a hole in the ground, on to which it glanced, of 5 feet long, 3 feet deep, 
■and 4 1-2 wide. In all the instances there was a whizzing or roaring noise 
in the air, when the stones descended, and an evident concussion of the 
ground, when they struck. All the most important facts were witnessed 
by numbers of people, who never before heard of the falling of stones from 
the atmosphere. 

Since this event, a large stone of between one and two hundred pounds 
weight has fallen in Russia, and, on the whole, there is much reason to be- 
lieve that similar events occur almost every year, and probably have oc- 
curred from the remotest ages. 

There is such a wonderful similarity in the appearance and composition 
of these stones, that they are completely different from any other, and yet 
so similar to one another, that they are readily recognized by the eye of 

VOL. II. 51 



402 ' NOTES. 

even a careless observer. Those which have fallen in the remotest coun- 
tries, in the East Indies, in Europe, and America, are almost precisely a- 
like in their external appearance, and chemical constitution. 

Where they have not been too much broken to admit of its being ob- 
served, they are covered externally with a black crust, rough like sha- 
green, and proceeding, in all probability, from the effects of heat, in pro- 
ducing an oxygenizement and vitrification of the metallic and earthy sub- 
stances. In their form, they are irregular, but they often exhibit spherical 
and commonly curvilinear figures. When they first fall, they often smell 
of sulphur, and are found to be hot if immediately examined. When brok- 
en, four distinct sorts or forms of substances may be discovered in them, 
either by the naked eye, or by the microscope. 

1. Globular and spherical bodies, of a dark brown, or gray colour, hard 
enough to scratch glass, and to give a few faint sparks with steel ; easily 
breaking under the hammer, and of a compact texture. They are of every 
size, from that of a grain of sand, to that of a pea. They lie imbedded in 
the mass of stone which appears generally of an ash gray, or light slate 
colour. 

2. There are numerous and often highly brilliant points of pyrites of a 
redish yellow colour, very friable, and, when powdered, appearing black. 

3. Portions of iron in the metallic state, dispersed promiscuously, like 
the pyrites, through the stone, and varying in size, from mere points to the 
magnitude of an inch or more. 

4. The basis of the whole stone, that which connects all the other sub- 
stances, and from which they may be detached by the point of a knife, is a 
granular earthy matter of an ash-gray colour, often inclining to slate, easi- 
ly pulverized by the hammer and pestle, and, when in small pieces, with- 
out much difficulty between the fingers. There is, of course, a considera- 
ble variety in the distribution and proportion of the constituent substance, 
in the earthy cement, and, when it has been wet, spots of iron rust often 
appear upon the surface. The specific gravity varies from 3.352 to 4.281. 

In the stones which fell at Weston, there was a considerable variety in 
the appearance of the earthy cement ; some parts of it were light coloured, 
almost white, and of regular forms, as if those parts had once been a crys- 
tallized substance. In the composition of these stones there is such a sur- 
prising coincidence, as, in connection with their physical characters, and 
the phenomena which attend their appearance, must render it in the high-. 
est degree probable that they have a similar origin. According to Mr. 
Howard, a stone, which fell at Benares, consisted, in its different parts, of 
the following ingredients : 



. , J 10.5 ir< 
I ne pyrites contained, < , „ 
rj ) 1.0 n: 



f 2.0 sulphur, 

on, 

ckel, 
I 2.0 earths, and foreign bodies. 



15,5 



NOTES. 403 



("50.0 silex, 
I 15.0 

1 



The spherical bodies, ^ JJjj ^oHron, 
2.5 oxide of nickel. 



107.5 

f48.0 silex r 
18.0 magnesia, 



The earthy cement, *( _ . ' S ».. 

J j 34.0 oxide of iron, 

\ 2.5 oxide of nickel. 

The stone of Yorkshire, when deprived as much as possible of metallic 

masses, gave Mr. Howard the following proportions in 150 grains : 

75 silex, 

37 magnesia, 

48 oxide of iron, 

2 oxide of nickel. 

162 
The increase of weight was occasioned by the addition of oxygen to the 
metals. 

The stones of L'Aigle yielded to Vauquelin and Fourcroy : 
54 silex, 
36 oxide of iron, 
9 magnesia-, 

3 oxide of nickel, 
2 sulphur, 

1 lime. 

105 
The stone of Ensisheim gave the same analysts ; 
56.0 silex, 
30.0 oxide of iron, 
12.0 magnesia, 

2.4 nickel, 

3.5 sulphur, 
1.4 lime. 



105.3 
The stones which fell at Weston, in 1807, gave, according to my analysis, 
51.5 silex, 
38. oxide of iron, 
13. magnesia, . 
1.5 oxide of nickel, 
1. sulphur. 



105 
Thus we see that the stones consist, invariably, of silex, iron, magnesia, 
nickel, and sulphur ; the silex constitutes generally about one half; — the 



404 NOTES. 

iron from a quarter to a third, and sometimes more ; the magnesia from a 
tenth to a sixth, and that the sulphur and nickel are in very small pro- 
portion. * 

The lime mentioned in two of the analyses is probably accidental, and the " 
existence of chrome has been asserted by Laugier, but this has not been 
confirmed by other chemists. 

As to the origin of these bodies, the subject is involved in such obscuri- 
ty that no satisfactory conjecture, not to say hypothesis or theory, has been 
as yet advanced. There is, however, some difference in the degrees of im- 
probability, attached to them respectively. All that deserve any attention 
may be included under the following heads : 

1. The meteoric stones are formed in the atmosphere. 

2. They are thrown from the volcanoes of this earth. 

3. They are ejected from those of the moon. 

4. They are thrown from terrestrial comets. 

The mere existence of so many hypotheses is sufficient to prove, that we 
have no real knowledge on the subject. A few remarks on each of these 
suppositions will suffice to show that it is much more easy to raise objec- 
tions than to substitute a satisfactory explanation. 

1. As to the atmospheric formation of these bodies. Of the ingredients 
found in these stones, sulphur is the only one ever known to be in the state 
of vapour, and the proportion of this found in the various meteoric stones 
that have been analysed, is extremely small. Silex* and magnesia are not 
only not volatilizable, but they are nearly infusible ; iron and nickel re- 
quire the most violent degrees of heat to become fluid, and probably can 
never have more than a momentary existence in the state of vapour, even 
in the most powerful furnaces. How is it possible then that these sub- 
stances should get into the atmosphere in the state of vapour or gas, and, 
if possible, why have they never been found in the air when it has been 
analysed ? 

Since the discovery of Mr. Davy that several of the earths have very 
combustible metallic bases, he has suggested that these bases may come 
into the atmosphere in a metallic state, and there take fire ; but, if the de- 
composition of silex had been satisfactorily effected, which it has not, still 
this explanation would be embarrassed with difficulties which must attend 
the theory of the atmospheric formation of the meteoric stones, even al- 
lowing it possible for the materials of which they are composed to exist in 
the ail', in the state of vapour or gas. 

Should they combine in the air, is it credible that they would rush from 
great distant r s to one point, and there form a large solid body ; would they 
not rather be prec.pi + ated in small masses or flakes like snow or hail ? 
Hail is never precipitated in masses weighing hundreds of pounds ; on the 
contrary, hail stones do not often exceed a few ounces in weight, and we 
have every reason to suppose that the region in which they are formed is 
often filled with aqueous vapour, where corpuscular attraction, could it 
ever exert such an extensive agency upon aeriform particles would pro- 
duce a great aggregation of matter. These difficulties are much increas- 
ed, when we consider that some of the meteors from which the stones have 



NOTES. 405 

descended, have been hundreds and sometimes thousands of feet in circum- 
ference ; this is admitted by the best astronomers and philosophers, and is 
capable of being satisfactorily shown from deductions drawn from their ap- 
parent diameter^ and the time that has elapsed between the extinction of 
the luminary at the explosion, and the arrival of the sound to the car of 
the observer. 

But, even waving all these difficulties, how could these meteoric bodies 
acquire their prodigious horizontal velocity ? If formed in the air, they 
would descend rapidly in lines perpendicular to the horizon ; but their 
motion is nearly horizontal, and it could not be communicated by the air ; 
for, " the progress of the most violent wind is not more than two or three 
miles in a minute — but a meteor moves several hundred — the velocity of 
sound is less than 1200 feet in a second, that of a meteor more than 20,000 
— the greatest force of gunpowder will throw a cannon ball but a very few 
miles, while a meteor is often seen to move several hundred." Other ob- 
jections might be urged against this theory, but these are sufficient to 
prove that it is untenable. 

2. Their origin from terrestrial volcanoes is still more improbable. The 
composition and appearance of the stones is different from that of any known 
volcanic substances ; the stones have fallen hundreds and even thousands 
of miles from volcanoes ; distances to which it is impossible that they 
should be conveyed, by any force that can be exerted at the surface of the 
earth, and when it is considered that the stones which have come down to 
us are merely minute portions, torn off from the great meteoric bodies, 
which have continued to move on after the rupture, and had they fallen, 
would have been of sufficient size in some instances, to have filled the cra- 
ters of the largest volcanoes, this theory must be regarded as inadmissible, 
and, indeed, at the present time, I believe it has no advocates. 

"VVe are not assuming one theory to oppose another, for, luminous me- 
teors, which have apparently exploded, and been extinguished, at the mo- 
ment when atmospheric stones have fallen, have appeared in so large a pro- 
portion of the instances that are best attested, and most minutely describ- 
ed, that, notwithstanding some cases have occurred where the stones have 
apparently proceeded from burning clouds, and no fiery globe has been ob- 
served, still these appearances were probably the effect of optical illusion, 
or of the presence of the sun's light, and we are sufficiently authorised to 
conclude that atmospheric stones proceed from luminous meteors passing 
rapidly through the air, and no theory can be satisfactory which does not 
account for both. 

3. Their ejection from lunar volcanoes, although supported by one of 
the most distinguished of the French philosophers, and countenanced prob- 
ably by a majority of the men of science in Europe, appears to be hardly 
more tenable than the two preceding theories. It is admitted to be possi- 
ble, that if a body were thrown from the moon with a force of about ten 
thousand feet in a second, it might pass the point of equal attraction, 
which is about twenty-four thousand miles from the moon's centre, and, 
then, if the earth and moon were relatively at rest, it would come in a 
right line to the earth's surface ; but, as the moon and earth are both 



S06 NOTES. 

moving forward in their respective orbits, the path described by a "body 
projected from the moon would be a curve, the result of the composition 
of the motion of the moon in her orbit, the projectile force, and the power 
of gravitation, and the body would therefore probably revolve around the 
earth ; if by any means pieces were detached from it, they would fall to 
the earth, and thus the theory appears to be possible, if we take into view 
only those insignificant portions of the meteoric bodies which come to the 
earth. Philosophers seem to have employed themselves principally in ac- 
counting- fo%these, without taking- into consideration that they are mere 
atoms of the bodies from which they have come. The body of a meteor is 
a firm compact substance, for no other could preserve the correct globular 
form in moving so rapidly through the atmosphere ; and their light is usu- 
ally well defined, so that hundreds and thousands of people who have seen 
them at once, give substantially the same account as to their apparent 
magnitude ; hence there is good reason to conclude, that the estimates 
which have been made of their magnitudes have not been much overrated. 
Dr. Herschell estimates the altitude of the lunar mountains as being gen- 
erally not more than half a mile ; now is it credible, that bodies whose 
diameter is from two or three hundred feet to half a mile, should be pro- 
jected from lunar volcanoes, and with such force as to go beyond the com- 
mon centre of attraction, and arrive in the atmosphere of the earth ? In- 
deed, if it may be permitted seriously to combat so extravagant a suppo- 
sition, would not the re-action upon the moon itself produce a violent ex- 
plosion of her own sphere, as a gun is burst by an over charge. We do 
not know the composition of the moon, and it may, for ought we know, be 
uniformly composed of silex, iron, magnesia, sulphur, and nickel, but this 
is in the highest degree improbable ; yet as the meteoric stones are all of 
similar composition, the theory implies this, while we know that the lavas 
and other volcanic matters of our own earth are composed of the most va- 
rious ingredients, and are often very dissimilar from each other. 

Probably, not a year elapses without a meteor's being seen in some part 
of the world, and, had they been of lunar origin, no small part-of that sa- 
tellite would, ere this, have been shot off in meteors. 

4. Their origin from terrestrial comets, is the only one of the theories 
which remains to be considered. That the earth may be attended by 
a system of inferior satellites corresponding to the solar comets, has been 
frequently suggested by philosophers ; but we are indebted to the Rev. 
Thomas Clap, formerly president of Yale College, for an elaborate consid- 
eration, and a minute application of it to the explanation of the phenomei 
na of meteors. This gentleman left behind him a paper containing " Con- 
jectures on the nature and motion of Meteors." It was considered by its 
author as an unfinished treatise, but it was published some years after his 
decease, and although it does not appear that the learned author was ac- 
quainted with the falling of stones from the atmosphere, (for this subject 
had not then attracted the attention of philosophers,) this circumstance, 
instead of invalidating his theory, would have brought a great accession of 
strength to its support! 



NOTES. 407 

President Clap had it in view merely to account for the lire bulls usually 
denominated meteors. 

The explanation was founded upon an analogy drawn from the solar 
comets— particularly, from the eccentricity of their orbits, their conse- 
quent near approach to the sun in their perihelion, their prodigious dis- 
tance at their aphelion, and the long course of time, in some instances hun- 
dreds of years, which they take to accomplish their revolutions. " Presi- 
dent Clap supposed (see Professor Day's View) that the earth is furnished 
with its system of comets, as well as the sun— that their size, and the pe- 
riod of their revolutions are proportioned to the comparative smallncss of 
the primary body, about which they revolve— that, like the solar comets, they 
move off in very elliptical orbits ; and, during the greatest part of their 
circuit, are too far distant to be visible— that, in their approach to the 
earth, they fall within our atmosphere— that, by the friction of the air, 
they are heated, and highly electrified— that the electricity is discharged 
with a very violent report — that they then move off in their orbits, and, by 
their great velocity, are soon carried out of our sight." 

The appearance of the meteors is such as corresponds very well with this 
view of the subject. 

The dimensions of these bodies, the rapidity of their motion, the direc- 
tion of their course, the proportion which they bear in size to their central 
body the earth, being about the same as the little planets, recently discov- 
ered between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, have to the sun, iibout which 
they revolve, all accord perfectly well with the supposition of planetary 
bodies moving throug-h the lower part of their orbits, and not at all with 
what might be expected from matter falling from condensed gases or va- 
pours, or projected from lunar or terrestrial volcanoes. 

It is calculated, that if a body, moving horizontally near the earth, have 
a velocity of less than 300 miles in a minute, it must full to the earth — if 
of more than 430, it will, if undisturbed by other bodies, fly of in an hy- 
perbola, and will never return. 

Adequate allowance being made for the resistance of the air, and the 
motion of the earth, a body will, within these limits, revolve around the 
earth in an ellipsis, and return at regular periods. 

Now, it is very remarkable that the velocity of such meteors as have 
been observed is generally radier more than j'30 miles in a minute, that is, 
just enough to carry them clear of the earth and yet so small as to bring 
them within its atmosphere, while moving through the lower pai ts of then- 
orbits. 

Granting the existence of these bodies, and, that their motion is such as 
has been described, it is easy to see that any cause which might produce a 
rupture or explosion of a part of their substance, might, very naturally, 
throw fragments to the ground, and the circumstances which have, "in nu- 
merous instances, actually attended their descent ; — its rapidity, proved by 
the holes which they make in the earth, the whizzing or roaring noise, and 
the violent concussion; its ir regularity, the fkigroents being scattered over 
several miles of territory, which is what we might expect fioni the effect 
of a violent explosion ; its happening immediately after explosions aetuam 



408 NOTE^. 

heard from the fire ball and after the extinction of its light, and the minute 
pi-oportion which the fragments bear to the whole body of the meteor ;— all 
these circumstances considered together cannot leave a doubt that in nu- 
merous instances, at least, the stones have been thrown off from a large sol- 
id body moving rapidly through the atmosphere. But, the stones bear no 
sensible proportion to the whole meteoric mass, and this must be supposed 
to move on in its orbit, scarcely disturbed by the trifling loss which it has 
sustained, and no longer luminous, because the heat aud electricity have 
been, in a great measure, dissipated by the explosion. 

There is nothing inconsistent with analogy in supposing the existence of 
numerous small planetary bodies in the solar system ; they may be neces- 
sary to adjust the balances of motion and attraction, and they may well 
enough be of an uniform and sterile composition, since no analogy would 
lead us to suppose them inhabited, or even habitable. This conjecture de- 
rives confirmation from the discovery within a few years past, of several 
very small planets, in the solar systom, where they had never been sus- 
pected before. 

Upon this view of the subject, it is highly probable that meteoric stones 
have fallen, in every age of the world, and that this phenomenon will fre- 
quently occur again. 

The theory of president Clap, with the addition which has now been 
stated, appears to be liable to only two objections, of much importance. 

It may be said, that it does not account for such appearances as that of 
Sienna, and a few similar ones, where the stones have seemed to proceed 
from a burning cloud. Under such circumstances of terror and amaze- 
ment, there is much room for optical deception, and perhaps we are not 
justified in concluding, that a meteor may not illuminate a cloud, by which 
it is in part concealed. 

The other objection is founded on the apparent inadequacy of the cause 
assigned by president Clap, for the ignition of the meteors ; it remains yet 
to be proved, that mere friction with the air is sufficient to produce strong 
ignition in a solid body, or to excite electricity enough to generate that 
triiect, and the attendant explosion. 

The explosion might however be owing, not merely to an electrical dis- 
charge, but also to the expansive force of vapour and gases, suddenly and 
powerfully rarefied by heat. 

With these qualifications, the origin of meteoric stones seems to be bet- 
ter explained upon this, than upon any other scheme, but, as yet it can be 
regarded only in the light of an hypothesis, recommended by the felicity 
with which it explains most of the phenomena. Should one of the meteors 
ever approach the earth, without sufficient projectile force to carry it clear 
wf our planet ; its fall would be inevitable, and tiiose philosophers who are 
so happy as to witness such a catastrophe, uninjured, will have better 
means than we now possess, for constructing a satisfactory theory on this 
obscure, but highly interesting subject. 



NOTES. 409 

AUTHORITIES FOR THE PRECEDING STATEMENTS 

Clap on Meteors. King on Meteoric Stones. Izam on the same. Nich- 
olson's Journal, vol. II. 213, &c. ; vol. III. 99, 8cc. ; vol. VI. 188, &c. octavo 
series. Philosophical Magazine, vol. XV. 289 ; vol. XVI. 293 ; vol. XVII. 
229 ; vol. XX. 372. Philosophical Transactions, abridged, vol. VI. 99, &c. 
bavallo's Philosophy, vol. IV. 375, &c. Gregory's Economy, &c. vol. I. 
508, Sec, Edinburgh Review, vol. IX. 76, &c. Medical Repository, Sept. 
1808, p. 184. Philadelphia Philosophical Transactions. Memoirs of Con- 
necticut Academy. 

JVote 37, page 110. Gallic Acid. 
The due regulation of the heat is very important in this, methed of ob- 
taining gallic acid. A moderate sand-heat is sufficient, and the retort 
must be removed from the fire at the moment when a dark coloured oil 
begins to rise, or before, because this oil will redissolve, or greatly con- 
taminate the crystals of gallic acid. 

Note 3S, page 149. Congelation of Alcohol. 
The congelation of alcohol was mentioned in a former note ; it is to be 
regretted that we are not able to give the process by which this was effect- 
ed ; this, if published at all, it is believed has not yet reached this country. 
There are, however, a few facts relative to the appearances attending the 
congelation, which are worthy of notice. The alcohol was prepared ac- 
cording to Richter's process, and was of the specific gravity .798 at 62° ; 
it was enclosed in a thermometer tube, in which it was congealed. This 
was afterwards effected in a tube sealed at one end and open at the other ; 
the alcohol was so far congealed, that on inverting the tube, only a very 
minute stream of fluid glided down the inside of the tube, and, eventually, 
the solid alcohol fell out into a^glass, was broken into several pieces, and 
quickly melted ; in subsequent experiments the alcohol was so completely 
solidified, that no portion of it remained fluid. It was, found that solid 
masses of alcohol could be soldered together ; — in the paradoxical lan- 
guage of the discoverer, (Mr. Hutton of Edinburgh,) " a rod of frozen mer- 
cury or sometimes a straw cooled down to a very low temperature," was 
used as "a hot bath" for the purpose of fusing the frozen alcohol so as to 
admit of its being soldered. Mr. Hutton remarked that the alcohol crys- 
tallized, and that it sometimes separated into three very distinct strata ; 
the uppermost was of a pale yellowish green, while the second was of a 
very pale yellow colour : both these strata were very thin, the last men- 
tioned was rather the thickest ; the lowermost stratum was nearly trans- 
parent, and colourless, and very greatly exceeded the other two in quanti- 
ty." In order to ascertain whether these appearances arose from a decom- 
position of the alcohol, Mr. Hutton mingled the results of several process- 
es, such as have been described, and heated them to about 120° by means 
ef a water bath, by which means a perfect alcohol was reproduced. He 
therefore concluded that these appearances were owing to impurities, 
which accounted also for a difference in the forms of the crystals which 
had been obscured in different experiments. Mr. Hutton concludes that 
vol. ir. 52 



410 NOTES. 

the lowermost stratum contains the true alcohol, and that the other tw* 
contain, chiefly, volatile impurities, which can be separated only by freez- 
ing, and that it is to these that the alcohol owes its peculiar flavour. 

Note 39, page 220. On the Artificial Preparation of Mineral Waters. 
It is only within the last half century, that a correct knowledge of the 
nature of mineral waters has been obtained. Their utility in a variety of 
diseases has been proved by the uniform experience of mankind from remote 
ages ; even savage nations know that there is a very great diversity in the 
qualities and effects of different natural waters, and they are accustomed to 
make use of them for not a few of the same purposes that we do. The most 
powerful and celebrated mineral spring of this country, was known to the 
Indians in its vicinity, and they first pointed it out to the white people. Be- 
fore the composition of mineral waters was understood, their efficacy wa* 
imputed in a great degree, to a supposed fermentation in the bowels of the 
earth and to some volatile principles, too subtile to be detected by the art 
of man. The notions concerning them were visionary and fanciful, and 
bordered, not a little, on superstition. 

It is not the least, among the attainments of modern chemistry, that more 
correct views of this subject have been acquired, and that the exact analy- 
sis of all the most celebrated natural mineral waters has led the way to their 
artificial formation, upon principles of science and common sense. 

To the illustrious Bergman we are indebted for some of the earliest prac- 
tical researches, and most useful directions on this subject. He analysed, 
with accuracy, several of the famous waters of Germany, and having dis- 
covered their contents, he applied himself with such ardour and success to 
effect their recomposition, that in a short time, the prepared waters were 
introduced into the remotest provinces of Sweden. The dissertations of 
Bergman on these subjects should be carefully perused by all who are en- 
gaged in these pursuits. 

Strictly speaking, all waters except rain and snow, and distilled waters 
are mineral ; because they all contain, in a greater or less degree, mineral 
substances dissolved in them ; even rain and snow water are not perfectly 
pure, and it may be doubted whether water ever is, unless distilled hi glass 
vessels, for, water which has been condensed by the pewter worm of a com- 
mon still gives a precipitate with sulphuretted hydrogen. In most natural 
springs and rivers, however, the proportion of foreign matter is so minute, 
as not materially to affect their sensible or chemical properties, and, it is 
only when this is the case that the term mineral is, with propriety, applied 
to a water. 

Although there is a very great variety in the degree and nature of the 
impregnation of different waters, they are commonly included under a few 
general divisions, according to the kind and proportion of the ingredients 
which they contain. 

They are either, 1. Salute ; 2. Chalybeate 3. Acidulous ; or, 4. He- 
patic ; the first, distinguished by the prevalence of saline ingredients, 
the second by iron, the third by carbonic acid, and the fourth by sulphu- 
retted hydrogen. This division is rather loose, as these classes are often 



NOTES. 411 

more or less mixed with one another, and there are a few substances of 
more rare occurrence, that are not included under either of them. It may 
serve however, as a guide in designating the principal varieties of operation 
that are necessary in forming the different sorts of mineral waters. It is 
almost superfluous to remark that a correct knowledge of the constitution 
of a mineral water must be attained before we can hope to succeed in pre- 
paring it artificially, and, the chemist must either perform the analysis for 
himself, or confide in that of some other person. 

I. Of Saline Watehs. The artificial preparation of this class of wa- 
ters is the most simple and easy, although their analysis is often the most 
complicated and difficult. All that is necessary is merely to weigh out 
the different salts, in the proper proportions, and dissolve them in the 
water. 

Some of these salts are sold regularly in the shops of the apothecaries. 
Such are the sulphate of soda, (Glauber's salt) the sulphate of magnesia, 
(Epsom salt) the carbonate of soda, (sal soda) &c. The muriate of soda, 
(common salt) is in every family. Sometimes these salts are sufficiently 
pure to be employed without any farther trouble, but, more generally, it 
will be necessary to redissolve and crystallize them anew. 

There are some salts which are denominated incompatible, because they 
cannot exist in the same solution without mutual decomposition ; such are 
muriate of magnesia and carbonate of soda ; were a solution of each of 
these salts to be mingled, there would be an immediate precipitation of car- 
bonate of magnesia ; and muriate of soda, alone, would remain in solution. 
Should any analyst imagine that he had discovered such salts in contem- 
poraneous existence in a mineral water, he must of course conclude that 
his analysis is erroneous, and therefore, in any attempt to form an artificial 
water, he will be careful not to mingle any such inconsistent ingredients. 

Some salts are not to be found in the shops, and therefore must be pre- 
pared on purpose. Such are muriate of lime and muriate of magnesia. — 
It is best to prepare these salts by adding the carbonates of lime and mag- 
nesia to muriatic acid diluted with one or two parts of water. For the 
former, marble powder should be used, formed by pounding in a clean 
mcrtar very white marble, and, if the powder have been previously expos- 
ed to a full red heat, till as much carbonic acid has been expelled as 
can be driven off in that way, it will dissolve with much more facility. 
Chalk may be Used, but this is apt to produce a very frothy and trouble- 
some effervescence, unless the acid is largely diluted, when the action 
will be slow ; the same remarks are applicable to the carbonate of mag- 
nesia. — As the muriates of these two bases are very deliquescent and 
difficult to be crystallized, and, as they are prone, when very much con- 
centrated, to become gelatinous, it is convenient to keep them in the flu- 
id form, in close stopped bottles. A small portion may be measured out ; 
for instance, two gills, and evaporated to dryness, and the residuum weigh- 
ed ; this will inform us how much solid salt is contained in any measured 
portion of the solution, and thus, much trouble may be saved, as the salts 
may be introduced into the water in the fluid form. There are a few salts oc- 
casionally found in mineral waters, which it maybe aikiseable not to intro- 



412 NOTES. 

duce. Such is the sulphate of lime ; it does not possess any known medi- 
cal efficacy, and it may be deposited in the system and create serious ob- 
structions. For similar reasons, it is even doubtful whether the carbonate 
of lime ought to be added to artificial waters, at least in the proportion in 
which it is often found in native mineral waters ; for, as it is dissolved in 
them only by the aid of the carbonic acid in excess, it follows that, when this 
acid, by the warmth of the system, is expelled from the water, in the course 
of its circulation, the carbonate of lime may be deposited in some of the 
cavities and prove a troublesome impediment ; especially in the kidneys, 
the gall bladder or urinary bladder, and the ducts connected with them. 
The carbonate of magnesia is liable to be affected in a similar way, and, 
although these carbonates are, both, good correctors of acidity, and, in that 
way, useful in mineral waters, they may not always meet with an acid in 
the passages, which they may neutralize, and by which they may be car- 
ried off; if they should not meet an acid in the system, they would proba- 
bly be deposited. Besides, their place, as antacids, is much more than sup- 
plied by carbonate of soda which is liable to none of these objections. In the 
composition of some mineral waters, it may therefore be adviseable to omit 
some of the ingredients and even to substitute others ; for, we are not to 
presume that the substances which a mineral water has chanced to dissolve 
in its progress among the strata, are necessarily such, either in kind or pro- 
portion, as are best adapted to cure diseases, and therefore, it is clearly 
possible that a water of great utility may be formed without imitating any 
native mineral water. Such experiments however, ought to be directed by 
medical as well as chemical science. 

Among the salts which have been discovered in mineral waters, the car- 
bonates of lime, magnesia and iron ; — the sulphates of soda, magnesia arid 
lime; the muriates of soda, lime and magnesia, and the hydro-sulphuret of 
lime are the most common, and they are those with which we have most 
to do in the preparation of artificial mineral waters. Iron is almost the only 
metal of much importance found in waters ; copper occurs, but more rare- 
ly, and it is not often that waters impregnated with it are used medicinal- 
ly, as it is so poisonous to all animals. 

II. Chalybeate Waters. Iron gives the character to this' species of 
waters, and it is almost always suspended in them by the carbonic acid.; it, 
sometimes, occurs combined with the sulphuric acid, but this fact is so rare 
that chalybeate waters are generally acidulous and sparkling, and sometimes 
they are very highly charged with the carbonic acid. The method of mak- 
ing a water chalybeate is simply this : very pure and clean iron, in the state 
of filings, is to be introduced, in the proper proportion, into water charged, 
or immediately to be charged, with carbonic acid ; the iron will be oxidiz- 
ed, in the lower degree, by the water, and then will be dissolved by the car- 
bonic acid, and the more highly the water is charged with this acid gas 
the more rapidly and in the greater proportion will it dissolve the iron. In 
estimating the proportion of the iron to be added to the water, we must al- 
low only so much as, when combined with the oxygen and carbonic acid will 
ccfual the weight of carbonate of iron found, by analysis, in the water which 
We would imitate. A small quantity of iron imparts to water such decided 



NOTES. 413 

properties that it is necessary to be very attentive to the proportion of iron. 
If the iron be in the higher state of oxygenizement, it will not dissolve in tlie 
■water impregnated with carbonic acid, and if, after solution by this acid, 
it be exposed to the atmosphere, the carbonic acid will principally es- 
cape ; the iron will pass to the state of red oxide, and will be precipitat- 
ed, a mere rust, and the chalybeate will thus be decomposed. It is there- 
fore, for both these reasons, indispensable, that artificial chalybeate waters 
be prepared and kept in air-tight vessels. It is for the same reason that 
Bergman recommends introducing the iron filings in a small bag, and di- 
rects that when the bag is removed from the mineral water vessel, it should 
be immediately plunged into clean water, by which means it will be kept 
from passing to the state of red oxide ; for, the rusting of iron in common 
cases, is effected by the joint action of water and the atmospherical oxygen. 
The method recommended by Bergman of introducing an indefinite quan- 
tity of iron filings in a bag, I have found by experience not to be so good, 
as to put in the exact quantity of iron that is wanted, for more gives the 
water too high a chalybeate impregnation, and it is apt to become turbid, 
and to have a veiy disagreeable odour, like hydrogen, and, indeed, this 
smell probably proceeds from hydrogen, condensed in the water during its 
decomposition by the iron, for the chalybeate waters are prone to have 
something of this odour. In some artificial chalybeate waters sulphate of 
iron is introduced instead of combining the iron in the manner that I have 
described. This is a great error, and, no person will ever, in that way, suc- 
ceed in imitating the native carbonated chalybeate waters. The taste and 
other sensible properties, as well as the medical effects are very different. 
Whether an artificial chalybeate, has been impregnated with the sulphate or 
carbonate of iron, may be easily decided by the same process which is ap- 
plied to natural waters of these descriptions : viz. heat the water for a 
short time ; if it is a carbonate, the iron will speedily be deposited, in the 
form of a rust, and the water will no longer give the well known precipi- 
tates with the prussiate of potash and with gallic acid. But, if a sulphate 
of iron be present, there will be little or no deposite during the heating, and 
the fluid will answer to the above mentioned tests as well as before. "When 
water is highly impregnated with carbonic acid, it acquires the chalybeate 
taste and other properties very rapidly ; the iron can be tasted within half 
an hour, after it is introduced, and twelve hours will produce a decided im- 
pregnation. Chalybeate waters are often more or less saline ; indeed they 
are usually so, and some of them are strongly impregnated with salts. 
There is no imcompatibility between the carbonate of iron and the salts most 
commonly found in chalybeate springs ; it frequently exists in company with 
the earthy carbonates and sometimes even with the carbonate of soda. In 
forming a saline chalybeate, nothing more is necessary than to mix the 
salts, in the proper proportions, with the water, then to add the iron, and 
then inject the carbonic acid without delay, and to the intended extent. 

III. Acidulous Waters. This is a highly interesting class of mineral 
waters, whose nature was entirely unknown till the discovery of carbonic 
acid assimilated them with the brisk fermented liquors, such as Cham* 
paignc wine, porter, cider, perry, &c. which owe their grateful pun;Tenc;- and 



414 NOTES. 

briskness to the same cause. There is a very great difference in the pre- 
portion of carbonic acid existing in different mineral waters ; even common 
water contains a small portion, and there are mineral springs which are im- 
pregnated with two or even three times their bulk of this acid gas. It is 
the introduction of this gas which forms the most difficult and laborious 
part of the business of preparing artificial mineral waters. It is in this de- 
partment, particularly, that modern improvements have attained a degree 
of excellence surpassing all previous conception, and producing results 
which have demonstrated that art can sometimes transcend the productions 
of nature. 

Those who have not the means of doing better, may still practise the in- 
genious, although simple, processes of Bergman. The water to be impreg- 
nated with the carbonic acid may be introduced into a bottle, which should 
be quite full, and inverted in a proper vessel ; carbonic acid, from a mix- 
ture of marble powder and dilute sulphuric acid, may then be passed up 
into the bottle, till about one third of the water is displaced ; then, one hand 
being slid under the bottle's mouth, and the other placed upon its bottom, 
the bottle must be briskly agitated ; an absorption will take place, the hand 
will be pressed fast to the bottle's mouth, it should be withdrawn under 
Water, a portion of which will rush in to supply the void, and a repetition of 
this operation, will soon saturate the water as far as it can be at the given 
temperature, and under the given pressure of the atmosphere. The water, 
thus impregnated, will have a mildly pungent and acidulous taste, and will 
sparkle when poured into a tumbler. The colder the water is, the more 
gas will be absorbed. If it is wished to add any saline ingredients ; that 
can be done either before or after the impregnation with carbonic acid ; 
and iron may be added to make it a chalybeate ; for the acidulous waters 
are usually both chalybeate and saline. Although, by the means which 
have just been described, water can be impregnated as highly as it conv 
monly is, in the natural acidulous waters, the impregnation may be carried 
much farther by peculiar contrivances and maniplations. I do not allude to 
the apparatus of Nooth or Priestly, which, although elegant and showy, and 
sufficiently powerful for the experimental illustrations of a lecture, is alto- 
gether improper for operations on a large scale and where it is desired 
to apply a great degree of force to effect the combination. The princi- 
pal means by which water is charged with the amazing quantities of car-, 
bonic acid gas which are, now, introduced into it, may be reduced to three 
heads. 

1. Pressure. 2. Com. 3. Agitation. — All these are combined in the 
most perfect manufactories of mineral waters, and some observations will 
be necessary on each of these heads. 

1. Pressure. This is applied by means of strong forcing pumps which 
may be worked either by hand alone, by the hands aided by a lever, by a 
wheel, by coggs and cranks, or any other convenient mechanical power, 
and if the strength of men be not sufficient, that of horses may be applied, 
and even water, wind, and steam may be called in to our aid. This is how- 
ever, by no means necessary. A strong man, after becoming accustomed to 
|he exertion, will inject as much gas as will impart to the waters a degree 



NOTES. 4! 5 

of activity far surpassing 1 any thing which they ever possess in nature. As 
this impregnation depends entirely on the pressure which is applied to the 
eas to force it into union with the water, it is obvious that the containing 
vessels must possess a degree of strength proportioned to the force which 
is to be applied. Glass is entirely improper, however thick, and apparently 
strong*, because an explosion, which is no uncommon accident in these ope- 
rations, would be attended with the most hazardous consequences. The 
Vessels must therefore be made of wood or metal. Very strong casks of 
oak, made of the very best timber, and constructed in the most careful 
manner, are the most proper instruments, if we regard, primarily, the purity 
of the waters and the health of those who use them. The casks must be 
very strongly bound and guarded with iron hoops and strong iron bars in 
every direction ; they must be furnished with an internal apparatus for agi- 
tation, or they must rotate on an axis to effect the same object. Their 
strength must be such that they will not strain so as to produce cracks, or 
even the smallest aperture, for absolute tightness is indispensable to suc- 
cess. In an apparatus of this kind, water may be combined with four or 
five times its bulk of carbonic acid gas, and it then dissolves iron with 
considerable rapidity, and the carbonates of lime and magnesia are also 
taken up by the excess of carbonic acid. 

The containing vessel may be made of copper, tinned on the inside, and 
secured by being enclosed in a strong iron bound cask. This structure has 
the advantage of greater strength and tightness, and of being repaired with 
less difficulty than vessels made of wood. The only objection against it 
arises from the great tendency which copper has to become corroded by- 
most chemical agents ; the tin is a partial protection, but there is reason to 
Fear that in the course of some time, the tin will become so thin as not to 
protect the copper, and thus a deleterious impregnation may get into the 
water. 

2. Cold. With a given pressure more gas will be combined with water 
the colder it is kept during the operation. Therefore, the containing ves- 
sels should, if possible, be surrounded with ice during the impregnation, or 
immersed in cold water. If the vessels have been suffered to lie in an ice 
kouse and thus to become ice cold, it will greatly facilitate the combination. 

3. Agitation. Most of the remarks under this head have been already 
anticipated. Agitation is necessary in order to bring the water and gas 
into complete mixture, and to mingle water that is more highly saturated 
with that which is less so, that thus there may be an equal distribution of 
principles, which, without agitation, it would take much longer to effect. 
At the end of the operation the water in the containing vessel exists under 
a prodigious pressure. In order to create fountains of mineral waters, 
nothing more is necessary than to connect a proper tube with the contain- 
ing vessel, and let it pass into an upper room and terminate in any conve- 
nient or ornamental jet, furnished with a stop-cock. This apparatus should 
fee made of materials that will not contaminate the water. On opening the 
stop-cocks, the water will, of course, be discharged with a velocity propor- 
tioned directly to the pressure in the containing vessel, and inversely to the 
distance which the water has to ascend. By means of a peculiar contrivance 



416 NOTES. 

the impregnated water can be transferred from the containing' vessel into 
bottles, still retaining nearly all the pressure which it had in the vessel f 
consequently, when the bottles are opened, the fluid will fly or sparkle as 
the fermented liquors do. Glass bottles are not strong enough for this pur- 
pose, and the stone ware bottles of this country are not sufficiently firm in 
their texture to contain the impregnated water ; ,the pressure forces it 
llirough the sides of the bottle upon which it appears like a dew. The bot- 
tles made for this purpose in London are entirely impervious. 

IV. Hepatic Waters. 

Waters of this description are so extremely offensive, on account of the 
fetid odour which attends them, that they are rarely demanded as an article 
of manufacture. On account of the action which they exert on most me- 
tallic substances it is proper that only clean glass vessels should be used in 
manufacturing them ; a tub of wood not painted, may be used as a pneu- 
matic cistern. In impregnating water with sulphuretted hydrogen it is not 
necessary to employ the powerful condensing machines which have been 
mentioned. Were there no objection to the use of metallic instruments, 
still it would be unnecessary to condense into water a very large quantity 
•f a kind of gas, of which the smallest portions can hardly be borne. Wa- 
ter impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen as highly as soda water is with 
carbonic acid, would, when drawn, either from fountains or bottles, emit a 
most noxious and insupportable effluvium. To form an hepatic water, 
either a portion of the dry sulphurets of lime, soda, or potash, may be dis- 
solved in water, when it will immediately acquire the hepatic odour ; or (a 
way that is probably better) sulphuretted hydrogen gas, derived from sul- 
phuret of iron, and diluted sulphuric or muriatic acid may be passed into 
an inverted bottle containing water, in the manner that was mentioned for 
forming the acidulous waters. Agitation being used, a sulphureous water 
will be obtained, sufficiently strong for medical purposes. A sulphureous 
bath may be formed by passing a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas 
through a tub of water, taking care to agitate the water frequently. The 
gas that does not combine in its passage may be caught in an inverted jar, 
and poured from it into another, and back again, till the water is sufficiently 
impregnated. The hepatic waters frequently contain some of the ingre- 
dients of the preceding classes, and these may be added by very obvious 
means. 

In manufacturing mineral waters of every description, and especially 
those of the three first classes, care should be taken to select a natural 
water, which is, in a common sense, pure, that is, free from any peculiarity 
©f odour, taste, or colour. 

Note 40, page 272. Test for Arsenic. 
Dr. Marcet, one of the physicians to Guy's hospital, London, has invent- 
ed a new test for arsenic. His directions areas follows : " To the suspected 
fluid, previously filtered, add, first, a little dilute nitric acid, and, after- 
wards, nitrate of silver, till it shall cease to produce any precipitate. The 
muriatic acid (if any be present) being thus removed, whilst the arsenous 
acid (if any and in whatever state) remains in the fluid, the addition of 



NOTES. 417 

attimonja will instantly produce the yellow precipitate in its characteristic 
form. It is hardly necessary to add, that the quantity of ammonia must be 
sufficient to saturate any excess of nitric acid which the solution may con- 
tain. (Phil. Mag. Vol. XLI. page 124.) 

The yellow precipitate here mentioned, is a compound of white oxide of 
arsenic, or arsenous acid with oxide of silver ; the use of the ammonia is 
to form an arsenite of ammonia, which, by double decomposition with nitrate 
of silver, affords arsenite of silver, and nitrate of ammonia, which last re- 
mains in solution, while the arsenite of silver is precipitated. The nitric 
acid is added, to prevent the arsenite of silver, which is soluble in nitric 
acid, from being precipitated in mixture with muriate of silver, when mu- 
riatic acid is present ; if this latter acid is not present, there is no occasion 
to add nitric acid. " The addition of ammonia is necessary because arsenic 
acid alone cannot decompose nitrate of silver ; but in Fowler's solution, in 
which the arsenic is already combined with an alkali, the decomposition 
takes place at once without any addition of ammonia. The fixed alkalis 
can therefore answer a similar purpose ; but ammonia has this sdvantage, 
that it does not, when added singly, decompose nitrate of silver, a circum- 
stance, which, in using the fixed alkalis, might occasion some confusion.'-' 
" The quantity of ammonia must not be too large, for in that case the pre~ 
cipitate is re-dissolved. But, even then, it may be made to re-appear by the 
addition of nitric acid in sufficient quantity to saturate the alkali. In this 
case however the precipitate is not permanent, owing to its being soluble 
in the nitrate of ammonia, which is formed in the process. Carbonate of 
ammonia has also the power of producing and re-dissolving the precipitate. 
" The fixed alkalis in excess, have not the power of re-dissolving the pre- 
cipitate." 

APPENDIX TO THE NOTES. 

lode or Violaceous Gas. 

I subjoin an account of this new substance from professor Cooper's Bm ; 
Jjorium, No. 5, page 175, having seen nothing more extensive on the subject. 

Iobe or Violaceous Gas. The Royal Society met, after the holidays, 
when a paper from Sir H. Davy was read, describing a new and important; 
discovery. About two years ago, a Parisian manufacturer of salt petre, 
using all kinds of sea weed as a substitute for barilla, discovered that his 
vessels were excessively corroded by a particular substance of a beautiful 
violet colour ; he communicated the fact to some Paris chemists, but no 
particular notice was taken of it, until Sir H. Davy went to Paris. 

This new substance is easily procured, by pouring sulphuric acid on the 
residuum of sea weed, after the carbonate of soda has been extracted. It 
appears that all the vegetable products of the sea shore yield it when thus 
treated. By pouring the acid on the residuary ashes of the sea weed, this 
Hew and most beautiful violet coloured gas is obtained. 

The French propose calling it iode gas (from the Greek word ion, violet) 
but Sir H. Davy prefers the term violaceous gas, as most suitable to Eng- 
lish phraseology ; its combination with hydrogen he agrees may be called 
hydro-iodic-gas, Sec. Its properties are equally important to the scientific 
•hemist and manufacturer, as a dye and pigment. It is the heaviest known 
gas ; 100 cubic inches of it weigh 95 — 5 grains ; it is easily disengaged at 
the temperature of 156° ; at a low one, it condenses into fine violet colour- 
ed crystals ; it is rapidly absorbed by the metals, unit big- with, iron, mercu- 

■vol. ii. 53 



418 NOTES. 

# 

ry, tin, lead and zinc, and changing them into salts of the most beautiful 
tints of yellow, orange, and brown. It has many analogies with oxygen, 
the alkalis, and chlorine or oxymuriatic acid, ^ike the alkalis, it has great 
affinity to oxygen, from which it can be expelled by heat ; it experiences 
no change by the action of the voltaic pile, yet rapidly combines with phos- 
phorus, hydrogen, and all the muriates ; it is a non-conductor, is very 
slightly combustible, yet it is a supporter of combustion. It is so easily 
united with all the common metals, and converts them into such fine pig- 
ments, that, before as many months elapse in this country (England) after 
its discovery, as years have done in Paris, it will be prepared by all our 
colour manufacturers, and used by our cabinet makers, wood stainers, and 
dyers. The existence of this substance tends to support an opinion of Sir 
H. Davy, that acids and alkalis do not depend on any peculiar acidifying 
principle, but on certain modifications of matter. All the iodats of iron 
and zinc are soluble in ether and spirits of wine, and many of them in water. 

New Explosive Compound. 

It is some time since we were informed in this country, that a new explo- 
sive compound had been discovered at Cambridge in England, by Mr. Bur- 
ton ; that it was formed by the action of nitrate of ammonia in solution, 
upon oxy-imiriatic acid gas, and that it was supposed to be a compound of 
nitrogen and oxymuriatic acid ; its explosive powers were said to be of the 
most terrible kind, and the chemical world heard, with much concern, that 
Sir Humphrey Davy had sustained a severe injury from it, which had en- 
dangered his sight. More recently, a very able and interesting report con- 
cerning this new substance has appeared in Nicholson's Journal, (Vol. xxxiv. 
page 180 and 276) and we are indebted to its authors, Messrs. R. Porrettv 
Jr. W. Wilson, and Rupert Shirk, for much curious information, some of the 
most important particulars of which will be mentioned in the following 
note. 

The compound was formed by these gentlemen by filling, over warm wa- 
ter, glass receivers of the capacity of about sixteen cubic inches, and trans- 
ferring them into small basins containing the ammoniacal saline solu- 
tions. The compound can be formed, not only from the nitrate of ammonia, 
but from the phosphate, muriate, sulphate and oxalate, and from the muri- 
ate of zinc with excess of ammonia, and from the muriate of ammonia and 
iron by sublimation. The carbonate of ammonia, triple muriate of platina 
and ammonia, and the sulphate of copper with excess of ammonia did not 
afford it. Its formation was prevented by sulphur in solution in the ammo- 
nia, or in powder within the receiver ; by charcoal in fine powder, adhering 
to the interior moist surface of the receiver, by carbonic acid gas, or atmo- 
spherical air equal in volume to one third the chlorine gas, or by an equal 
volume of hydrogen gas. 

It has been asserted that the compound was best formed at a temperature 
below freezing, but this proves to be erroneous ; on the contrary, it suc- 
ceeds best, if the solutions be warm ; when at 90°, it was abundantly and 
quickly formed, and more rapidly still, when the solution was at 180°. 

" As soon as the receiver of chlorine gas is placed in the solution of the 
ammoniacal salt, an absorption of the gas commences, and the solution rises 
slowly in the receiver. An action is apparent on the surface of the solution, 
which resembles small filaments reaching to the depth of about one tenth of 
an inch. These filaments, on close inspection, appe.ir to be composed of 
extremely minute bubbles of gas, ranged in a line one above another to the 
surface. When about one fourth of the gas has disappeared, some of the 
explosive compound may generally be observed on the surface of the solu- 
tion in a thin film ; the surface then looks oily, and appears divided so as to 
give the idea of a map. As the solution rises in the receiver, the. quantity 
of the explosive compound inpreases ; and it then collects into one or two- 
flattened globules, which, when they become very bulky, fall through the so- 
lution to the bottom. The whole of the gas is absorbed. The solution, 
after the formation of the compound, contains free muriatic acid, and also 



NOTES. 419 

some of the compound in solution, if we may judge from its smell and yel- 
low colour." The authors of the memoir before us reason upon the hy- 
pothesis of Sir Humphrey Davy respecting 1 chlorine, and say, that the 
chlorine gas is in part absorbed by the solution, " and there decomposes the 
ammonia of the salt, by combining with its hydrogen (with which it forms 
muriatic acid) and sets free its azote, to combine with another part of the 
chlorine, with which it forms the explosive compound." Upon the old hy- 
pothesis we should say, that the oxygen of part of the oxymuriatic acid com- 
bines with the hydrogen of the ammonia to form water ; muriatic acid is 
thus set at liberty, while the remaining oxymuriatic acid combines with the 
nitrogen, to form the explosive compound. The two theories, therefore, 
agree in the material fact, that the compound is essentially formed between 
the oxymuriatic acid and the azote. 

The same explanation applies to other ammoniacal salts ; " the nature ojf 
the incombustible acid (with the exception of the carbonic) being of no im-. 
portance, the only use of the acid being to prevent, by engaging the ammo-, 
ma, the rapid action which the chlorine gas would exert on that alkali in an. 
uncombined state ; the existence of it in that state would also be incompati- 
ble with that of the explosive compound." This is true, notwithstanding 
that the explosive compound can be formed by confining chlorine gas over 
a solution of pure ammonia ; but, in this case, the explosive compound is 
really formed from the muriate of ammonia5 which is produced between the 
oxymuriatic acid and the ammonia, 

The result of the action of oxymuriatic acid and ammonia is different ac- 
cording to the proportions ; if " the quantity of ammonia present in a free 
state, is more than the chlorine can decompose and neutralize, the whole of 
the chlorine gas goes to the formation of muriate of ammonia, and no ex- 
plosive compound is formed, but in its stead, azotic gas is found at the ter- 
mination of the experiment, equal in volume to one third of that of the 
chlorine gas employed" — " but when the quantity of chlorine gas present, 
is more than is necessary to bring the ammonia to a neutral state ; or, which 
is still better, when the ammonia has been previously neutralized by an acid, 
the azote, instead of remaining after the experiment in a state of gas, is 
fcmnd combined with the superabundant chlorine forming the explosive 
compound." 

Some of the most important properties of the explosive compound are as 
follows : " Its colour is that of bees wax ; it is very fluid ; it sinks, although 
with extreme slowness, in a solution of red sulphate of iron. Hence we 
conclude, that it mus| be of the specific gravity of about 1.6. It disappears 
after some time, even under the surface of water, or of the solution in which 
it was formed ; but evaporates almost instantaneously when exposed to the 
air ; it then diffuses its peculiar and penetrating odour through the sur- 
rounding atmosphere, which then affects the eyes in a very painful manner, 
causing them to shed tears. Its action on the lungs, however, we conceive 
to be much milder and less prejudicial than that of chlorine gas." 

The compound is difficult to keep, on account of its volatility ; if put 
however into a glass tube about nine inches long, of which it should fill 
about half an inch from the bottom, the remaining space being nearly filled 
with the solution ; and if the tube be then hermetically sealed by the blow 
pipe, it may be preserved for a length of time, but is finally dissolved in the 
water of the solution unless the quantity of water is small. Its volatility 
renders it equally difficult to transfer the compound from vessel to vessel ; 
this is best done by drawing it up into a small glass syringe, the piston of 
which may be made of wood or copper, and wrapped round with cotton ; it 
is easily ejected from the same instrument. It is very necessary, that every 
instrument employed about it should be perfectly clean, as "the smallest 
quantity of grease, oil, or other combustible matter will cause it to explode; 
and, although it ordinarily does not explode without such contact, or with- 
out a temperature of 200°, yet in a course of 200 experiments three explo- 
sions took place, whose cause was completely unknown ; therefore a mask 
•avid gloves should be worn during all experiments on this substance. 



420 KOTES. 

This compound remained fluid at — 16° ; at 160° it distilled rapidly, anal 
much gas was evolved ; it did not explode at 200°, but was nearly evaporiz- 
ed ; at 212° it exploded violently. Its exploding' temperature is thereforey. 
above 200° and not above 212°. 

The compound was easily converted into vapour when the pressure of the 
atmosphere was removed or materially diminished ; by the application of 
red hot iron to the tube containing the vapour, it exploded, and shattered 
the tube. 

The explosive compound was not altered by the current of galvanic elec- 
tricity. 

A globule of the compound was placed beneath water, in an iron ladle, 
or sometimes in a paper filter, and thus a great variety of substances were 
brought into contact with it. 

Explosions more or less violent occurred with the following substancss ;— 

Super-sulphuretted hydrogen formed by adding hydroguretted sulphuret 
of potash to muriatic acid. 

Phosphuret of lime, phosphorus, (extremely violent,) caoutchouc, myrrh, 
phosphorus dissolved in liquid, sulphuretted hydrogen, phosphuretted cam- 
phor, palm oil, ambergris, whale oil, olive oil, do. camphoretted, do. sul- 
phuretted, do. thickened by boiling on oxide of mercury, linseed oil, oil of 
turpentine, oil of tar, do. of amber, do. of petroleum, do. of orange peel, 
various metallic soaps as of silver, copper and lead, and manganese, pure 
fiised potash (owing to the heat produced by combining with the water,) 
solution of pure ammonia, phosphuretted hydrogen gas, sulphuretted do. 
arsenic melted do. oxygen gas, nitrous gas. (A peculiar apparatus was used 
to bring it into contact with gases.) 

Combustible bodies act on this compound with the most energy ; there 
are however some exceptions, as in the case of ether and alcohol. 

The effects appear to be owing principally to chlorine in a very condens- 
ed state, and in weak chemical union ; they resemble those produced by the 
gas separated from oxymuriate of potash by strong sulphuric acid. 

There are some combustible bodies, which unite with this compound 
^vithout decomposition, of which camphor is a remarkable instance. 

Animal substances appear to act with less energy than the analogous vege- 
table ones, of which adipocire, spermaceti, butter and lard are examples. 

Earthy salts do not explode with it ; among the metallic ones those form- 
ed from the nitric salts do, and those from the muriatic salts do not explode. 

Our limits will not permit us to introduce the statapnents and reasonings 
of the ingenious authors of the memoir now under consideration ; their gen- 
eral conclusions are, that the compound consists of a large quantity of chlo- 
rine gas very much condensed, and in union with a small quantity of nitro- 
gen ; they think they find reason to conclude also that hydrogen enters into 
the composition of the compound, and they admit that it is possible oxygen 
also does. 

The subject is very curious, and serves to admonish us that we may be, 
and probably are, very far from having discovered all the active and even 
dangerous compounds, of which, under various modifications, matter is 
•Susceptible. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



[The following' Index refers only to the original work, and not to the 
Notes of Professor Silliman, which are noticed only in the Table of Contents 
at the beginning of each vol.] 



A. 

Acetate of alumine, ii. 161 
ammonia, ii. 160 
barytes, ii. 160, 230 
copper, ii. 53, 159, 290 
iron, ii. 61 
lead, ii. 71, 229 
lime, ii. 160 
«aagnesia, ii. 161 
potash, ii. 158, 160, 28,3 
silver, ii. 228 
soda, ii. 160 
strontites, ii. 161 
tin, ii. 68 
zinc, ii. 74 
Acetic acid, ii. 157 

obtained from wood, ii, 

158 
specific gravity no test 
of its strength, ii. 159 
properties of, ii. 160 
mode of ascertaining the 
purity of, ii. 278 
Acetous acid, ii. 157 

mode of ascertaining 
the purity of, ii. 27'9' 
Acids, general properties of, i. 207 
all contain oxygen, i. 207 
terminology of, i. 208 
metals oxidized b)', ii. 15 
native vegetable enumerated, 

ii. 107 
specific gravity not always a 
test of the strength of, ii. 
159 
found minimal substances, ii. 

178 
tests of, ii. 235 
quantity of taken up by alka- 
lis and earths, ii. 374 
quantity of alkalis and earths 
taken up by, ii. 374 
Acid, acetic, ii. 157, 278 
acetous, ii. 157, 279 
amniotic, ii. 179 
arsenic, ii. 81 
arsenous, ii. 81 
benzoic, ii. 116, 280 
boracic, i. 324 ; ii. 279 
camphoric, ii. 121 
carbonic, i. 216 
chromic, ii. 87 



Acid, citric, ii. 107 

columbic, ii. 93 

fluoboric, i. 329 

fluoric, i. 327 

formic, ii. 183 

gallic, ii. 110 

glacial sulphuric, ii. 56 

hydrothionic, i. 261 

laccic, ii. 117 

lactic, ii. 180, 199 

lithic, ii. 178 

malic, ii. Ill 

mellitic, ii. 143 

molybdenic, ii. 88 

moroxylic, ii. 117 

muriatic, i. 294 ; ii. 278, 385 
sulphuretted, i. 308 

murio-phosphoric, i. 308, 317 

murio-phosphorous, i. 308, 321 

murio-sulphuric, i. 315 

nitric, i. 270 ; ii. 179, 278 

nitro-muriatic, i. 314 

nitro-sulphuric, ii. 39 

nitrous, i. 283 ; ii. 179, 278 

oxalic, ii. 104, 117, 225- 

oxymuriatic, i. 294, 305, 309 j 
ii. 385 

oxy-nitric, i. 269 

phosphoric, i. 317, 318 ; ii. 117 

phosphorous, i. 317, 320 

prussic, ii. 117, 182 

pyro-ligneous, ii. 127, 158 

pyro-tartaric, ii. 114 

rosacic, ii. 179 

saccholactic, ii. 180 

sebacic, ii. 181 

suberic, ii. 139 

succinic, ii. 122, 279 

sulphuric, i. 242, 286 ,- ii. 55, 
224, 277, 350 

sulphurous, i. 246 

tartaric, ii. 112, 279 

uric, ii. 178 

zoonic, ii. 183 
Acidula, ii. 107 note, 117 
AcHpocire, ii. 177 
Adopter, i. 32, 332 
Aeriform bodies. See Gases. 
Affinity, chemical. See Chemical 
Affinity, 
of aggregation, i. 38, 47 
elective, i. 51, 71, 72 



422 



INDEX. 



Affinity, double elective, i. 64, 72 
resulting, i. 59 
elementary, i. 59 
disposing, i. 60 
complex, i. 64, 72 
quiescent, i. 65 
divellent, i. 66 
simple, table of, ii. 381, 384 
Agriculture, application of chemis- 
try to, i. 17 ; ii. 295 
Air, expansion of, by heate, ii. 359 
Albumen, properties of, ii. 166 

tests of, ii. 166, 168, 169 
not chemically altered by 

heat, ii. 167 
cause of the coagulation of, 
ii. 169 
Alcohol, preparation of, ii. 146 

properties of, ii. 147 — 152 
mixtures of water with,ii.l48 
combustion of, ii. 148, 150 
expansion of, ii. 148 
substances soluble in, ii. 149 
solubility of salts in, 'i. 149 
decomposition of, ii. 150 
composition of, ii. 150 
analysis of, ii. 150, 151 
action of acids on, ii. 151 
«se of, as a test, ii. 235 
mode of ascertaining its pu« 

rity, ii. 291 
and water, specific gravity of 
' different mixtures of,ii.349 
solubility of substances in, ii. 

371 
substances insoluble in,ii.371 
sulphurized, i. 240 
Alembic, i. 31, 331 , 
Algaroth, powder of, ii. 78 
Alkali, silicated, i. 200 

volatile. See Ammonia. 
Alkalis, properties of, i. 173 

analysis of the fixed, i. 174 

volatile i. 185 
action of, on metals, ii. 19 
use of, as tests, ii. 226 
tests of, ii. 235 
Alhijs, ii. 22, 26 

apt to separate when in fusion, 

ii. 26 
terminology of, ii. 26 
qualities of the metals altered 
in, ii. 27 
Alum, i. 255 

component parts of, i. 255 
mode of ascertaining the pu- 
rity of, ii. 284 
Ahimine, attempt to decompose, .i. 
193, 203 
method of obtaining, i, 201 
its properties, i. 202 



Alwmine, carbonate of, i. 233 
sulphate of, i. 255 

tests of, ii.23g 
sulphite of, i. 259 
nitrate of, i. 292 
muriate of, i. 304 
acetate of, ii. 161 
tests of salts of, ii. 235 
Alumium, i. 203 
Amalgams, ii. 26, 43, 66, 67 
Amber, ii. 122 

acid of. See Succinic Acid. 
Ambergris, ii. 176 

Ammonia, preparation and qualities 
of, i. 185; ii. 316 
specific gravity of, i. 185 
analysis of, i. 186 
may be inflamed when mix- 
ed with oxygen, i. 187 
decomposition of, by po- 
tassium, i. 188 ; ii. 316 
its base forms an amalgam 

with mercury, i. 189 
liature of this amalgam, i. 

190; ii. 3' R 
sub-carbonate of, i. 226— 
mode of preparing, i. 
227 ; ii. 316 
carbonate of, i. 226, 228— 
its use as a test, ii. 226 
—mode of ascertaining its 
purity, and that of its 
solution, ii. 281 
sulphate of, i. 250 
sulphite of, i. 259 
hydro-sulphuret of, i. 264 
— its use as a test, ii. 235 
hydroguretted sulphuret 

of, i. 266 
nitrate of, i. 290 
muriate of, i. 301 ; ii. 175 
mode of ascer- 
taining its purity, ii. 283 
hyper-oxymuriate of, i. 313 
solution of copper in, ii. 53 
oxalate of, ii. 105 

important as a 
test of lime, ii. 105 
citrate of, ii. 109 
acetate of, ii. 160 
fluate of, ii. 226 
use of, as a test, ii. 226 
succinate of, as a test,ii.233 
tests of, ii. 235 
solution of, method of as- 
certaining its purity, ii, 
281 
formation of, from charcoal 

and pearlash, ii. 316 
does not contain oxygen, ii. 
317 



lttDEX. 



423 



.Animonia, quantity of, in Solutions of Arsenic, acid, mode of obtaining, ii. 



different densities, ii. 350 
Ammoniaco, magnesian sulphate,i.255 
Ammonium, i. 190 
Amniotic acid, ii. 179 
Amnios, liquor of the, ii. 202 
Analysis of earths and stones, ii 246 
inflammable fossils, ii. 250 
lime, ii. 295 
marls, ii. 297 
minerals in general, ii. 241 
mineral waters, ii. 220 
ores, ii. 261, 268 
salts, ii. 244 
soils, ii. 298 
Animal oil, ii. 213 

substances, ii, 162— method 
of staining black, ii. 36 — a- 
analysis of, ii. 163 — primary, 
ii. 163 — more complex, ii.183 
Anthracite, ii. 331 
Antimony, ii. 76 

oxides of, ii. 77, 78 
ignited, detonates with the 

vapour of water, ii. 77 
sulphuret of, ii. 77 
glass of, ii. 77 

mode of ascertain- 
ing its purity, ii. 285 
liver of, ii. 77 
hydro-sulphuretted oxide 

of, ii. 77 
action of acids on, ii.77, 78 
alloys of, ii. 78 
analysis of ores of, ii. 264 
tartarized, mode of ascer- 
taining its purity, ii. 28§ 
..Jtoits, acid obtained from, ii. 183 
Apparatus, chemical, i. 27, 331 
Woulfe's, i. 333 
Cuthbertson's, i. 334 
Aqua fortis, mode of ascertaining the 
purity of, ii. 278, See 
Nitric Add- 
Arbor Diana:, ii. 37 
Archil, ii. 130 

Argentine flowers of antimony, ii. 77 
Arsenates, ii. 81 

■Jlrsenic, mode of obtaining, ii. 80 
properties of, ii. 80 
tinges copper white, ii. 80 
properties of white oxide of, 

ii. 81 
sulphurets of, ii. 81 
analysis of ores of, ii. 264 
method of discovering, ii. 

269, 273 
compound of hydrogen 

with, ii. 325 
alloy of potassium with, ii. 
325 



81, 82 
properties of, ii. 82 
Arsenous acid, ii. 81 

tests of, ii. 227 
Arsenuretted hydrogen gas, ii. 82, 32§ 
Arts, application of chemistry to, i . 

19 ; ii. 291 
Asparagin, ii. 144 
Asphaltum, ii. 141 
Atmospfieric air, i. 131, 268 

weight of, i. 135 
Atoms, ultimate of bodies, weight of, 

ii. 328 
Attraction, i. 38 
Azote. See Nitrogen* 

B. 
Walloons, i. 141 
Balsams, ii. 122 
Barilla, mode of detecting the adul- ; 

teration of, ii. 292 
Barium, i. 196 

Barometer, rules for reducing gases 
to a mean height of,ii.344 
Barytes, analysis of, i. 195 

properties of, i. 195 
base of, i. 195 
carbonate of, i. 229, 251 

mode of dis- 
covering, ii. 274 
sulphate of, i. 250 
method of procuring pure, 

i. 194 
sulphite of, i. 259 
hydroguretted sulphuret ®£ 

i. 266 
nitrate of, i. 291 
muriate of, i. 303 
hyper-o-symuriate of, i. 31& 
. oxalate and super-oxalate 

of, ii. 106 
citrate of, ii. 109 
acetate of, ii. 160 [230|] 
its use as a test,ii. 
use of, as a test, ii. 227 
test of, ii. 535 
Basis, in dyeing, what, ii. 128 
Baume's hydrometer, degrees of, re- 
duced to the common standard, ii. 
349 
Bell-metal, ii. 54 
Benzoic acid, ii. 116 

mode of ascertaining 
the purity of, ii. 280 
Bile, resin of, ii. 175, 193 
of the ox, ii. 192 
peculiar matter in, ii. 193 
yellow matter of, ii. 193 
component parts of, ii. 194,191V 
of other animals, ii.- 194 
lufman, ii. 1.94 



424 



INDEX. 



Bile, calcuK of, ii. 196 
Bismuth, properties of, ii. 75 
oxide of, ii. 75 
action of acids on, ii. 75 
alloys of, ii. 76 
its fumes destroy the duc- 
tility of gold, ii. 76 
analysis of ores of, ii. 264 
Bitter principle, ii. 137 

artificially formed, 
ii. 138 
Bitumen, elastic, ii. 142 
Bitumens, ii. 140 

Black dye, for animal substances,ii.36 
vegetable substances, 
ii. 131 
Black's furnace, i. 29, 340 
Bleaching, i. 309, 314 
Blood absorbs oxygen, i. 129 
appearances of, ii. 184 
coagulation of, ii. 184, 185 
serum of, ii. 184 
serosity of, ii. 185 
erassamentum of, ii. 185 
■fibrin of, ii. 185 
red globules of, ii. 185 
action of gases on, ii. 185, 186 
effects of respiration on, ii.186 
acts on the air through the 

skin, ii. 189 
its uses in the animal econo- 
my, ii. 189 
Blow-pipe, "i. 37 

with oxygen and hydro- 
gen, i. 141 
Boiling-point, i. 101 

varied by pressure,i.l02 
of different substances, 
ii. 355 
Bolospiian phosphorus, i. 251 
Bones, ii. 212 

distillation of, ii. 213 
analysis of, ii. 213, 214 
Boracic acid, mode of obtaining\,i-325 
properties of, i. 325 
decomposition of, i. 525 
component parts of, i. 
327 1327) 

saline compounds of, i. 
compound of fluoric 

with, i. 329, 330 
test of, ii. 235 
mode of ascertaining 
the purity of, ii. 279 
Moracinm, i. 325 
Borate of soda, i. 327 ; ii. 86 

mode of ascertaining 
'"' the purity of, ii.284 

Borax, i. 324; ii. 86, 234* 
Boyle's fuming liquor, i. 266 
Brain, substance of the, ii. 218 



Brass, ii. 54 

Brazilwood, as a dye, ii. 130 

infusion of, as a test, it. 
Bronze, h>54 [223] 

Butter, ii. 197, 199 

of antimony, ii. 73 
zinc, ii. 74 
C. 
Cajeput oil, ii. 126 
Calcium i. 198 

Calculi, urinary, ii. 178, 208 [211] 
varieties of, ii. 208, 
of brutes, ii. 212 
biliary, ii. 196 
Calico-printing, ii. 129 
Calomel, ii. 42 

mode.of ascertainingjits pu- 
rity, ii. 286 
Caloric, general observations on, i. 73 
repulsive, i. 74 
expands bodies, i. 76 
tends to an equilibrium, i. 76 
moves immeasurably quick, 

in all directions, i. 77 
conducting power of bodies 

for, i. 78 
effects in which it loses its 
distinguishing properties, 
i. 78 
absorbed in liquefaction, L 

78, 97 
given out by increasing the 

density of bodies, i. 78 
not chemically combined 

when latent, i. 79 
capacity for, i. 79 
absolute quantity of, i. 80 
expands all bodies, i. 81 
its motion, i. 90 
reflection of, i. 90 
refraction of, i. 91 
absorption of, i. 92 
conductors of, i. 93 ; ii. 10 
the cause of fluidity, i. 97 
given out by liquids on be-- 

coming solid, i. 100 
evolved during the separa- 
tion of a salt from its so- 
lution, i. 101 
the cause of vapour, i. 101 
its particles repulsive, i. 103 
absorbed in evaporation,!. 104 
evolved during the condensa- 
tion of vapour, i. 105 
the whole quantity in a body 
cannot be measured, i. 106 
capacity for, i. 109 
chemically combined in gas-: 

es, i. 122 
evolved from gases by me- 
chanical pressure, i. 123 



INDEX. 



4Wj 



Caloric, generally absorbed during 
solution, i. 150 
charcoal, a very slow con- 
ductor of, i. 214 
admeasurement and effects 

of, ii. 351 
table of effects of, ii. 354 
expansion of air by, ii. 359 
liquids by,ii.360 
water by, ii. 360 
solids by, ii. 361 
glass by, ii. 361 
specific, tables of, ii. 365, 367 
free, i. 75, 81 
latent, i. 78, 98 
latent, apparatus for show- 
ing the most important 
facts respecting, i. 335 
of fluidity, i. 98 
radiant, i. 77, 90 
specific, i. 109 
Calorimeter, i. 98 
Camphor, ii. 121 

acidification of, ii. 121 
artificial substance resem- 
bling, ii. 121 
Canton's phosphorus, i. 260 
Caoutchouc, ii. 126 

preparation of ether for 

dissolving, ii. 154 
mineral, ii. 142 
Carbon, i. 211 

combustion of, i. 214 
gaseous oxide of, i, 233 
combination of hydrogen 
with, i. 235 
Carbonates, i. 222 

tests of, ii. 235, 236 
Carbonate of alumine. i. 233 
ammonia, i. 226 
barytes, i. 229, 251 ; ii. 

274 
copper, ii. 52 
glucine, i. 233 
iron, ii. 61 
lead, ii. 69, 71 
lime, i. 230 
magnesia, i. 232 
potash, i. 222, 224 
soda, i.- 226 
strontites, i. 230 
ytrria, i. 233 
zircon, i. 233 
Carbonic acid, i. 216 

method of procuring, 

i. 217 
properties of, i. 218 
generated in several 
cases of combus- 
tion, i. 220 
tests of, ii. 235, 331 
vol. ir. 54 



Carbonic acid gas, quantity of, ab- 
sorbed by water, i. 
148, 219— weight 
of, i. 218— its ef- 
fects on vegetation, 
i. 221 
oxide, quantity of, absorb- 
by water, i. 149 
converted into car- 
bonic acid by oxy- 
muriaticgas, i.307 
Carbonous oxide, i. 233 

method of procur- 
ing, i. 234 
properties of, i. 234 
Carburets, ii. 26 

of iron, ii. 63 
Carburetted hydrogen, quantity of, 
absorbed by water, i. 149 — several 
varieties of, i. 235 — methods of 
procuring, i. 236 — combustion ot^ 
i. 236 — specific gravity of, i. 238 
Carmine, how made, ii. 132 
Oassius, purple powder of, ii. 31 
Cast iron, ii. 63 
Castor, ii. 176 
Catechu, ii. 98 
Caustic, lunar, ii. 37, 288 
Ca-wk, i. 251 
Cerium, ii. 94 

analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Ceruse. See White Lead. 
Chalk, i. 231 
Chameleon mineral, ii, 87 
Charcoal, i. 211 

how obtained, i. 212 
its properties, i. 213 
imbibition of air by, i. 213 
resists putrefaction, i. 214 
why it makes the best iron, 

ii. 63, note 
combustion of different 

kinds of, ii. 330 
not deprived of its hydro- 
gen by sulphur, ii. 331 
See Carbon. 
Cheese, ii. 198 
Chemical re-agents ii. 291 

their use to cer^- 
tain artists and 
manufacturers, 
ii.291— to farm- 
ers and country 
gentlemen, ii. 
295 — miscella- 
neous uses of, 
ii. 314 
laboratory, i. 27 
elements, new system of, iiv 

325 
apparatus i. 27, 331 * 



426 



INDEX. 



Chemical affinity, i. 38, 47 — how ex- 
erted, i.49 — caus- 
es thai modify its 
action, i. 52 — if 
not modified, 
would unite bod- 
ies in all propor- 
tions, i. 58 — u- 
nites atoms in 
simple propor- 
tions only, i. 60 — 
estimation of its 
force.;, i. 61 — ex- 
perimental illus- 
trations of, i. 68 
action,L47 — its principal ef- 
fects, i.49-of com- 
pounds the re- 
sult of the affin- 
ities of their ele- 
ments, i. 59 — will 
not take place 
without solution, 
i. 70 — does not" 
take place at a 
perceptible dis- 
tance, i. 70 
Chemistry, distinguished from natu- 
ral philosophy, i. 10 
defined, i. 10 
utility of its study as a 

science, i. 12, 22 
modes of teaching, i. 22 
classification of the ob- 
jects of, i. 22 
new doctrines and nomen- 
clature of, i. 25, 208,210 
economical, i. 19 
Chrome, ii. 87 

analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Chromic acid, ii. 88 
Cinnabar, ii. 44 

mode of ascertaining its 
purity, ii. 288 
Citrates, alkaline, ii. 109 
earthy, ii. 109 
metallic, ii. 109 
Citric acid, process for obtaining, ii. 
107 
properties of, ii. 109 
♦ combinations of, ii. 109 

Cloth, methods of removing spots 

from, ii. 315 
Clysms of nitre, i. 286 
Coak, ii. 142 

Coal, quantity of, required for the 
evaporation of water, i. 105 
varieties of, ii. 142 
analysis of, ii. 260 
Coating' for retorts, i. 34 
Cobalt, method of obtaining, ii. 83 



Cobalt, properties of, ii. 83 

oxides of, ii. 83, 84, 85 
solutions of, ii. 84 
alloys of, ii. 85 
analysis of ores of, ii. 264 
Cochineal, ii. 130 
Coffee, ii. 137 
Cohesive affinity, i. 39, 47 

methods of over- 
coming, i. 40, 74 
Cold, artificial methods of producing, 

i. 98 ; ii. 155, 362 
Collar joint, for uniting long or 

crooked tubes, i. 335 
Colouring matter, ii. 128 
Colours destroyed by charcoal, i. 214 
substantive and adjective, ii. 
Columbium, ii. 93, 94 [128 

analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Combination alters the properties of 

bodies, i. 48, 71 
Combustible bases, compounds of ox- 
ygen with, i. 208 
Combustion in oxygen gas, i. 125 

consumes oxygen, i. 127 
increases the weight of 

bodies, i. 128 
acids are supporters of, 

i. 209 
spontaneous, ii. 61, 120 
Compounds, their chemical action the 
result of the affinities 
of their parts, i. 59 
proportions of the ele- 
ments of some, ii. 329 
Congelation, artificial, i. 78 ; ii. 351, 

362 
Cooling, rate of, varied by different 

circumstances, i. 89, 92 
Copper, properties of, ii. 50 
oxides of, ii. 50 
sulphates of, ii. 51 
carbonate of, ii. 52 
nitrate of, ii. 52 
hydro-oxide of, ii. 52 
muriate of, ii. 52, 53 
sub-muriate of, ii. 53 
acetate of, ii. 53, 289, 290 ' 
sulphuret of, ii. 53 
combination of ammonia 

with, ii. 53 
alloys of, ii. 53, 54 
arsenite of, ii. 81 
analysis of ores of, ii. 262 
mode of detecting, ii. 274 
Cork and its acid, ii. 139 
Corrosive sublimate, it. 42, 43 — mode 
of discovering - , ii. 273 — 
method of ascertaining 
its puritv, ii. 286 
Cream, ii. 197 



427 



Cream of tartar, ii. 112, 115— mode 
of ascertaining- its purity, ii. 
283 
Crocus metallorum, ii. 77 
Crucibles, i. 30 

platina, ii. 34 
Crystallization, i. 42, 69 

water of, i. 43 
Crystals, structure of, i. 44 
Cupel, ii. 70 
Cvpellation, ii. 70 
Cupelling furnace, i. 29, 339 
Curd, ii. 198, 199 
Cuticle, ii. 217 

D. 
Dalton, Mr. his new system of chem- 
ical elements, ii. 326 
Decomposition, effected by galvanism, 
i. 161 
simple, i. 51 
Deliquescence, i. 43, 224 
Deoxidizing power of light, i. 112 
Detonating powders, i. 312 ; ii. 31,38, 

41, 47, 80 
Diamond, i. 211 

combustion of the, i. 214 
Digestion, secretions subservient to, 

ii. 190. 
Dipper s oil, ii. 213 
Distillation, i. 31 
Ductile metals, ii. 11 
Dutch gold, ii. 54 
Dying, art of, ii. 128 

E. 
Earths, i. 192 

compounds of metallic bases 

with oxygen, i. 193 
dissolved by carbonic acid, 

tests of, ii. 235 
examination of, ii. 246 
means of separating-, ii. 259 
Ear-ivax, ii. 176 
Efflorescence, i. 43, 57 

its influence on chemic- 
al affinity, i. 57 
Egg-shells, ii. 215 
Egg, white of. See Albumen. 
Elastic gum. See Caoutchouc. 
Elasticity, its effect on chemical af- 
finity, i. 56, 59 
increased by caloric, i. 74 
Elecampane, peculiar substance from, 

ii. 145 
Elective affinity, i. 51, 72 [152 

Electricity, chemical agencies of, i. 

theory of, i. 153 
Electro-motion, i. 169 
Elements, chemical, new system of, 
ii. 326 — proportions ofj 
in some compounds, ii. 
329 



Emulsions, ii. 118 
Enamelling furnace, i. 29, 339 
Engraving on glass, i. 328 
Epidermis, ii. 217 

Epsom salt. See Magitesia, sul- 
phate of. 
Ether, solution of phosphorus in, j. 
324 
solution of gold in, ii. 32 

platina in, i 34 
properties of, ii. 154 — 156 
purification of, ii. 152 
analysis of, ii. 156 
mode of ascertaining its puri- 
ty, ii. 291 
acetic, ii. 154 
fluoi'ic, ii. 154 
muriatic, ii. 153 
nitric, ii. 152 
phosphoric, ii. 153 
pvro-acetic, ii. 159 
sulphuric, ii. 152 
Ethiops mineral, ii. 43 — mode of as- 
certaining its purity, ii, 
288 
per se, ii. 40 
Eudiometer, Berthollet's, i. 132 
Dalton's, i. 275 
Davy's, i. 278 
Guvton's. i. 134 
Hope's, i. 134, 278 
Pepy's, i. 135 
Seguin's, i. 132 
Volta's, i. 138, 333 ; i ; , 

331 
with nitrous gas, i. 275 
with solution of nitrous 
gas and iron, i. 278 
with sulphuret of pot- 
ash, i. 133 
with nitrog-en gas, i. 333 
Eudiometry, remarks on some pro- 
cesses of, ii. 331 
Evaporating furnace, i. 28, 336 

vessels, i. 30 
Evaporation occasioned by caloric, i. 

101 
Expansion, i. 81, 75, 76 
Extract, vegetable, ii. 97 
Eye, humours of the, ii. 201 

F. 

Farina, method of obtaining, ii. 123 

properties of, ii. 124 
Fat of animals, ii. 177 

oxygenated, ii. 178 
Feathers, ii. 218 
Fecula, vegetable. See Farina. 
Fermentation, vinous, ii. 146,. 150 
Fibre, woody, ii. 127 
Fibrin, ii. 171 



428 



SN»EX. 



Fibrin, of the blood, ii. 185 

Finery cinder, ii. 55 

Fire produced by compressing air, i. 

123, 141 
Fire-works without smell or smoke, 

i. 137 
Fish, scales of, ii. 217 
Flesh of animals* ii. 171, 173, 215 
Flints, i. 199 

liquor of, i. 200 
Filiate of ammonia, ii. 226 
Fluidity, caused by caloric, i. 97 
Fluids of the various cavities of the 

body, ii. 201 
Fluoboric acid, i. 329 
Fluoric acid, mode of obtaining, i. 
327, 328 
liquid, i. 329 
compounds of, i. 328 
properties of, i. 328 
compound of the borac- 

ic with, i. 329 
gas, mode of obtaining, 
i. 327 — decomposed 
by potassium, i. 328 
Flux, black, ii. 267 
white, ii. 267 
Fluxes, ii. 20, 267 
Formic acid, a compound of the mal- 
ic and acetic, ii. 183 
Freezing points of liquids, ii. 354 
mixtures, ii 362 
apparatus, ii. 351 
Frigorijic mixtures, tables of, ii. 362 

—364 
Fruit, method of removing stains, of, 

ii. 314 
Fulminating gold, ii. 30, 31 
mercury, ii- 41 
powder, i. 287 
silver, ii. 38 
Fuming liquor, Boyle's, i. 266 

Libavius's, ii. 67 
Furnaces, chemical, i. 28, 335 

Aiken's portable blast, i. 

335 
Knight's portable, i. 336 
wind, i 337 
reverberatory, i. 339 
cupelling, or enamelling, 

i. 339 
Black's portable, i. 29 ; 340 
Chenevix's wind, i. 34Q 
general remarks on, i. 340 
Fusion, i. 74 

watery , i. 43 
Fusible metal, ii. 76 
Fustic, ii. 131 

G. 
Galena, ii. 72 
Gallate of iron, ii. 59, 111 



Gallic acid,, methods of obtaining, 
ii. 110 ' 

characters of, ii. Ill 
Galls, tincture of, as a test, ii. 224 ■ 
used as a test in substance, ii. 
224 
Gall-stones, ii. 195 

a valuable pigment, ii. 
196 
Galvanic arrangements, construction 
of, i. 152 
pile, i. 152 

theory of the action 
of,'i. 169 
apparatus, i. 334, 340 
Galvanism, i. 152 

excitement of, i. 153 
effects of, i. 154 
its similarity to electric- 
ity, i. 158 
chemical agencies of, i. 

159 
theory of the change» 
produced by, i. 166 
Gases, what, i. 24 

effect of caloric in, i. 74 
expansion of by heat, i. 81 
manner in which they con- 
duct heat, i. 94 
apparatus for experiments on,. 

i. 115 
method of weighing, i. 119 

transferring, i. 120 
caloric chemically combined 

in, i. 122 
give out their latent heat by 

compression, i. 123, 140 
their bulk inversely as the 

pressure on them, i. 123 
table of, i. 124 

become thoroughly mixed un- 
der all circumstances, i. 142 
quantities of, absorbed by wa- 
ter, i. 149 
absorption of, by charcoal, i. 
213 _ [270 

general laws of their union, i. 
table of absolute weights and 
specific gravities of, and 
the quantities absorbable 
by water, ii. 342 
table of specific gravities of 

several, ii. 343 
solid and fluid compounds of, 

ii. 344 
rules for reducing to a given 
pressure and temperature, 
ii. 344 
apparatus for procuring, i. 333 
receivers for, i. 333, 340 
Gas-holder, i. 117, 334 



4S& 



Gns, ajnmoniacal, i. 185 

arsenuretted hydrogen, ii. 82, 

325 
azotic, or nitrogen, i. 129 
carbonic acid, i. 216 
carbonous oxide, i. 216, 233 
carburetted hydrogen, i. 235 
fluoboric acid, i. 329 
fluoric acid, i. 327 
hydro-carburetted, i. 235 
hydrogen, i. 136 ; ii. 332 
hydro-zincic, ii. 73 
muriatic acid, i. 294 
nitric acid, i. 270 
nitric oxide, i. 274 
nitrogen, i. 129 
nitrous, i. 274 
nitrous acid, i. 284 
nitrous oxide, i. 279 
olefiant, i. 236, 238 
oxycarburetted hydrogen, i. 238 
oxygen, i. 124 ; ii. 70 
oxymuriatic acid, i. 294, 305 
phosphuretted hydrogen, i. 323 
potassuretted hydrogen, i. 183 
sulphuretted hydrogen, i. 261 ; 

ii. 326 
sulphurous acid, i. 246 
telluretted hydrogen, ii. 324 
Gastric juice, ii. 191 
Gazometer, i. 116, 333 

mercurial, i. 118 
Gelatine, method of obtaining, ii. 163 
properties of, ii. 164 
tests of, ii. 165 
decomposition of, ii. 166 
Gems, preparation of sulphur for tak- 
ing impressions from, i. 230 
Gilding' of steel, ii. 32 
Glacial sulphuric acid, ii. 56 
Glass, how made, i. 200 

decomposed by fluoric acid, i. 

200 
method of etching on, i. 328 
tinged blue by zaffire, ii. 85 
expansion of by heat, ii. 361 
of antimony, ii. 77 — mode of 
ascertaining its purity, ii. 
285 
Glauber's Salt. See Sulphate of Soda. 
Glucine, attempt to decompose, i. 
194 
method of obtaining it, i.204 
its properties, i. 205 
carbonate of, i. 233 
sulphate of, i. 256 
nitrate of, i. 292 
muriate of, i. 305 
Glvcium, i. 205 
Glue, ii. 163 
Gluten, animal, ii. 171 



Gluten, vegetable, ii. 124 
Gold, malleability of, ii. 10 
ductility of, ii. 11 
physical qualities of, ii. 29 
chemical cpualities of, ii. 30 
oxides of, ii. 30 

fulminating compound of, ii. 30 
precipitates of, ii. 31 
solution of, in ether, ii. 32 
purification of, ii. 32, 70 
alloys of, ii. 32 
fineness of, ii. 32. 
its colour destroyed by palla- 
dium or platina, ii. 47 
imitations of, ii. 54 
its ductility destroyed by be- 
ing kept in fusion near melt- 
ed bismuth, ii. 76 — and a 
small portion of antimony, 
ii. 78 
analysis of ores of, ii. 261 
Golden sulphur of antimony, ii. 77 
Goulard's extract, use of, as a test, 

ii. 167, 168, 170 
Gravel, urinary, ii. 178 
Gravitation, i. 38 
Gravity, great specific, i. 56 

specific, method of taking, 
ii. 244 — of gases, ii. 342, 
343 — of solids and fluids, 
ii. 346 — rules for calcu- 
lating absolute weight 
from, ii. 348 — of mix- 
tures of alcohol and wa- 
ter, ii. 349 — of sulphuric 
acid and water, ii. 350 — 
of ammonia and water, ii. 
Gravy, ii. 216 [350 

Grease, method of removing spots of 3 

ii. 315 
Green, Scheele's, ii. 81 
Guaiacum, ii. 122 
Gum, ii. 99 

acid obtained from, ii. 180 - 
British, ii. 124 
elastic, ii. 126 
Gum-resins, ii. 122 
Gun-metal, ii. 54 

Gunpoivder, sulphur may be burned 
out of without inflam- 
ing it, i. 242 
composition of, i. 287 
peculiar kind of, i. 313 
Gvpszim, i. 253 

H. 
Hahnemann's wine test, ii. 276 
Hair, method of staining it black,ii.37 

analysis of, ii. 217 
Harro-wgate water, i. 261 ; ii. 238 
Hartshorn, spirit of, mode of ascer- 
taining its purity, ii. 281 



430 



Beat. See Caloric. 
Jfepars, i. 260 

Hiccory, wild American, ii. 131 
Romberg's pyrophorus, i. 256 — in- 
flamed by nitrous gas, 
i. 274 
sedative salt. See Bo- 
racic Acid. 
Boney, ii. 103 

stone, ii. 143 
Roofs, ii. 216 
Rom, ii. 215. 
House-leek, malic acid obtained from, 

ii. 112 
Hydrat of cobalt, ii. 85 
copper, ii. 52 
iron, ii. 56 
lime, i. 197 
nickel, ii. 64 
Hydro-carburet, i. 235 
Hydrogen, probably metallic, i. 191 ; 
ii. 320 
compounds of metals with, 

ii. 22, 324 
nature of, examined, ii. 
320 
Hydrogen gas, i. 136 

method of procuring, 

i. 136 
its properties, i. 136 
burned under a tube 
produces a musical 
sound, i. 140 
caution with respect 
to firing, i. 140, note 
explodes by compres- 
sion with oxygen, 
i. 140 
weight of, i. 141 
with oxygen forms 

water, i. 143 
quantity of, absorbed 

by water, i. 149 
combination of oxy- 
muriatic acid with, 
i. 307 _ 
every kind of, con- 
tains charcoal, and 
probably oxygen, ii. 
332 [326] 

arsenuretted, ii. 82, 
%arburetted, i. 235 
oxycarburetted, i. 238 
phosphuretted, i. 323 
potassuretted, i. 183 
sulphuretted, i. 261 

union of 
alkalis and earths 
with, i. 262 
sulphuretted, nature 
•ofj ii. 326 



Hydrogen gas, supersulphuretted, L-. 
264 
telluretted, ii. 324 
" v sulphuretted, compounds 
of, with oxides, ii. 22 
with metals, ii. 24 

liquid, i. 267 
Rydroguretted sulphur, i. 265 

sulphurets, methods 
of forming, i. 265, 
266 — properties of, 
i. 266 
Hydrometer, Baume's, degrees of, re- 
duced to the common 
standard, ii. 349 
Hydro-oxide of cobalt, ii. 85 
copper, ii. 52 
iron, ii. 56 
Hydro-sulphurets, i. 262, 265 

alkaline, tests of 
lead, ii. 72^ 
blacken glass, ii 
72 
Hydro-sulphuret of ammonia, i. 264 
barytes, i. 264 
lime, i. 264 ; ii 

235 
potash, i. 263 
soda, i. 264 
strontites, i. 264 
zinc, ii. 74 
Hydro-sulphuretted oxides, ii. 22 
Hydro-thionic acid, i. 261 
Hydro-zincic gas, platina fused by the 
combustion of, ii. 73 
Hydrurets, ii. 323 
Hygrometer, i. 75 
Hygrometric water, i. 149 
Ryper-oxymuriates, i. 313 ; ii. 387 

T. 
Ice, quantity of caloric absorbed in 
the liquefaction of, i- 98 
lighter than water, i. 151 
Indigo, ii. 129, 137 
Inflammable fossils, analysis of, ii.260 
Ink, ii. 59, 111 

that is not easily destructible^ 
ii. 60 
Inks, sympathetic, ii. 53, 58.59,72,84 
Ink-stains, method of removing,ii.314 
Insolubility, i. 55 
Inulin, ii. 145 
Iridium, ii. 47 

analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Iron, solutions of, precipitated by 
exposure, ii. 19 
properties of, ii. 54 
oxides of, ii. 54, 55, 56 
sulphate .of, ii. 56 — its use as a 
test, ii. 228 — mode of asceiv 
taining its purity, ii. 285 



INDEX. 



431 



irs«, hydrate of, ii. 56 

oxysulphate of, ii. 56 
nitrate of, ii. 56 
muriate of, ii. 56, 57 
prussiate of, ii. 57 
gallate of, ii. 59, 111 
tannate of, ii. 59, 133 
cold-short, ii. 60 
phosphate of, ii. 60 
oxy-phosphate of, ii. 60 
succinate of, ii. 61, 122 
acetate of, ii. 61 
carbonate of, ii. 61 [61 

combination of sulphur with, ii. 
sulphuret of, ii. 62 
super-sulphuret of, ii. 62 
combination of carbon with, ii. 

62 
cast, or crude, ii. 63 
malleable, or bar, ii. 63 
why wood charcoal preferable 
in the manufacturing of, ii. 
63, note 
tests of, ii. 224, 235 _; 
analysis of ores of, ii. 262 
Iron-moulds, ii. 60 

method of removing 1 , ii. 
314 
Ising-glass, ii. 163 
Ittria. See Yttria. 
Ivory, method of covering- Avith sil- 
ver, ii. 37 
J. 
Jelly, animal. See Gelatine. 

vegetable, ii. 100 
Joints, fluid in the cavities of the, ii. 
202 

K. 
Xermes mineral, ii. 77 
Koumiss, ii. 199 

L. 
Laboratory, i. 27 
Lac, contains wax, ii. 136 
Laccic acid, ii. 117 
Lactic acid, ii. 180, 199 
Lakes, how obtained, ii. 131 
Lamp for chemical purposes, i. 31 
iMinp-black, ii. 213 
Lard, ii. 178 
Latent heat, i. 78, 98 
Lead, properties of, ii. 68 
oxides of, ii. 69 
carbonate of, ii. 69, 71 — mode 
of ascertaining its purity, 
ii. 289 
purification of gold and sil- 
ver by, ii. 70 
mode of procuring oxygen 

from oxides of, ii. 70 
danger of keeping water in, 
ii. 70 



Lead, not soluble in sulphuric acid, 
ii. 70 
sulphate of, ii. 70 
nitrate of, ii. 71 — its use as a 

test, ii. 229 
muriate of, ii. 71 
super-acetate of, ii. 71 — mode 
of ascertaining its purity, 
ii. 289 
•acetate of, ii. 72 — its use as a 
test, ii. 167, 168, 170, 229 
acetate of, remedy against, ii. 

277 
tests of, ii. 72, 274, 276 
its oxides decompose muriate 

of soda, ii. 72 
sulphuret of, ii. 72 
super-sulphuret of, ii. 72 
analysis of ores of, ii. 263 
method of detecting, ii. 275 

in wine, ii. 276 
rendered moi'e dense by com- 
pression, ii. 333 
soluble in distilled water, ii. 
333 
Leaf -gold, ii. 11 
Lemons, acid of, ii. 107 

See Citric Acid. 
TJbavius, fuming liquor of, ii. 67 
Life, supported by oxvgen gas, i\ 

129, 135 
Ligaments, ii. 216 

Light, chemical effects of, i. 111,30? 
reflection of, by metals, ii. 10 
Lignin, ii. 127 
Lime, analysis of, i. 193 

properties of, i. 197 
base of, i. 198 
hydrat of, i. 197 
milk or cream of, i. 193 
carbonate of, i. 230 

tests of, ii. 235 
does not attract carbonic acitl 

gas when dry, i. 230 
subcarbonates of, i. 231 
sulphate of, i. 253 

tests of, ii. 235, 236 
sulphite of, i. 259 
sulphuret of, i. 260 
hydrosulphuret of, i. 264 

tests of, ii. 235 
hydroguretted sulphuret of, i 

267 
nitrate of, i. 291 
muriate of, i. 304 

as a test, ii. 234 
hyper-oxymuriate of, i. 314 
useful in bleaching, i. 3T<1 
phosphuret cf, i. SIZ 
tungstafe of, ii. 90 
test of, ii. 105 



432 



liJDEX. 



Lime, oxalate of, ii. 105 
citrate of, ii. 108 
acetate of, ii. 16Q 
prussiate of, as a test, ii. 231 
tests of, ii. 236 

mode of determining- the pu- 
rity of, ii. 295 
stone", i. 231 
water, i. 198 

use of, as a test, ii. 227 
Liquefaction, i. 78, 97 
Liquids, expansion of, by heat, i. 81 
manner in which they con- 
duct heat, i. 94 
give out heat on becoming- 
solid, i. 100 
freezing points of, ii. 354 
boiling points of, ii. 355 
expansion of by heat. ii. 360 
tube for dropping, i. 333 
bottle for ascertaining spe- 
cific gravity of, i. 332 
Liquor of surfaces, ii. 201 
Lithic acid, ii. 178 

Litmus, infusion of, ii. 222 — its use 
as a test, ii. 223 — red- 
dened by vinegar as a 
test, ii. 223 
Liver of antimony, ii. 77 

sulphur, i. 260 
Loaf sugar, preparation of, ii. 101 
Luna cornea, ii. 36 
Lunar caustic. See Silver, nitrate of. 
Lutes, i. 34 

M. 
M adder, ii. 130 

lake from, ii. 131 
Jtfajgistery of bismuth, ii. 75 
Magnesia, analysis of, i. 193 

properties of, i. 198 
base of, i. 199 
carbonate of, i.232 — mode 
of ascertaining its pu- 
rity, ii. 290 
sulphate of, i. 254 

mode of ascertaining 
its purity, ii. 284 
sulphite of, i. 259 
nitrate of, i. 2L'3 
muriate of, i. 304 
oxalate of, ii. 106 
citrate of, ii. 109 
acetate of, ii. 161 
tests of salts of, ii. 236 
mode of ascertaining- its 
purity, ii. 290 
Magniitm, i. 199 

Malic acid, methods of obtaining, ii-. 
Ill 
properties of, ii. 112 
Malleability, i";. 10 



Maltha, ii. 141 

Manganese, method of obtaining, ii. 
85 
"properties of, ii. 85, 86 
oxides of, ii. 86 
action of acids on, ii. 86 
gives a violent tinge to 

borax, ii. 86 
compound of its oxide 
with potash gives dif- 
ferent colours with wa- 
ter, ii. 87 
sulphuret of, ii. 87 
sulphuretted oxide of, ii. 

87 
alloys of, ii. 87 
analysis of ores of, ii. 265 
mode of ascertaining the 
purity of, ii. 294 
Manna, ii. 103 
Marble, i. 231 
Marls, analysis of, ii. 297 
Mass, meaning of, as used by Ber- 

thollet, i. 54 
JMassicot, ij. 69 
Matches, phosphoric, i. 324 
Mattras, i. 35, 331 
^TieasMres,English,reduced to French, 
ii. 334 
Swedish, ii. 335 
old French, ii. 335, 339 
modern French, ii. 340 
ounce of Dr. Priestley, re- 
duced to French and 
English cubic inches, ii. 
341 
Mechanical division, influence of, on 
affinity or solution, i. 
68 
Medicine, application of chemistry 

to, i. 18 
Melasses, iL 101 
Mellilite, ii. 143 
Mellitic acid, ii. 143 
Melting points of solids, ii. 354, 376 
Membranes, ii. 216 
Mercurial trough, i. 118 
Mercury congelation of, i. 99 ; ii. 39 
combination of, with potas- 
sium, i. 181 — with sodi- 
um, i. 184 — with ammo- 
nium, i. 189 — with the 
bases of the earths, i. 193 
its specific gravity increas- 
ed by congelation, ii. 40 
volatilization of, ii. 40 
oxides of, ii. 40 — methods 
of ascertaining their pu- 
rity, ii. 287, 288 
sulphate and supersulphate 
■ of, ii. 40, 41 



INDEX. 



433 



Mercury, nitrate ©f, ii. 41 — its use as 
a test, ii. 230 
subnitrate of, ii. 41 
nitrous oxide of, ii. 41 
fulminating-, ii. 41 
muriate of, ii. 42 — tests of, 
ii. 227, 234, 273— meth- 
od of ascertaining its pu- 
rity, ii. 286 
submuriate of, ii. 43 — meth- 
od of ascertaining- its pu- 
rity, ii. 286 
alloys of, ii. 43 
sulphurets of, ii. 43 
use of, as a test, ii. 227 
analysis of ores of, ii. 264 
method of ascertaining- its 

purity, ii. 286, 287 
apparatus for freezing, i. 334 
Metallurgy, application of chemistry 

to, i. 20 
Metals, their comparative power of 
conducting heat, i. 93 
fused and ignited by elec- 
tricity and galvanism, i. 
159, 160 
enumeration of, ii. 9 
general properties of, ii. 9 
order in which they reflect 

light and heat, ii. 10 
chemical properties of, ii. 11 
oxidation of, ii. 13 — 21 
proportion of oxygen neces- 
sary for the solution of, 
ii. 17 
different stages of oxidation 

of, ii. 17 
action of alkaline solutions 

on, ii. 19 
reduction of, ii. 20 
alloys of, ii. 22, 26 
compounds of hydrogen 

with, ii. 22 
compounds of sulphur with, 
ii. 22 — sulphuretted hy- 
drogen with, ii. 24 — phos- 
phorus with, ii. 25 — car- 
bon with, ii. 26 
their qualities altered in al- 
loys, ii. 27 
classification of, ii. 29 
malleable, ii. 29 
brittle and easily fused, ii. 
75—difficultly fused,ii.83 
refractory, ii. 91 
use of, as tests, ii. 227 
tenacity of several, ii. 332 
table of some qualities of, 

ii. 376 
colours of precipitates from, 
ii. 378, 379 
VOL. IT. 55* 



Meteoric stones, all contain iron al- 
loyed with nickel, ii. 64 
Milk, description and properties of, 
ii. 197 
vinous fermentation of, ii. 199 
sugar of, ii. 176, 180, 199 
acid of, ii. 180, 199 
different kinds of, ii- 200 
Minder er us' 8 spirit, ii. 160 
Minerals, general directions for the 
examination of, ii. 241, 
244 
Mineral waters, analysis of, ii. 220 
examination of, by 
re-agents, ii. 221 
substances that may 
beexpectedin,and 
means of detect- 
ing them, ii. 235 
analysis of, by evap- 
oration, ii. 236 
Molecule, integrant, i. 46 
Molybdena, ore of, ii. 88, 266 

mode of obtaining, ii. 88, 

89 
properties of, ii. 89 
oxides of, ii. 89 
action of acids on, ii. 89 
analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Molybdenate of potash, ii. 89 
Molybdenic acid, mode of obtaining, 
ii. 88 
properties of, ii. 89 
Mordaunt, what, ii. 128 
Moroxylic acid, ii. 117 
Mother-of-pearl, ii. 215 
Mucilage, ii. 99 
Mucus, ii. 167, 170 

tests of, ii. 170 
of the nose, ii. 200 
Muffles, i. 30 
Muriate of alumine, i. 304 

ammonia, i. 301 ; ii. 175, 
283 — hyperoxygeniz- 
ed, i. 313 
barytes, i. 303; ii. 230 
— hyperox3 r genized, i. 
314 
bismuth, ii. 75 
copper, ii. 52, 53 
glucine, i. 305 
iridium, ii. 47 
iron, ii. 56, 57 
lead, ii. 71 

lime, i. 304 ; ii. 234, 235 
hyperoxygenized, i. 
314 
magnesia, i. 304 
mercurv, ii. 42, 43, 227, 

273 " 
platina, ii. 34 



434 



INDEX. 



Muriate of potash, i. 300; ii. 235 
— hyperoxygenized, i. 
310 
rhodium, ii. 45 
silver, ii. 36 

soda, i. 300 ; ii. 175, 235, 
282- hyperoxygenized, 
i. 313 
strontites, i. 303 — hyper- 
oxygenized, i. 314 
tin, ii. 67 
yttria, i. 305 
zinc, ii. 74 
zircon, i. 305 
Muriates, tests of, ii. 235 

hyperoxygenized, i. 310, 
314 
Muriatic acid, i. 294 ; ii. 385 

its attraction for wa- 
ter, i. 294 
attempt to investi- 
gate the nature of, 
i. 296 ; ii. 385 
process for prepar- 
ing, i. 297 
its properties, i. 299 
tests of, ii. 235 
mode of ascertaining 
the purity of,ii.278 
oxygenized, i. 305 
sulphuretted, i. 308 
gas, mode of obtain- 
ing, i. 294 — prop- 
erties of, i. 295 — 
action of potassi- 
um on, i. 296— wa- 
ter essential to, i. 
296 — its affinities 
very strong and 
extensive, i. 297 — 
oxygenized, i. 305 
Muno-phosphoric acid, i. 308, 317 
Murio-phosphorous acid, i. 308,. 321 
Murio-sulphuric acid, i. 315 
Muscle, basis of, ii. 171 

converted into fat, ii. 177 
component parts of, ii. 215 
Muscovado sugar, ii. 101 
Musical sounds, from burning hy- 
drogen gas under a tube, i. 140 
Myrica cerifera, berries of, contain 

wax, ii. 136 
Myrtle-wax, ii. 136 

N. 
Nails, ii. 216 
Naphtha, ii. 140 
Narcotic principle, ii. 138 
Natural history, assisted by the 

knowledge of chemistry, 

i. 12 



Natural philosophy, i. 10— distin- 
guished from chemistry, 
i- 10 — requires a knowl- 
edge of chemistry, i. 12 
Neutral salts, i. 209 
Neutralization, i. 48, 63, 67, 71 
Nickel, method of purifying, ii. 64 
properties of, ii. 64, 333 
alloyed with iron in all me- 
teoric stones, ii. 64 
analysis of ores of, ii. 265 
Nitrate of alumine, i. 292 
ammonia, i. 290 
antimony, ii. 78 
barytes, i. 291 ; ii. 230 
bismuth, ii. 75 
cobalt, ii. 84 
copper, i. 70 ; ii. 52 
glucine, i. 292 
iron, ii. 56 
kad, ii. 71, 229 
lime, i. 291 
magnesia, i. 292 
mercury, ii. 41, 230 
potash, i. 284 ; ii. 282. 
silver, ii. 35, 37, 228, 288 
soda, i. 289 
strontites, i. 291 
tin, ii. 67 
yttria, i. 293 
zinc, ii. 74 
zircon, i. 292 
Nitre, i. 284 
Nitric acid, i. 270 

properties of, i. 272, 273 
table of strength of, i. 

272 
decomposition of, iv 271, 

273 
process for preparing, i. 

287 
in its pure state elastic, 

i. 330 
use of as a test, ii. 225 
test of, ii. 235 
mode of ascertaining the 
purity of, ii. 278 
Nitric oxide, i. 274 
Nitrites, i. 295 
Nitrogen gas, i. 129 

a compound of hydro- 
gen and oxygen, i. 
130, 191 [319 

this questionable, ii. 
how procured, i. 130 
its properties, i. 130 
weight of, i. 130 
quantity of, absorbed 

by water, i. 149 

mixture of oxygen 

with, i. 268, 270 



V 



INDEX. 



435 



Nitrogen gas, nature of, examined, 
ii. 319 
gaseous oxide of. See 
Nitrous Oxide. 
Nitro-mwiaXe of antimony, ii. 78 
cobalt, ii. 84 
gold, ii. 30 
tin, ii. 68 
muriatic acid, i. 314 
sulphuric acid, ii. 39 
Nitrous acid, i. 283 

use of as a test, ii. 225 

mode of ascertaining 

the purity of, ii. 278 

gas, quantity of absorbed by 

water, i. 149 

properties of, i. 274 

applied to eudiometry, 

i. 275 
decomposition of, i.278 
synthesis of, i. 278 
oxide, quantity of absorbed 
by water, i. 149 
mode of obtaining, i. 

279 
test of its purity, i. 

281 
properties of, i. 281 
effects of respiring 
it, i. 282 
oxide of mercury, ii. 41, 287 
Nilrum Jlammans, i. 290 
Nomenclature, new, i. 25, 208, 210 ; 

ii. 21 
Nose, mucus of the, ii. 170 

O. 
087, inflamed on the surface of wa- 
ter, i. 312 
Dippel's animal, ii. 213 
of wine, ii. 152 
Oils, animal, ii. 177 

fixed, how obtained, ii. 118 
properties of, ii. 118 
with alkalis form soap, 

ii. 118 
dissolve sulphur, ii. 119 
rendered dry by metallic 

oxides, ii. 119 
distillation of, ii. 119 
combustion of, ii. 119 
action of acids on, ii. 119 
spontaneous combustion 
of, ii. 120 
volatile, or essential, ii. 120 

mode of detecting 
their adulterations, 
ii. 291 
Olejiant gas, quantity of, absorbed 
by water, i. 149 
method of procuring, 
i. 236 



Olejiant gas, properties of, i. 237,238 
action of oxymuriatic 
acid gas on, i. 308 
Opium, ii. 138 
Ores, analysis of, ii. 261 

in the dry way, ii. 
266 
Orpiment, ii. 81 
Osmium, ii. 47 

analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Ounce measures reduced to cubic 

inches, ii. 341 
Oxalate of ammonia, ii. 105, 106 
barytes, ii. 106 
lime, ii. 105, 106 
magnesia, ii. 106 
potash, ii. 105, 106 
soda, ii. 105, 106 
strontian, ii. 106 
Oxalates, use of, as tests, ii. 225 
Oxalic acid, mode of obtaining, ii. 
104 • 
properties of, ii. 104 
composition of, ii. 104, 

105 
found native in vegeta- 
bles, ii. 117 
use of, as a test, ii. 225 
Oxidation, i. 129 ; ii. 13, 28 

different stages of, ii. 17 
Oxides, how produced, i. 129 ; ii. 13 
all yield their oxygen to po- 
tassium, i. 182 
different, ii. 17 
quantity of acid required for 
their saturation in propor- 
tion to their oxygen, ii. 18 
their solubility proportionate 

to their oxygen, ii. 19 
decomposition of, ii. 20 
terminology of, ii. 21 
hydro-sulphuretted, ii. 22 
sulphuretted, ii. 22 
colours and proportions of, 
ii. 376 
Oxy-carburetted hydrogen, i. 238 
Oxygen, not the principle of acidity 
solely, i. 129, 207 ; ii. 387 
compounds of combustible 

bases with, i. 208 
proportion necessary for 
the solution of different 
metals, ii. 17 
maximum quantity absorb- 
ed by different substanc- 
es, ii. 380 
gas, i. 124 

procured from various 
substances, i. 125 ; 
ii. 70 
its properties, i. 125 



436 



*tf»KX. 



Oxygen gas, weight of, i. 125 

diminished in combus- 
tion, i. 127 
its union produces an 
oxide, an acid, or an 
alkali, i. 128 
supports animal life, i. 

129, 135 
apparently absorbed by 

the blood, i. 129 
with hydrogen forms 

water, i. 143 
quantity of, absorbed 

by water, i. 149 
mixture of nitrogen 

with, i 268, 270 
mode of procuring 
from oxides of lead, 
ii. 70 
Oxy-nniriate of tin, ii. 67 

antimony, ii. 78 
Oxy-muriatic acid, i. 294 ; ii. 385 

method of form- 
ing, i. 305 
test of its purity, 
i. 306 [306 
properties of", i. 
classes with oxy- 
gen,being an a- 
cidifying prin- 
ciple, ii. 385 
gas, mode of ob- 
taining, i. 305 
— its proper- 
ties, i. 306— 
combines with 
hydrogen,i.307 
Oxy-nitric acid, i. 269 
Oxy -phosphate of iron, ii. 60 
Oxy-sulphate of iron, ii. 56 

P. 
Paint, fine redish brown, ii. 53 

fresh, injurious effects of, ii. 

121 
method of removing spots of, 
ii. 315 
Palladium, ii. 45 

test of, ii. 47 
alloys of, ii. 47 
analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Pancreatic juice, ii. 192 
Paper, preparation of, for tests, ii. 
222 
dark blue,round sugar-loaves, 
a test, ii. 223 
Papirts digester, i. 104 
Pearls, ii. 215 
Pearlash, i. 223 

method of ascertaining the 
real quantity of alkali 
in, i. 223 ; ii. 292 



Pearl-white, ii. 75 

Peat, ii. 143 

Pericardium, liquor of the, ii. 201 

Peroxides, ii. 21 

Petroleum, ii. 141 

Pewter, ii. 68 

Phlogiston, ii. 12 

Phosphate of iron 5 ii. 60 

soda, i. 320 ; ii. 23-3 
Phosphates, i. 320 
Phosphites, i. 320 
Phosphori, solar, i. 113, 251, 260 
Phosphoric acid, i. 318 

method of prepar- 
ing, i. 318 
properties of,i.318 
exists in vegeta- 
bles, ii. 117 
test of, ii. 235 
matches, i. 324 
Phosphorous acid, i. 320 

properties of, i.321 
compound of oxy- 
muriatic with, i. 
308, 321 
Phosphorus, action of oxymuriatic a- 
acid gas on, i. 308 
its character, i. 315 
analysis of, i. 316 
oxygenization of, i. 317 
mode of obtaining, i. 319 
binary compounds of, i. 

321 
liquid, i. 324 
solution of, in ether, i. 

324 
combines with metals, ii. 
25 
Phosphuret of carbon, i. 316 
lime, i. 322 
potassium, i. 181 
sodium, i. 184 
sulphur, i. 321 
zinc, ii. 74 
Phosphurets, metallic, ii. 25 
Phosphuretted hydrogen gas, prepa- . 
ration of, i. 323 — 
properties of, i, 323 
— nature of, ii. 326 
Photometer, i. 114 
Picromel, ii. 193, 194 
Pinchbeck, ii. 54 
Pitch, mineral, ii. 141 
Pit-coal, ii. 142 
Plaster of paris, i. 253 
Plasters, ii. 119 
Plattna, purification of, ii. S3 
properties of, ii. 33 
tests of, ii. 34, 35 
uses of, ii. 35 
etherial solution of, ii. 34 



INDEX. 



437 



Piatim destroys the colour of gold, 
ii. 47 
fused by the combustion of 

hydro-zincic gas, ii. 73 
analysis of ores of, ii. 261 
Plumbago, ii. 63 

method of ascertaining, 

ii. 260 
composition of, ii. 350 
Plumber's solder, ii. 68 
Plumbum corneum, ii. 71 
Pneumato-chemical trough, i. 116 
Poisons, method of detecting, ii. 269 
remedies against some, ii. 
277 
Portable furnaces, i. 29, 335, 340 

soup, ii. 163 
Potash, preparation of, i. 173 

never quite free from car- 
bonic acid and water, i. 
174 ; ii. 322 
properties of, i. 174 
analysis of, i. 174 
component parts of, i. 183 
subcarbonate of, i. 222 — me- 
thod of obtaining, i. 223 — 
its use, as a test, ii. 226 — 
mode of ascertaining its 
« purity, ii. 280 

of commerce, i.223 — method 
of ascertaining the real 
quantity of alkali in, i. 223 
— mode of ascertaining its 
purity, ii. 292 
carbonate of, i. 224 — its dif- 
ference from the subcar- 
bonate, i. 225 
sulphate of, i. 248 

mode of ascer- 
taining its purity, ii. 282 
supersulphate of, i. 249 
sulphite of, i. 258 
bydroguretted sulphuret of, 

i.266 
nitrate of, i. 284 ; ii. 282— 
mode of ascertaining its 
purity, ii. 282 
nitrate of* i. 293 
muriate of, i. 300 
hyp er-oxy muriate of, i. 310 
its powerful action on in- 
*flammable bodies, i. 312 
prussiate of, ii. 58 — best 
mode of preparing, ii. 59 
—its use, as a test, ii. 
231 
< arsenate of, ii. 81 
molybdenate of, ii. 89 
oxalate of, ii. 105 
superoxalate of, ii. 105 
quadroxalate of, ii. 105 



Potash, citrate of, ii. 109 

tartrate of, ii. 115— mode of 
ascertaining its purity, ii. 
283 
supertartrate of, ii. 115 — 
mode of ascertaining it» 
purity, ii. 283 
acetate of, ii. 160 — mode of 
ascertaining its purity, ii. 
283 
use of, as a test, ii. 226, 227 
solution of, mode of ascer- 
taining its purity, ii. 280 
Potassium, i. 177, 179 

mode of procuring, i. 175 
its properties, i. 180 
its action on water, i. 180 
acids, ii. 181 
phosphuret of, i. 181 
sulphuret of, i. 181 
amalgam of, i. 181 
reduces all oxides, i. 182 
alloy of ammonium with, i, 

191 ; ii. 316 
action of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen on, i. 262 
ns^ure of, examined, ii. 320 
almy of tellurium with, ii. 
324 
arsenic with, ii.325 
action of on some inflam- 
mable substances, ii. 387 
Polassuretted hydrogen gas, i. 183 
Potato, analysis of, ii. 123 
Pot-metal, ii. 54 
Precipitate per se, ii. 40 

red, ii. 41 
Precipitates, apparatus for drying, i 

35 
Precipitation, i. 42, 51 

jars for, i. 332 
Priestley, Dr. his ounce measures re- 
reduced to cubicaUnches. 
ii. 341 
Prince Rupert's metal, ii. 54 
Printer's types, ii. 79 
Protoxides, ii. 21 
Prussian blue, method of preparing. 

ii, 182 
Prussiate of iron, ii. 57 
lime, ii. 231 
palladium, ii. 47 
potash, ii. 58, 59, 231 
Prussic acid obtained from vegeta- 
bles, ii- 117 
mode of obtaining', ii - 

182 
properties of, ii. 183 
Purple powder of Cassius, ii. 31 
Putrefaction resisted bv charcoal, i. 
214 



438 



INDEX, 



Putrefaction retarded by carbonic a- 

cid, i. 221 
Pyro-acetic ether or spirit, ii. 161 
Pyroligneous acid, the same with the 

acetic, ii. 127, 158 
Pyrometer, i. 81, 202 

scale of Wedgwood's, ii. 
351 
Pyrophorus, Romberg's, i. 256, 274 
Pyro-tartaric acid, ii. 114 

Q. 
Quodroxalate of potash, ii. 105 
Quercitron bark, ii. 131 
Quicksilver. See Mercury. 
Quills, coagulated albumen, ii. 218 

B. 
Radiant heat, i. 77, 90 
Radishes, scrapings of, stain paper as 

a test, ii. 222, 224 
Re-agents, ii. 221, 291 
Realgar, ii. 81 

Receiver, quilled, i. 32, 331, 332 
Red lead, ii. 69 
Reduction of metals, ii. 20 
Refractory metals, ii. 29 
Rennet, ii. 198 
Resins, ii. 121 ^ 

animal, ii. 175, 19M 
Respiration diminishes the bu.lk of 
air, i. 135 
produces carbonic acid, 

i. 221 
function of, examined, 
ii. 186 
Rcte mucosum, ii. 217 
Retinasphaltum, ii. 142 
Retorts, i. 31, 331, 332 

coating for, i. 34 
Reverberatory furnace, i. 29 
Revival of metals, ii. 20 
Rhatany, extract of, ii. 132 
Rheum palmatum contains oxalic a- 

cid, ii. 117 
Rhodium, ii. 44 

muriate of, ii. 45 
analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Rochelle salt, ii. 116 

mode of ascertaining 
its purity, ii. 284 
Roeacic acid, ii. 179 

S. 
Sacchn-lactic, acid, ii. 180 
Sajtawer; ii. 130 

*S7;^ ammoniac. See Muriate of Am- 
monia. 
Salifiable base, i. 209 
Salifymg principle, i. 209 
Saliva, ii 170, 171 

properties of, ii. 190 
•component parts of, ii. 191 



Salt, common. See Muriate of Soda> 
of sorrel, ii. 105^ 117 
spirit ,pf. See Muriatic Acid. 
Salts, division of, i, 209, 210 

terminology of, i. 209, 210 
analysis of, ii. 244 
solubility of, in water, ii. 368, 
370 
in alcohol, ii. 371 
composition of, ii. 372, 373 
incompatible, ii. 374 
neutral, i. 209 
Sandheat, i. 388 
Saturation, i. 40, 48, 71 
Scales of animals, ii. 217 
Scarlet, solution of tin used in dye- 
ing, ii. 68, 130 
Scheele's green, ii. 81 
Sebacic acid, ii. 181, 182 
Secretions, animal, ii. 189, 190, 197, 

200, 203 
Sedative salt. See Boracic Acid. 
Seignette's salt, ii. 116 

mode of ascertaining 
its purity, ii. 284 
Semi-metals, ii. 11 
Separator, i. 331 
Serosity, ii. 185 
Serum, ii. 184 
Sheathing of ships, i. 155 
Shells, ii. 214, 215 
Silex, attempts to decompose, i. 200 
method of obtaining, i. 199 
properties of, i. 200 
Silicated alkali, i. 200 
Silicium, i. 201 

Silk, sulphurous acid gas whitens, i. 
247 
properties of, ii. 218 
method of removing stains on, 
ii. 315 
Silver, properties of, ii. 35 

tarnishing of, ii. 35, 39 
sulphate of, ii. 35 

its use as a test, 
ii. 228 
nitrate of, ii. 36, 37 

its use as a test, 
ii. 228, 271, 272 
mode of ascertain- 
ing its purity, ii. 
288 
subnitrate of, ii. 36 
muriate of, ii. 36 
purification of, ii. 36, 70 
fulminating compounds of, ii. 

38 
solvent of, ii. 39 
alloys of, ii. 39 
standard, ii. 39 
use of, as a test, ii. 227 



INDEX. 



439 



Silver, acetate of, its u»e as a test, 
ii. 228 
analysis of ores of, ii. 262 
Similar, ii. 54 
Sinews, ii. 216 
Skin, ii. 217 
Smalts, ii. 85 

Smells, destroyed by charcoal, i. 214 
Soap, ii. 118 

dissolved in akohol, as a test, 
ii. 234 
Soda, preparation of, i. 174 
properties of, i. 174 
analysis of, i. 174 
component parts of, i. 185 
never free from water, ii. 322 
carbonate of, i. 226 
sub-carbonate of, i. 226 — its 
use as a test, ii. 226 — mode 
of ascertaining its purity, ii. 
280 
sulphate of, i. 249 — mode of 
ascertaining its purity, ii. 
282 
sulphite of, i. 258 
hydroguretted sulphuret of, i. 

266 
nitrate of, i. 289 
muriate of, i. 300 ; ii. 175 — de- 
composed by oxides of lead, 
ii. 72 — mode of ascertaining 
its purity, ii. 282 
hyper-oxymuriate of, i. 313 
phosphate of, i. 320 

as a test, ii. 233 
borate of, ii. 86 — mode of as- 
certaining its purity, ii. 284 
oxalate of, ii. 105 
super-oxalate of, ii. 105 
citrate of, ii. 109 
acetate of, ii. 160 
use of, as a test, ii. 226 
succinate of, as a test, ii. 232 
Sodium, i. 177, 183 

mode of. procuring, i. 175 
properties of, i. 183 
sulphuret of, i. 184 
phosphuret of, i. 184 
amalgam of, i. 184 
nature of, examined, ii. 321, 
323 note 
Soils, analysis of, ii. 298 

improvement of, ii. 310, 313 

sterile, ii. 311 

fertile, ii. 311 

proper for bulbous roots and 

trees, ii. 312 
apparatus for the analysis of, 
ii. 313 
Solar phosphcri, i. 113, 251,260 
Soltkrs, ii. 28, 68, 76 



Solids, expansion of, by heat, i. 181 
absorb heat in becoming li- 
quid, i. 97 
melting points of, ii. 354, 376 
point of volatilization of some, 

ii. 355 
expansion of, by heat, ii. 361 
Solution, i. 40, 149 

experimental illustrations 

of, i. 68 
effects a very minute divi- 
sion of bodies, i. 69 
generally produces cold, i. 

101, 150 
heat sometimes evolved in, 
i. 150 
Solvent, what, i. 40 
Sorrel, salt of, ii. 105, 117 
Soup, portable, ii. 163 
Spar, calcareous, i. 231 
ponderous, i. 251 
Specific Gravity. See Gravity Specific. 
Speculum metal, ii. 54 
Speltre, i. 136 note • 
Spermaceti, ii. 177 
Spirit, proof, ii. 147 

of wine, ii. 146, 291 
Springs, metallic, ii. 11 
Stains, method of removing, ii. 314, 

315 
Stalactites, i. 231 
Starch, ii. 124 

Steam, formed at the bottom of wa- 
ter, i. lpi 
has the same temperature as 

boiling water, i. 102 
latent heat of, i. 102, 105, 107 
specific gravity of, i. 105 
equal weights of, contain e- 
qual quantities of caloric, 
i. 107 
applicable to the purpose of 

heating bodies, i. 108 
force of, at different tempera- 
tures, ii. 356, 357, 358 
Steel, method of gilding, ii. 32 

a compound of iron and car- 
bon, ii. 63 
cast, ii. 63 
Still, common, i. 31 
Stones, analysis of, ii. 246 

. substances that may be ex- 
pected in, and means of sepa- 
rating, ii. 259 
Strontites, analysis of, i. 196 

properties of, i. 196 
base of, i. 197 
carbonate of, i. 230 
sulphate of, i. 252 
nitrate of, i. 291 
muriate of, i. 303. 



440 



Sirentites, hyper-oxymuriate of, i. 
314 
oxalate and super-oxalate 

of, ii. 106 
acetate of, ii. 161 
use of, as a test, ii. 227 
Strontium, i. 197 

Subboraie of soda, i. 327 ; ii. 86, 284 
Sub-carbonate of ammonia, i. 226 
lime, i. 230 
magnesia, i. 232 
potash, i. 222 
soda, i. 226 
Suber, ii. 139 

Suberic-acid, mode of obtaining, ii. 
139 
properties of, ii. 139 
Sublimate, corrosive, ii. 43 
Sublimation, i. 240 
Sub-muriate of copper, ii. 53 

mercury, ii. 43 
Sub-nitrate of mercury, ii. 41 

silver, ii. 36 
Sub-sulphate of copper, ii. 51 

tin, ii. 66 
Succinate of ammonia, as a test, ii. 235 
iron, ii. 61 

soda, as a test, ii. 232 
Succinic acid, ii. 122 

mode of ascertaining 
the purity of, ii. 279 
Sugar, ii. 101 

preparation of, ii. 101 
obtained from several vegeta- 
bles, ii. 102 
properties of, ii. 102, 103 
animal, ii. 176, 18u, 199 
of lead, ii. 71, 289 
Sulphates, tests of, ii. 235, 236 
Sulphate of alumine, i. 255 ; ii. 235, 
284 
ammonia, i. 250 
ammonia and magnesia, 
i. 254 
• antimony, ii. 78 
barytes, i. 250 
bismuth, ii. 75 
copper, ii. 51 
glucine, i. 256 
iron, ii. 56, 228, 285 
lead, ii. 70 
lime, i. 253 

magnesia, i. 254 ; ii. 284 
mercury, ii. 41 
potash, i. 249 ; ii. 282 
silver, ii. 35, 228 
soda, i. 249 ; ii. 282 
strontites, i. 252 
tin, ii. 65 
yttria, i. 257 
zinc, ii. 74 



Sulphate of zircon, i. 257 
Sulphites, method of obtaining, i. 257 

properties of, i. 258 
Sulphite of alumine, i. 259 
. ammonia, i. 259 

barytes, i. 259 
lime, i. 259 
magnesia, i. 25$ 
potash, i. 258 
soda, L 258 
Sulphur, i. 238 

compounds of, i. 238, 239, 

259, 261 
properties of, i. 239 
preparation of, for taking 

impressions, i. 239 
combination of alcohol with, 

i. 240 
contains hydrogen, i. 240 
contains oxygen, i. 241 
combustion of, i. 242 
combination of alkalis with* 

i. 259 
phosphuret of, i. 321 
combination of metals With, 

ii. 22 
balsam of, ii. 119 
analysis of, ii. 260 
nature of, examined, ii. 325\ 
hydroguretted, i. 265 
Sulphuret of potassium, i. 181 
sodium, i. 184 
lime, i. 260 
iron, ii. 61, 62 
lead, ii. 72 
antimony, ii. 77 
arsenic, ii. 81 
manganese, ii. 87 
molybdena, ii. 89 
Sulphurets, alkaline, mode of prepar- 
ing, i. 260 — general 
properties of, i. 260 — 
exist only in a dry 
state, i. 265 — use of, 
as tests, ii. 235 — tests 
of, ii. 236 
metallic, ii. 22 
of mercury, ii. 40 
Sulphurettedhydrogen combines with 
oxides, ii. 22 — with 
metals, ii. 24 — test of 
lead, ii. 72— test of 
arsenic, ii. 235 
hydrogen gas, quantity 
ty of absorbed by wa- 
ter, i. 149— modes of 
procuring, i. 2C1— 
properties of, i. 261 
— with alkalis and 
earths forms hvdro- 
sulphurets, i. 262— 



INDEX. 



441 



Sulphuretted hydrogen gas, tests of, 
ii. 236 — nature of, ii. 
326 
hydrogen liquid, i. 267 
oxides, ii. 22, 74 
Sulphuric acid, i. 242 — component 
parts of, i. 242 — purifi- 
cation of, i. 244— decom- 
position of, i. 245, 246 — 
heat and light evolved 
on its addition to mag- 
nesia, i. 254 — manufac- 
ture of, i. 286— in its 
pure state, elastic, i. 330 
—use of, as a test, ii. 224 
—tests of, ii. 235— treat- 
ment of persons, who 
have swallowed, ii. 277 
—method of ascertain- 
ing the purity of, ii. 277 
— glacial, i. 247 ; ii. 55 
—real, quantity of, in' 
• acid of different densi- 
ties, ii. 350 
Sulphurized alcohol, i. 240 
Sulphurous acid, formation of, i. 246 — 
properties of, i. 246 — 
component parts of, i. 
248— tests of, ii. 235— 
waters, i. 261 
Sulphur vivum, i. 240 
Sumach, ii. 131 
Sun-beams consist of three kinds of 

rays, i. 112 
Super-acetate of lead, ii. 71, 289 
Super-oxalate of potash, ii. 105 

soda, ii. 105 
Super-sulphate of mercury, ii. 40, 41 

potash, i. 249 
Super-sidphuret of ii-on, ii. 62 
lead, ii. 72 
Super-sidphuretted hydrogen, i. 264 
Super-tartrate of potash, ii. 115 — 
mode of ascertain- 
ing its purity, ii. 
283 
Supporters of combustion, i. 209 ; ii. 

15 
Sympathetic inks, ii. 53, 58, 59, 72, 

84 
Synovia, ii. 202 

T. 
Tallo-w, ii. 178 
Tan, from galls, ii. 132 
how obtained, ii. 132 
properties of, ii- 133 
artificial formation of, ii. 134 
Tannate of iron, ii. 59, 133 
Tannin, ii. 132 

Tantalium the same with columbium, 
ii. 29 note, 93 
VOL. ii. 56 



Tar, mineral, ii. 141 
Tartar,, cream of, ii. 112, 115 
Tartaric acid, mode of obtaining, ii. 
112 
properties of, ii. 114 
may be converted into 
oxalic and acetic, 
ii. 114 
analysis of, ii. 115 
combinations, ii. 115 
mode of ascertaining, 
the purity of, ii. 279 
Tartrate of potash, ii. 115 — mode of 
ascertaining its purity, 
ii. 283 — and soda, ii. 
116 — mode of ascer- 
taining its purity, ii. 
284 
of tin, ii. 68 
Tears, ii. 200 
Teeth, ii. 214 

Telluretted hydrogen gas, ii. 324 
Tellurium, ii. 79 

analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
compound of hydrogen 

with, ii. 324 
alloy of potassium with, 
ii. 324 
Temperature, influence of, on chem- 
ical affinity, i» 57, 69 
what, i. 75 
method of ascertaining, 

i. 75 
change of, produced by 
solution, i. 101, 150, 
151 
Tenacity of different metals, ii. 332 
Tendons, ii. 210 
Terra japonica, ii. 98 
Tests, ii. 221 
Thermometer, i. 75 

its construction, i. 82, 

85 
its rise nearly in the 
ratio of the increase 
of heat, i. 88 
Mr. Dalton's scale of, 

i. 89 
rule for reducing gases 
to a given height of 
the, ii. 344 
Mr. Dalton's new scale 
compared with Fah- 
renheit's, ii. 353 
air, i. 331 
differential, i. 83 
Thermometers, various, correspond- 
ence between, ii. 351 
Tin, precipitation of gold by, ii. 31, 32 
muriate of, best test of platina,,- ' 
ii. 34 ^^ 






442 



INDEX. 



Tin, propei'ties of, ii. 66 
oxides of, ii. 66 
amalgam of, ii. 66 
sulphate of, ii. 66 
sub-sulphate of, ii. 66 
nitrate of, ii. 67 
muriate of, ii. 67 
oxymuriate of, ii. 67 
nitro-muriate of, ii. 68 
acetate of, ii. 68 
tartrate of, ii. 68 
sulphuretted oxide of, ii. 68 
alloys of, ii. 68 

action of arsenic acid on, ii. 82 
analysis of ores of, ii. 263 
Tincal, i."327 
Tinning, wet, ij. 65 
Titanium, ii. 91 

analysis of ores of, ii. 266 
Tombac, ii. 54 
Treacle, ii. 101 
Tube of safety, i. 33 
Tubes, long or crooked, joint for u- 

niting, i. 335 
Tungsten, mode of obtaining, ii. 90 
characters of, ii. 91 
oxides of, ii. 91 
analysis of ores of, ii. 265 
Tungstic acid, mode of obtaining, ii. 
90,91 ... 
properties of, ii. 91 
Tungstatc of lime, ii. 90 
Turbith mineral, ii. 41 — mode of as- 
certaining its purity, ii. 
288 
Turf, ii. 143 
Turmeric, as a dye, ii. 131 

paper" and tincture, as 
tests, ii. 223 
Turpentine, oil of, converted into a 
kind of camphor, ii. 
121 
Tulenng, ii. 54 
Types, metal, ii. 79 
U. 
Ulmin, ii. 145 
Uranium, ii. 91 



3. 



Urea, method of obtaining, ii. 173 : 
205 
properties of, ii. 173 
alters the form of some mu- 
riates, ii. 175 
elements of, ii. 175 
Uric acid, ii. 178 
Urine, sugar found in, ii. 176 
gravel in, ii. 178 
calculi in, ii. 178, 207 
laterilious sediment of, ii. 179 
analysis of, ii. 203 
putrefaction of, ii. 206 



Urine, changes of^ in diseases, ii. 20? 
of different animals, ii. 207 
% V. 
Vapour, caloric the cause of, i. 101 
Varnishes, ii. 122, 142 
Vegetable extract, ii. 97 

substances, ii. 96— result 
of the spontaneous de- 
composition of, ii. 146 
Vegetables, growth of, affected by 
cartionic acid, i. 221 
proajfoate principles of, 
ii. 96 
Verdegris, ii. 53 

mode of ascertaining the 

purity of, ii. 289 
distilled, ii. 290 
Verditer, ii, 52 
Vermilion, ii. 44 
Vinegar, ii. 157 

purification of, ii. 158 
distilled. See Jlcetous Acid. 
radical. See Acetic Acid. 
Vinous fermentation, ii. 145 
Violets, syrup of, as a test, ii. 222, 223 
—•test of its genuineness, 
ii. 222 — its colour restored 
by oxygen, ii. 224, note 
pickle of, ii. 224, note 
Vitriol, blue.- See Copper, sulphate of. 
green. See Iron, sulphate of. 
white See Zinc, sulphate of. 
Volta's eudiometer, i. 138, 335 
pile, i. 152, 169 
W, 
Wafer, supposed not to conduct heat, 
i. 96 
is a slow conductor, i. 97 
quantity of coal required to 

evaporate, i. 105 
composition of, i. 143 
analysis of, i. 146 
properties and effects of, i. 

148 
contains air, i. 148 
quantities ©f gases absorbed 

by, i. 149 
contained in the atmosphere 
in the driest weather, i. 149 
change of temperature pro- 
duced by solution of bodies 
in, i. 150 
during solution, gives out 
air, and has its bulk alter- 
ed, i. 150 
has its solvent power in- 
creased, by diminishing 
the pressure, i. 151 
expands by cold, i. 152 
decomposed by galvanism, i. 
161 




* 



'■*:■ 






■'» 



This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building